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L. CORNELIO BALBO
EDITED FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES,
JAMES S. REID, M.L.
FELLOW AND ASSISTANT TUTOR OF GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,
EDITED FOR THE SYNDICS OF THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
London: CAMBRIDGE WAREHOUSE, 17, PATERNOSTER Row.
[All Rights reserved.]
THIS edition has been prepared on the same general plan as that of the speech Pro Archia. The speech for Balbus, however, has been so generally neglected1, and seems so little likely to be soon edited again, that I felt it advisable to attempt to produce an edition which would be worth the notice of mature scholars, besides being useful to the undergraduates and boys at public schools, for whom it is primarily designed. There seems to be in England a common impression, which I hope this edition does not justify, that it is impossible to produce editions of the Classics which shall be at once useful to junior students and to professed scholars. In Germany opinion sets in the other direction, for many of the editions designed for schools are also of the greatest use for advanced scholars. This speech is so full of matter illustrating the Roman modes of dealing with the populations subject to their Empire, that it
1 Neither Teuffel in his "History of Roman Literature' Prof. Mayor in his "Bibliographical Clue" mentions any separate edition of the "Pro Balbo". So far as I know, it has never before
been separately edited.
2 An editor of a book in the "Pitt Press Series" was lately taken to task by a reviewer for giving in a note a reference to Roby's Grammar!
deserves treatment more thorough than I have been able to give it. The text being even now more unsettled than that of any other speech of Cicero, I have given it my best attention in an Appendix. In a few instances I have felt obliged to adopt emendations of my own. The Latinity of the speech has been treated with considerable minuteness, because the knowledge of Latin Prose expression is still deficient when compared with the progress made in other departments of pure scholarship by those for whom the edition is especially constructed.
In dealing with a speech for which so little has been done by scholars, I cannot hope to have escaped from making errors, though I trust not in matters of moment.
CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,
J. S. REID.
a. The defendant L. Cornelius Balbus.
L. CORNELIUS BALBUS was born at Gades in Spain somewhere about the beginning of the last century B. C. His family held high rank in the city1, which was one of the largest and most flourishing of the Roman empire. Balbus served in the Roman army during the whole time of the wars in Spain from 79 to 70 B. C.2, having gained the friendship of Metellus, Memmius, and finally of Pompeius himself. The last-named commander, under the provisions of the lex Gellia Cornelia3, conferred on Balbus the Roman franchise. There was a connexion dating from old times, between the town of Gades and the Cornelian family, and one of the consuls who passed the law was a Cornelius. These facts led Balbus to adopt the nomen Cornelius, and the praenomen Lucius was probably assumed in grateful recollection of the L. Cornelius Lentulus who commanded the Romans in Spain from 206 to 200 B. C. and had done great services to Gades4 The cognomen Balbus was one of the commonest, being used by nearly a score of Roman families. The assumption of this name may have been intended as a mark of regard for T. Ampius Balbus, an intimate friend of Pompeius.
1 $5,1. 25; 6, p. 23, l. 10; 43, 1. 16; Plin. N. H. 5, 36; 7, 136. In Att. 7, 3, 11 he is called Tartessius, Tartessus being a name loosely applied by the Romans to the S. W. of Spain.
2 See nn. on § 5.
Cf. Liv. 28, 38. He was the first magistrate of Rome who governed the town, and as Cic. says (Off. 1, 35), tanto opere apud nostros iustitia culta est ut ei qui civitates aut nationes devictas bello in fidem recepissent, earum patroni essent more maiorum.