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well as to ourselves. An obligeing and humble disposition is totally different from a servile and cringeing spirit. Our natural defects of body are not chargable upon us. W. We should subject our fancys to the government of reason. We shall not be the happyer for possessing talents and affluence, unless we make a right use of them. If we have denyed ourselves sinful pleasures, we shall be great gainers in the end. We may be plaiful, and yet innocent. When we act against conscience, we become the destroiers of our own peace. VI. When we bring the lawgiver into contempt, we have in effect annuled his laws. By defering our repentance, we accumulate our sorrows. We have all many faillings to lament and amend. There is no affliction with which we are visitted, that may not be improved to our advantage. VII. Restlesness of mind disqualifies us, both for the enjoyment of peace, and for the performance of duty. The arrows of calumny fall harmlesly at the feet of virtue. The road to the blisful regions is as open to the peasant as to the king. A perverse and willful disposition is at once unamiable and sinful. VIII. The vessel is a total wrec: the goods which have been saved, will be exposed to publick auction. Can you name the twelve signs of the zodiak P Ransac the drawer for my stoc. The man of true fortitude may be compared to a castle built on a roc, which defies the attacs of the surrounding waters.

IX. Divide the following words, writing part of each at the end of one line, and the remainder at the beginning of the next:—

Ancient, ashes, beneficent, capricious, cherish, coalition, coeval, dangerous, epistle, February, gridiron, heinously, idleness, jocularly, knighthood, lapidary, musician, nominative, optical, physician, qualify, receive, sovereign, transient, union, voluntary, women, yeomanry, zealous.

Write the following sentences from dictation:—

Neglect no opportunity of doing good. Neither time nor misfortunes should erase the remembrance of a friend. The acknowledgment of our transgressions must precede the forgiveness of them. Let us show diligence in every laudable undertaking. Judicious abridgments often aid the studies of youth. We must resolutely perform our duty, however disagreeable. Few reflections are more distressing than those which we make on our own ingratitude. Strait is the gate, and narrow the way, that lead to eternal life. There is an inseparable connexion between piety and virtue. The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few. Integrity conducts us straight forward, disdaining all crooked paths. To be faithful among the faithless, argues great strength of principle. A steady mind may receive counsel; but there is no hold on a changeable humour."

II.-PUNCTUATION.

THE Points used in Composition are the Comma (,), the Semicolon (;), the Colon (:), the Period (.), the Point of Interrogation (?), the Point of Exclamation (!), the Dash (–), and the Parenthesis ().

SECTION I.

COMMA.

I. When two or more words follow one another in the same construction, commas are placed between them; as, ‘Alfred was a brave, pious, and patriotic prince.” 1. When two words in the same construction are joined by a conjunction, they do not require a comma between them ; as, * Religion purifies and ennobles the mind.” 2. When words in the same construction follow each other in pairs, a comma is placed between each pair; as, “Truth is fair and artless, simple and sincere, uniform and constant.”

II. When a sentence consists of two or more mem

bers or clauses, they are separated by commas; as ‘Virtue supports in adversity, and moderates in pros

* The Teacher will find, that to make his Pupils write from dictation, is the best mode of giving them a practical knowledge of Orthography. He may multiply exercises at pleasure from any reading-book.

perity; His father dying, he succeeded to the estate;’ * To confess the truth, I was greatly to blame.” When a relative pronoun immediately follows its antecedent, or when the sentence is short, the comma may be omitted; as, • He who cares only for himself, has but few pleasures;’ “Candour is a quality which all admire.”

III. Words denoting the person or object addressed, and words placed in apposition, are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas; as, ‘My son, give me thy heart;’ ‘ Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles, was eminent for his knowledge and zeal.” When nouns placed in apposition are single, or form only one proper name, they are not separated by commas; as, ‘The emperor Antoninus wrote an excellent book.”

IV. Words or clauses which express opposition or contrast, are generally separated by commas; as, “He was learned, but not pedantic; ‘Though deep, yet clear.” V. The modifying words and phrases, nay, honever, finally, in short, at least, &c., are usually separated from the context by commas; as, “Finally, let me repeat what I stated before ;’ ‘A kind word, nay, even a kind look, often affords comfort to the afflicted.’ VI. Words supposed to be spoken, or which are taken from another writer, but not formally quoted, are preceded by a comma; as, ‘It hurts a man's pride to say, I do not know.’ Words directly spoken or quoted, are marked by inverted commas above the line; as, “My dear son,” said Phocion, “I entreat you to serve your country as faithfully as I have done.”

EXERCISES.

Supply the points omitted in the following sentences:—

I. Self-conceit presumption and obstinacy blast the prospects of many a youth. Plain honest truth needs no artificial covering. To live soberly righteously and piously comprehends the whole of our duty. Vicissitudes of good and evil of trials and consolations fill up the life of man. Health and peace a moderate fortune and a few friends sum up the elements of earthly felicity. II. Sensuality contaminates the body depresses the understanding deadens the moral feelings and degrades man from his rank in creation. The path of piety and virtue pursued with a firm and constant spirit will assuredly lead to happiness. Peace of mind being secured we may smile at misfortunes. To say the least they have betrayed great want of prudence. III. Continue my dear child to make virtue thy principal study. To you my worthy benefactors am I indebted under Providence for all I enjoy. Come then companions of my toils let us take fresh courage persevere and hope to the end. Hope the balm of life soothes us under every misfortune. The patriarch Joseph is an illustrious example of chastity resignation and filial affection. IV. He who is a stranger to industry may possess but he cannot enjoy. The goods of this world were given to man for his occasional refreshment not for his chief felicity. Though unavoidable calamities make a part yet they make not the chief part of the vexations and sorrows which distress human life. W. Be assured then that order frugality and economy are the necessary supports of every personal and private virtue. I proceed secondly to point out the proper state of our temper with respect to one another. Gentleness is in truth the great avenue to mutual enjoyment. I shall make some observations first on the external and next on the internal condition of man. VI. Vice is not of such a nature that we can say to it hitherto shalt thou come and no further. One of the noblest Christian virtues is to love our enemies. Many too confidently say to themselves my mountain stands strong and shall never be removed. We are strictly enjoined not to follow a multitude to do evil.

SECTION II.
SEMICOLON.

I. When a sentence consists of two parts, the one complete in itself, and the other added as an inference, or to give some explanation, they are separated by a semicolon; as, “Economy is no disgrace; for it is better to live on a little, than to outlive a great deal.”

A semicolon is sometimes put between two clauses, which have no necessary dependence upon each other: as, “ Straws swim at the surface; but pearls lie at the bottom.”

II. When a sentence consists of several members, each containing a distinct proposition, yet having a dependence upon some common clause, they are separated by semicolons; as, “Philosophers assert that Nature is unlimited in her operations; that she has inexhaustible treasures in reserve; that knowledge will always be progressive; and that all future generations will continue to make discoveries, of which we have not the slightest idea.'

ExERCISES. Supply the points omitted in the following sentences:—

I. The passions are the chief destroyers of our peace the storms and tempests of the moral world. Heaven is the region of gentleness and friendship hell of fierceness and animosity. The path of truth is a plain and safe path that of falsehood is a perplexing maze. Levity is frequently the forced production of folly or vice cheerfulness is the natural offspring of wisdom and virtue.

II. That darkness of character where we can see no heart those foldings of art through which no native affection is allowed to penetrate present an object unamiable in every season of life but particularly odious in youth. To give an early preference to honour above gain when they stand in competition to despise every advantage which cannot be attained without dishonest arts to brook no meanness and to stoop to no dissimulation are the indications of a great mind the presages of future eminence and usefulness in life. As there is a worldly happiness which God perceives to be no other than disguised misery as there are worldly honours which in his estimation are reproach so there is a worldly wisdom which in his sight is foolishness.

SECTION III. COLON. I. When a sentence consists of two parts, the one complete in itself, and the other containing an additional remark, the sense but not the syntax of which depends

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