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τεῖν πρότερον τὴν ὅλην ψυχὴν ἢ τὰ μόρια. χαλεπὸν δὲ καὶ το τούτων διορίσαι ποῖα πέφυκεν ἕτερα ἀλλήλων, καὶ πότερον τὰ μόρια χρὴ ζητεῖν πρότερον ἢ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν, οἷον τὸ νοεῖν ἢ τὸν νοῦν καὶ τὸ αἰσθάνεσθαι ἢ τὸ αἰσθητικόν· ὁμοίως $7 § 7 δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων. εἰ δὲ τὰ ἔργα πρότερον, πάλιν ἄν τις ἀπορήσειεν εἰ τὰ ἀντικείμενα πρότερον τούτων ζητητέον, οἷον 15 § 8 τὸ αἰσθητὸν τοῦ αἰσθητικοῦ καὶ τὸ νοητὸν τοῦ νοητικοῦ. ἔοικε δ ̓ οὐ μόνον τὸ τί ἐστι γνῶναι χρήσιμον εἶναι πρὸς τὸ θεωρῆσαι τὰς αἰτίας τῶν συμβεβηκότων ταῖς οὐσίαις, ὥσπερ ἐν τοῖς μαθήμασι τί τὸ εὐθὺ καὶ καμπύλον ἢ τί γραμμὴ καὶ ἐπίπεδον πρὸς τὸ κατιδεῖν πόσαις ὀρθαῖς αἱ τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαι ἴσαι, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀνάπαλιν τὰ συμβεβηκότα συμβάλλεται μέγα μέρος πρὸς τὸ εἰδέναι τὸ τί ἐστιν· ἐπειδὰν γὰρ ἔχωμεν ἀποδιδόναι κατὰ τὴν φαντασίαν περὶ τῶν συμβεβηκότων, ἢ πάντων ἢ τῶν πλείστων, τότε καὶ περὶ τῆς οὐσίας ἕξομεν λέγειν κάλλιστα· πάσης γὰρ ἀποδείξεως ἀρχὴ τὸ τί 25 ἐστιν, ὥστε καθ ̓ ὅσους τῶν ὁρισμῶν μὴ συμβαίνει τὰ συμβεβηκότα γνωρίζειν, ἀλλὰ μηδ ̓ εἰκάσαι περὶ αὐτῶν εὐμα- 403 ρές, δῆλον ὅτι διαλεκτικῶς εἴρηνται καὶ κενῶς ἅπαντες. § 9 ἀπορίαν δ ̓ ἔχει καὶ τὰ πάθη τῆς ψυχῆς, πότερόν ἐστι πάντα κοινὰ καὶ τοῦ ἔχοντος ἢ ἐστί τι καὶ τῆς ψυχῆς ἴδιον αὐτῆς· τοῦτο γὰρ λαβεῖν μὲν ἀναγκαῖον, οὐ ῥᾴδιον δέ. φαίνεται 5

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several souls, but merely different parts in the soul, the question rises whether we should begin by investigating the whole soul or should start rather with the parts. And here again it is difficult to determine which of them are really different from one another, and whether we should first of all investigate the parts or their functions-whether we should for instance investigate the act of reasoning or the faculty of reason, the act of sensation or the faculty of sense: and so also in other cases. And supposing we determine to examine first of all the functions, still the further question may be raised whether we should beforehand treat of the objects which are their counterpart-treat, that is, of the object of sense before the faculty of sense, and of the object of thought before the faculty of thought.

The truth however seems to be that it is not only a knowledge of the generic character of anything which helps towards detecting the causes of the properties of substancesas in mathematics the knowledge of straight and curved or the generic character of what is a line or superficies assists us in seeing to how many right angles the angles of the triangle are equal-but even conversely the knowledge of the properties contributes in great measure to a knowledge of the 'what' or the generic notion. When, in fact, we are able to present to the mind's eye all or most of the properties which appear to be connected with an object, we shall be in a position to speak as well as may be about the thing itself: although the starting point of all demonstration consists in knowing what a thing is. And thus all definitions that do not convey a knowledge of the properties attending on an object and do not even render it easy to frame a conjecture regarding them are evidently mere empty phrases such as transcendentalists alone would use.

It is a further question whether the affections of the soul are also all shared along with the soul by the body which contains it, or whether there is in addition something peculiar to the soul itself. This is a question which it is necessary and yet not easy to answer. It appears at any rate that in the great majority of cases the soul is neither active nor passive

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δὲ τῶν πλείστων οὐθὲν ἄνευ σώματος πάσχειν οὐδὲ ποιεῖν, οἷον ὀργίζεσθαι, θαρρεῖν, ἐπιθυμεῖν, ὅλως αἰσθάνεσθαι. μάλιστα δ ̓ ἔοικεν ἴδιον τὸ νοεῖν· εἰ δ ̓ ἐστὶ καὶ τοῦτο φαντασία τις ἢ μὴ ἄνευ φαντασίας, οὐκ ἐνδέχοιτ ̓ ἂν οὐδὲ τοῦτ ̓ ἄνευ § το σώματος εἶναι. εἰ μὲν οὖν ἐστί τι τῶν τῆς ψυχῆς ἔργων ἢ το παθημάτων ἴδιον, ἐνδέχοιτ ̓ ἂν αὐτὴν χωρίζεσθαι· εἰ δὲ μηθέν ἐστιν ἴδιον αὐτῆς, οὐκ ἂν εἴη χωριστή, ἀλλὰ καθάπερ τῷ εὐθεῖ, ᾗ εὐθύ, πολλὰ συμβαίνει, οἷον ἅπτεσθαι τῆς χαλκῆς σφαίρας κατὰ στιγμήν, οὐ μέντοι γ ̓ ἅψεται τούτου χωρισθὲν τὸ εὐθύ· ἀχώριστον γάρ, εἴπερ ἀεὶ μετὰ σώματός 15 τινός ἐστιν. ἔοικε δὲ καὶ τὰ τῆς ψυχῆς πάθη πάντα εἶναι μετὰ σώματος, θυμός, πραότης, φόβος, ἔλεος, θάρσος, ἔτι χαρὰ καὶ τὸ φιλεῖν τε καὶ μισεῖν· ἅμα γὰρ τούτοις πάσχει τι τὸ σῶμα. μηνύει δὲ τὸ ποτὲ μὲν ἰσχυρῶν καὶ ἐναργῶν παθημάτων συμβαινόντων μηδὲν παροξύνεσθαι ἢ το φοβεῖσθαι, ἐνίοτε δ ̓ ὑπὸ μικρῶν καὶ ἀμαυρῶν κινεῖσθαι, ὅταν ὀργᾷ τὸ σῶμα καὶ οὕτως ἔχῃ ὥσπερ ὅταν ὀργίζηται. ἔτι δὲ τοῦτο μᾶλλον φανερόν· μηθενὸς γὰρ φοβεροῦ συμβαίνοντος ἐν τοῖς πάθεσι γίνονται τοῖς τοῦ φοβουμένου. εἰ δ ̓ οὕτως ἔχει, δῆλον ὅτι τὰ πάθη λόγοι ἔνυλοί εἰσιν. ὥστε οἱ ὅροι :: τοιοῦτοι· οἷον τὸ ὀργίζεσθαι κίνησίς τις τοῦ τοιουδὶ σώματος ἢ § 11 μέρους ἢ δυνάμεως ὑπὸ τοῦδε ἕνεκα τοῦδε. καὶ διὰ ταῦτα ἤδη

6. τῶν μὲν πλ. Ely. Tor. ἄνευ τοῦ σώματος Ε. Tor. 8. ἰδίῳ SWXY. 14. τούτου] οὕτω Ε. Βr. 16. πάθη πάντα] παθήματα W. 19. μηνύει] σημεῖον E. Tor. ἐὰν ὀργᾷ STUMΥ. 23· τοῦτο] τούτου conj. Tor. a5. ἐν ύλη ΕT.

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without the co-operation of the body, for example in being angry, in shewing courage, in feeling appetite-in one word, in being sensitive. Thought seems to be the clearest case of a state peculiar to the soul alone: but if even thought is only the presentation of an image or not independent of such presentation, it would follow that it is impossible for even this act of the soul to be exercised in independence of the body. If then there be any of the functions or affections of the soul which distinctively belong to it, it would be possible for the soul to exist in separation from the body: if, on the other hand, there be no functions or affections so belonging to it, the soul would not admit of separate existence: it would resemble the straight line which as straight has many properties, such as for example to touch a brazen globe in or at a point, while at the same time it cannot touch the globe when separated from its material embodiment: the straight line being really inseparable as always existing along with some body or another. So in like manner the different feelings appear to be all accompanied by some particular condition of the body-such feelings, viz. as anger, meekness, fear, pity, courage, and further joy and love and hateall of which appear to be accompanied by some particular affection of the body. This indeed is shewn by the fact that sometimes great and evident disasters which have befallen us cause us no irritation or fear, while at other times the feelings are excited by trivial and almost imperceptible mischances, the body being at such times boiling full and in the same state of excitement as in anger. Still more is this evident from the fact that even without the occurrence of anything really terrible people have the same feelings as a person in fright.

The feelings then are materialized notions, and they require to be defined in correspondence with this character. The feeling of anger for instance has to be defined as on the one hand a certain movement on the part of such and such a body or part or faculty, and as on the other hand excited. by such and such a cause and due to such and such motives.

φυσικοῦ τὸ θεωρῆσαι περὶ ψυχῆς, ἢ πάσης ἢ τῆς τοιαύτης. διαφερόντως δ ̓ ἂν ὁρίσαιντο φυσικός τε καὶ διαλεκτικὸς ἕκαστον αὐτῶν, οἷον ὀργὴ τί ἐστίν. ὁ μὲν γὰρ ὄρεξιν ἀντιλυ- 30 πήσεως ἤ τι τοιοῦτον, ὁ δὲ ζέσιν τοῦ περὶ καρδίαν αίματος ἢ θερμοῦ. τούτων δὲ ὁ μὲν τὴν ὕλην ἀποδίδωσιν, ὁ δὲ τὸ 4035 εἶδος καὶ τὸν λόγον. ὁ μὲν γὰρ λόγος εἶδος τοῦ πράγματος, ἀνάγκη δ ̓ εἶναι τοῦτον ἐν ὕλῃ τοιᾳδί, εἰ ἔσται, ὥσπερ οἰκίας ὁ μὲν λόγος τοιοῦτος, ὅτι σκέπασμα κωλυτικὸν φθορᾶς ὑπ ̓ ἀνέμων καὶ ὄμβρων καὶ καυμάτων, ὁ δὲ φήσει λίθους καὶ 5 πλίνθους καὶ ξύλα, ἕτερος δ ̓ ἐν τούτοις τὸ εἶδος, ἕνεκα τωνδί. τίς οὖν ὁ φυσικὸς τούτων; πότερον ὁ περὶ τὴν ὕλην, τὸν δὲ λόγον ἀγνοῶν, ἢ ὁ περὶ τὸν λόγον μόνον; ἢ μᾶλλον ὁ ἐξ ἀμφοῖν. ἐκείνων δὲ δὴ τίς ἑκάτερος; ἢ οὐκ ἔστι τις ὁ περὶ τὰ πάθη τῆς ὕλης τὰ μὴ χωριστά, μηδ ̓ ᾗ χωριστά, ἀλλά το ὁ φυσικὸς περὶ ἅπανθ ̓ ὅσα τοῦ τοιουδὶ σώματος καὶ τῆς τοιαύτης ὕλης ἔργα καὶ πάθη· (ὁπόσα δὲ μὴ ᾖ τοιαῦτα, ἄλλος, καὶ περὶ τινῶν μὲν τεχνίτης, ἐὰν τύχῃ, οἷον τέκτων ἢ ἰατρός) τῶν δὲ μὴ χωριστῶν μέν, ᾗ δὲ μὴ τοιούτου σώματος πάθη καὶ ἐξ ἀφαιρέσεως, ὁ μαθηματικός, ᾗ δὲ κεχωρι- 15 σμένα, ὁ πρῶτος φιλόσοφος. ἀλλ ̓ ἐπανιτέον ὅθεν ὁ λόγος.

19. ὁρίσαιτο ὁ φ. STUWX. ] καὶ ὁ διαλεκτικός W. 4035 1. καὶ θ. Bekk. Tor. E. 3· ὥσπερ ἐπὶ οἰκίας [. 5. ὄμβρων καὶ πνευμάτων Ε. " φησι SVX. 11. τοιουδὶ] φυσικοῦ Τ. Them. 13. ὅσα Ε. Tor. || ᾖ Tor. Τ, τινα UWV.

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TWOS

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