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the sign of the possessive is generally put after the last ; as ‘John the Baptist's head.”
3. When the thing possessed belongs to two or more, the sign of the possessive is put after each; as, “It was my father's, mother's, and uncle's opinion.”
4. The objective case with of is frequently used instead of the possessive; as, “A servant of my father.”
5. When the thing is only one of a number belonging to the possessor, both the possessive case and of are used; as, “A servant of my father's.”
V. Every adjective qualifies a Noun expressed or understood; as, “A noise man;’ ‘Fen, were present.”
1. Adjectives sometimes qualify the infinitive mood, or a part of a sentence; as, “ To see is pleasant.” 2. Adjectives of number qualify nouns in the singular or plural, according as they signify one or more; as, “One book;’ * Sia, slates.” 3. The adjectives each, every, either, neither, qualify nouns in the singular number; as, ‘Every stranger has left the city.” 4. Every qualifies a plural noun when the things which it denotes are spoken of collectively; as, ‘Every twelve years.” 5. The definite article and an adjective are sometimes used instead of the adjective and a noun; as, “ The good alone are great.” 6. Adjectives which express number indefinitely are frequently used without nouns; as, “All were invited; but some have refused to come.” 7. Adjectives in the comparative degree are followed by than when opposition is signified, and by of when selection is implied; as, ‘Wisdom is better than riches;’ ‘James is the younger of the two brothers.”
VI. Pronouns agree in number, gender, and person, with the nouns which they represent; as, “The master sits at his desk;’ ‘The scholars learn their lessons.”
1. When two or more pronouns are used in place of the same noun, they are put in the same number, gender, and person : thus, “ Thou hast done me a great favour, for which I am much obliged to you,” ought to be, ‘You have done me a great favour, ..for which I am much obliged to you.’
2. The pronoun it, when the nominative to a verb, is applied to persons as well as to things; to the first and second persons as well as to the third person; and to the plural number as well as to the singular; as, “It is the king;’ ‘It was I;’ ‘It was not you;’ ‘ It was the men who were here this morning.”
3. Relative pronouns are of the same number, gender, and person with their antecedents; as, ‘I, who am still your friend, will not desert you;’ ‘Let the monitors, who are ready, begin.”
4. When the relative refers to two antecedents of different persons, it agrees with the one or the other, according as the meaning of the sentence requires; as, ‘ I am the general who gives the orders to-day;’ ‘ I am the general, who give the orders to-day.”
5. The relative which is generally used instead of collective nouns, even when they represent persons; as, ‘The committee, which met to-day, was unanimous.”
6. The relative which has sometimes a part of a sentence for its antecedent; as, ‘He is in great distress, which I am sorry to hear.’
7. The demonstrative pronouns this and that agree with their nouns in number; as, “ This book, these books;’ ‘That map, those maps.”
VII. Active verbs govern the objective case; as, * If ye love me, keep my commandments.’
1. The present participle is sometimes used absolutely; as, ‘Properly speaking, there are no exceptions.”
2. When the present participle is used as a noun, it generally takes an article before it, and of after it; as, “In the keeping of thy commandments there is great reward.”
3. When the present participle is preceded by a noun in the possessive case, or by a possessive pronoun, it does not take the article before it; as, “Your going away at this time is very inconvenient.”
VIII. The verb to be has the same case after it as before it; as, ‘ It is I;’ ‘You believed it to be him.” IX. One verb governs another in the infinitive; as, ‘I desire to learn;’ ‘He is waiting to see you.’ 1. The infinitive mood is sometimes governed by a noun or
an adjective: as, “Your desire to improve is commendable.” “It is delightful to behold the setting sun.”
2. The infinitive mood is sometimes used absolutely; as, * To tell you the truth, I do not know.”
3. The infinitive mood is preceded by the preposition to, except after the verbs bid, can, dare, feel, hear, let, make, may, must, need, shall, see, and will.
X. Every adverb qualifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb, expressed or understood; as, “Wisely said, exceedingly good, very well.' 1. The adverbs hence, whence, thence, do not require from before them, as each of them contains in itself the power of that preposition; as, “Whence,” that is, “from what place, came you?” 2. Two negatives make an affirmation: thus, ‘I do not take none,’ means, ‘ I take some.”
XI. Prepositions govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case; as, ‘From me;’ ‘With us;’ ‘On the table.’
1. Prepositions also govern the present participles of verbs; as, “By applying to your studies, you will acquire knowledge.’ 2. Prepositions are sometimes placed before adjectives and adverbs; as, “At present;’ ‘By far the best.” 3. Prepositions are frequently omitted, especially before nouns denoting time, space, and dimension, and before the personal pronouns; as, ‘ Once a day;” “He ran two miles;’ ‘This wall is six feet high;’ ‘Tell me the truth.” 4. The preposition to is omitted after like, near, &c.; as, ‘He is like his father;’ ‘The school is near the church.” 5. The idiom of the language requires particular prepositions after certain words and phrases; as, “A prejudice against;" “An abhorrence of;’ ‘An aversion to.”
XII. Conjunctions join the same cases of nouns and pronouns, the same moods and tenses of verbs, similar parts of speech, and the clauses or members of sentences; as, “John and James are come ;’ ‘ I saw him and her;’ ‘They read and write well; ‘A wise and virtuous man;’ “We should live soberly and honestly;' ‘Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile.” 1. When the relative pronoun follows the conjunction than.
it is put in the objective case; as, ‘His father, than whom I never knew a better man, is dead.” 2. Some conjunctions have their correspondent conjunctions: thus, both is followed by and, either by or, neither by nor, though by yet, &c.; as, ‘Both you and I saw it;’ ‘Though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor.”
XIII. Interjections are joined to the objective case of pronouns of the first person, and to the nominative of pronouns of the second; as, ‘Ah me!’ ‘O thou!”
VARIETY OF CONSTRUCTION.
Vary the construction in the following sentences by changing the subjects, the predicates, or the objects:—
Temperance in eating and drinking is the best preservative of health. To be temperate in eating and drinking is the best preservative of health. To eat and drink temperately is the best preservative of health. The best preservative of health is temperance in eating and drinking. The best way to preserve health is to eat and drink temperately. Temperance in eating and drinking best preserves health. Health is best preserved by temperance in eating and drinking. To eat' and drink temperately is the best way to preserve health. Temperance in eating and drinking promotes health. Health depends upon temperance in eating and drinking. Health is promoted by temperance in eating and drinking. Health is promoted by eating and drinking temperately. We must eat and drink temperately to preserve health.
1. To live soberly, righteously, and piously, is required of all men.
2. To grieve immoderately shows weakness.
3. Timid men fear to die.
4. That it is our duty to be just and kind to our fellow-creatures, admits not of any doubt in a rational and well-informed mind.
5. To cultivate piety towards God, to exercise benevolence towards others, and to be of a pure and humble mind, are the sure means of becoming peaceful and happy.
6. By observing truth you will command esteem.
7. The changing of times and seasons, and the removing and setting up of kings, belong to Providence alone.
8. It is a great support to virtue, to see a good mind maintain its patience and tranquillity under injuries and affliction, and cordially forgive its oppressors.
Vary the construction of the following passages, by changing the first or second person into the third, or the third into the first or second :—
1. “I thank thee,” cried the dying consul; “ and may the gods recompense thy piety. But as for me, all is over, and my part is chosen. Do not, therefore, by attempting to persuade a desperate man, lose the only means of procuring thine own safety.” The dying consul thanked him, and prayed that the gods might recompense him for his piety. But as for himself, he said that all was over, and that his part was chosen. He therefore entreated him not to lose the only means of procuring his own safety, by attempting to persuade a desperate man. 2. Xantippus told them that their armies had been hitherto overthrown, not by the strength of the enemy, but by the ignorance of their own generals. He therefore only required a ready obedience to his orders, and assured them of an easy victory. “Allow me to tell you,” said Xantippus, “that your armies have been hitherto overthrown, not by the strength of the enemy, but by the ignorance of your own generals. All, therefore, that I require is a ready obedience to my orders, and I assure you of an easy victory.”
1. I come now to speak upon what, indeed, I would have gladly avoided, had I not been particularly pointed at. for the part I have