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the sailors, already dejected and dismayed, began to beat their breasts and to shed tears. Columbus comforted them with assurance of success, and the prospect of vast wealth in those opulent regions whither he was conducting them. After a voyage of four weeks, the presages of land became so numerous and promising, that, having offered up public prayers for success, he ordered the sails to be furled, and strict watch to be kept, lest the ships should be driven ashore in the night. A little after midnight the joyful sound of land, land, was heard from the mast-head; and, as soon as morning dawned, they beheld an island about two leagues to the north, whose flat and verdant fields, well stored with wood, and

watered with many rivulets, presented to them the aspect of a de

lightful country. As soon as the sun arose, all the boats were

manned and armed, and they rowed towards the coast with their

colours displayed, warlike music, and other martial pomp. Colum

bus was the first European who set foot in the New World which: he had discovered : he landed in a rich dress, and with a naked

sword in his hand. His men followed, and kneeling down, they

all kissed the ground they had so long desired to see. They next

erected a crucifix, and prostrating themselves before it, returned

thanks to God for conducting their voyage to such a happy issue.


Combine the following simple into complex sentences, making the secondary clauses adjective, relative, participial, adverbial, connective, absolute, apposition, or parenthetical, as the sense may require:—

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1. Good or bad habits generally go with us through life. 2. Nothing in this life is more estimable than knowledge. 3. It is one of the melancholy pleasures of an old man to recollect the kindness of friends. 4. The certainty that life cannot be long, ought to awaken every man to the active prosecution of whatever he is desirous to perform. 5. To maintain a steady and unbroken mind, marks a great and noble spirit. 6. Compassionate affections convey satisfaction to the heart. 7. Virtue must be habitually active ; not breaking forth occasionally with a transient lustre, but regular in its returns; not like the aromatic gale, but like the ordinary breeze. 8. To sensual persons hardly anything is what it appears to be. There are voices which sing around them. There is a banquet spread. There is a couch which invites them to repose. 9. By disappointments and trials the violence of our passions is tamed. In the varieties of life, we are inured to habits both of the active and the suffering virtues. 10. An idle man is a mere blank in creation. He cannot engage himself in any employment or profession; he can succeed in no undertaking; he must be a bad husband, father, and relation; and he must be a worthless friend. 11. Veturia at first made some hesitation to undertake the office

should therefore endeavour to turn this particular talent to our ad-
vantage. We should consider the organs of speech as the instru-
ments of understanding. We should be careful no,” “* the
organs of speech as the weapons of vice. We should be careful
not to use the organs of speech as the tools of folly.
6. The benevolent John Howard settled his accounts at the close
of the year. He found a balance in his favour. He proposed to
his wife to make use of it in a journey to London. He proposed
to make use of it in any other amusement she chose. 44 wo a
pretty cottage for a poor family it would build !” was her reply.
This charitable hint met his cordial approbation. The * *
id out accordingly. -
la 7. A farmer o: into a field to mend a gap in one of the o:
At his return he found the cradle turned upside down. o a
left his only child asleep in the cradle. The clothes were all torn

which inhabit foreign regions, went to a neighbouring city to see an exhibition of wild beasts. “What is the name of that lovely animal,” said he to the keeper, “which you have placed near one of the ugliest beasts in your collection, as if you meant to contrast beauty with deformity?”—“The animal which you admire,” replied the keeper, “is called a tiger; and, notwithstanding the meekness of his looks, he is fierce and savage beyond description. But the other beast, which you despise, is in the highest degree docile, affectionate, and useful. For the benefit of man, he traverses the sandy deserts of Arabia, where drink and pasture are seldom to be found, and will continue several days without sustenance, yet still patient of labour. The camel, therefore (for such is the name given to this animal), is more worthy of your admiration than the tiger, notwithstanding the inelegance of his make, and the two bunches upon his back : for mere external beauty is of little estimation; and deformity, when associated with amiable dispositions and useful qualities, should not preclude our respect and approbation.”

ABRIDGMENT or complex sent ENCEs (continued).

Abridge the following passages by writing in each sentence the principal clause, and such secondary clauses only as the sense may require:—*


Sir Philip Sidney, at the battle near Zutphen, was wounded by a musket-ball, which broke the bone of his thigh. He was carried about a mile and a half to the camp; and being faint with the loss of blood, and probably parched with thirst, through the heat of the weather, he called for drink. It was immediately brought to him: but as he was putting the vessel to his mouth, a poor wounded soldier, who happened at that instant to be carried past him, looked up to it with wistful eyes. The gallant and generous Sidney took the bottle from his mouth, and delivered it to the soldier, saying, “Thy necessity is yet greater than mine.”

* In exercises like this, the Teacher may suggest whether the secondary clauses should be adjective, relative, participial, adverbial, connective, absolute, apposition, or parenthetical.

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