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Powel and Holloway, who had appeared to favour CHAP. the bishops : He issued orders to prosecute all those LXX. clergymen who had not read his declaration; that
1688. is, the whole church of England, two hundred ex. cepted : He sent a mandate to the new fellows, whom he had obtruded on Magdalen college, to elect for president in the room of Parker, lately deceased, one Gifford, a doctor of the Sorbonne, and titular bishop of Madura: And he is even said to have nominated the same person to the see of Oxford. So great an infatuation is perhaps an object of compassion rather than of anger : And is really surprising in a man who, in other respects, was not wholly deficient in sense and accomplish. ments.
A few days before the acquittal of the bishops, an event happened, which, in the King's sentiments, much overbalanced all the mortifications received on that occasion. The Queen was delivered of a son, roth June who was baptised by the name of James.
This Birth of blessing was impatiently longed for, not only by of Wales.
the Prince the King and Queen, but by all the zealous catholics both abroad and at home. They saw, that the King was passed middle age; and that on his death the succession must devolve to the Prince and Princess of Orange, two zealous protestants, who would soon replace every thing on ancient foundations. Vows, therefore, were offered at every shrine for a male successor : Pilgrimages were undertaken, particularly one to Loretto, by the Dutchess of Modena ; and success was chiefly attributed to that pious journey. But in proportion as this event was agreeable to the catholics, it increased the disgust of the protestants, by depriving them of that pleasing, though somewhat distant prospect, in which at present they flattered themselves. Calumny even went so far as to ascribe to the King the design of imposing on the world a supposititious child, who might be educated in his principles, and after his death
CHAP. support the catholic religion in his dominions. The LXX. nation almost universally believed him capable, from
bigotry, of committing any crime ; as they had seen, 1688.
that, from like motives, he was guilty of every imprudence: And the affections of nature, they thought, would be easily sacrificed to the superior motive of -propagating a catholic and orthodox faith. The present occasion was not the first, when that calumny had been invented. In the year 1682, the Queen, then Dutchess of York, had been pregnant; and ru. mours were spread that an imposture would at that time be obtruded upon the nation : But, happily, the infant proved a female, and thereby spared the party all the trouble of supporting their improbable fiction
• This story is taken notice of in a weekly paper, the Obser. vator, published at that very time, 23d of August 1682. Party zeal is capable of swallowing the most incredible story ; but it is surely singular, that the same calumny, when once baffled, should yet be renewed with such success.
Conduct of the Prince of Orange—he forms a Leagues
against France-refuses to concur with the King – resolves to oppose the King --- is applied to by the English... Coalition of Parties. ---Prince's Preparations: -Offers of France to the King-rejected. -Supposed League with France.--General Discontents. The King rețracts his Measurés. —Prince's Declaration. The Prince lands in England. --General Commotion. — Desertion of the Army --and of Prince George --- and of the Princess Anne.--King's Consternation--and Flight.-General Confusion. King seized at Feversham. ---Second Escape-King's Character. - Convention summoned. - Settlement of Scotland.—English Convention meets. – Views of the Parties. — Free Conference between the Houses. Commons prevail. — Settlement of the Crown. Manners and Sciencesi
, , CHAP concurred to alienate from the King every
LXXI. rank and denomination of men, it might be expected
1688. that his throne would, without delay, fall to pieces by its own weight : But such is the influence of established government; so averse are men from beginning hazardous enterprises ; that; had not an attack been made from abroad, affairs might long have remained in their present delicate situation, and James might at last have prevailed in his rash and illconcerted projects.
СНАР. The Prince of Orange, ever since his marriage LXXI. with the Lady Mary, had maintained a very prudent
conduct; agreeably to that sound understanding with 1688. Conduct
which he was so eminently endowed. He made it a of the maxim to concern himself little in English affairs, and Prince of never by any measure to disgust any of the factions, Orange.
or give umbrage to the Prince who filled the throne. His natural inclination, as well as his interest, led him to employ himself with assiduous industry in the transactions on the continent, and to oppose the grandeur of the French Monarch, against whom he had long, both from personal and political considerations, conceived a violent animosity. By this conduct, he gratified the prejudices of the whole English nation : But as he crossed the inclinations of Charles, who sought peace by compliance with France, he had much declined in the favour and affections of that Monarch.
JAMES on his accession found it so much his interest to live on good terms with the heir apparent, that he showed the Prince some demonstrations of friendship; and the Prince, on his part, was not wanting in every instance of duty and regard towards the King. On Monmouth's invasion, he immediately dispatched over six regiments of British troops, which were in the Dutch service; and he offered to take the command of the King's forces against the rebels. How little soever he might approve of . James's 'administration, he always kept a total silence on the subject, and gave no countenance to those discontents which were propagated with such industry throughout the nation.
It was from the application of James himself, that the Prince first openly took any part in English affairs. Notwithstanding the lofty ideas which the King had entertained of his prerogative, he found that the edicts emitted from it still wanted much of the authority of laws, and that the continuance
of them might in the issue become dangerous, both CHAP. to himself and to the catholics, whom he desired to LXXI. favour. An act of parliament alone could insure
1688. the indulgence or toleration which he had laboured to establish ; and he hoped that, if the Prince would declare in favour of that scheme, the members, who had hitherto resisted all his own applications, would at last be prevailed with to adopt it. The consent, therefore, of the Prince to the repeal of the penal statutes and of the test was strongly solicited by the King; and in order to engage him to agree to that measure, hopes were given”, that England would second him in all those enterprises which his active and extensive genius had with such success planned on the continent. He was at this time the centre of all the negotiations of Christendom.
The Emperor and the King of Spain, as the Prince He forms well knew, were enraged by the repeated injuries a league which they had suffered from the ambition of Lewis, France. and still more by the frequent insults which his pride had made them undergo. He was apprised of the influence of these monarchs over the catholic Princes of the empire: He had himself acquired great authority with the protestants : And he formed a project of uniting Europe in one general league against the encroachments of France, which seemed so nearly to threaten the independence of all its neighbours.
No characters are more incompatible than those of a conqueror and a persecutor; and Lewis soon found, that besides his weakening France by the banishment of so many useful subjects, the refugees had inflamed all the protestant nations against him, and had raised him enemies who, in defence of their religion as well as liberty, were obstinately resolved to oppose his progress. The city of AmBurnet, vol.i. p.711. D'Avaux, 15th of April 1688. T 3