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Let the Teacher propose a subject, and each Pupil, at his suggestion, successively express an idea upon it.
Let the ideas be written down as first expressed, and afterwards re-written in simple or compound sentences, as the sense may require:—
Write about Silver. Name some of its properties. It is brilliant. It is somorous. It is ductile. Where is it found 2 In various parts of the world. Particularly in South America. At Potosi. What are its uses 2 It is coined into money. It is manufactured into silver-plate.
Silver is a brilliant, sonorous, and ductile metal. It is found in various parts of the world, and particularly at Potosi in South America. It is coined into money, and manufactured into silver
ExERCISES. 1. Iron. 5. Corn. 9. Music. 13. Sabbath. 2. Oak. 6. Paper. 10. Pyramids. 14. Scriptures. 3. Bee. 7. Tiger. ll. Abraham. | 15. Soul. 4. Silkworm. | 8. Day. 12. Paul. 16. Wisdom.
V.—ARRANGEMENT OF SENTENCEs.
THE ARRANGEMENT of words in sentences is either grammatical or rhetorical. Grammatical arrangement is the order in which words are usually placed in speaking and writing. Rhetorical arrangement is that order of the words, in which the emphatical parts of the sentence are placed first.
The rhetorical arrangement is used chiefly in poetry and impassioned prose.
The principal rules for arranging words in sentences are as follows:–
I. In sentences grammatically arranged, the subject or nominative is generally placed before the verb; as, “The birds sing; “To obey is better than sacrifice.”
In sentences rhetorically arranged, the subject or nominative is often placed after the verb; as, ‘Shines forth the cheerful sum;’ ‘ Great is Diana of the Ephesians.”
The nominative is also placed after the verb in the following instances:—
1. When the sentence is interrogative; as, “Do riches make men happy P’
2. When the sentence is imperative; as, “Go thou.”
3. When a supposition is expressed by an ellipsis; as, • Were it true.”
4. When the sentence begins with there, here, &c.; as, “There was a commotion among the people;’ ‘Here are five loaves.”
5. In such phrases as, said he, replied they, &c.
II. The article is always placed before the noun, whose signification it limits; as, “A table;’ ‘An inkstand;’ “ The book.’
1. When the noun is qualified by an adjective, the article is placed before the adjective; as, “A large house.”
2. The indefinite article is placed between the noun and the adjectives many and such; and also between the noun and all adjectives which are preceded by as, so, too, and how; as, * Many a man has attained independence by industry and perseverance;’ ‘Such a misfortune has seldom happened;’ “So great a multitude;’ “How mighty a prince l’
3. The definite article is placed between the noun and the adjective all; as, “All the people are assembled.”
III. In sentences grammatically arranged, the adjective is generally placed before the noun which it qualifies; as, ‘A beautiful tree;’ ‘A snift horse.’ In sentences rhetorically arranged, the adjective, when it is emphatic, is sometimes placed at the beginning of the sentence; as, “Just and true are all thy ways.”
The adjective is frequently placed after the noun in the fol. lowing instances:—
1. When it is used as a title ; as, ‘Alexander the Great.”
2. When other words depend upon it; as, “A man generous
to his enemies.” 3. When several adjectives belong to one noun; as, “A man
wise, just, and charitable.” 4. When the adjective expresses dimension; as, “A wall
ten feet high.” 5. When it expresses the effect of an active verb; as, ‘Vice
renders men miserable.” 6. When a neuter verb comes between it and the noun or
pronoun; as, ‘It seems strange.” IV. The pronoun of the third person is placed after that of the second ; and the pronoun of the first person after those of the second and third ; as, “You and I will go;' ‘Shall it be given to you, to him, or to me?’ V. In sentences grammatically arranged, the active verb is generally placed before the word which it governs; as, “If you respect me, do not despise my friend.” In sentences rhetorically arranged, the active verb is frequently placed after the word which it governs; as, ‘Silver and gold have I none.” The active verb is also placed after relative pronouns; as, * He is a man whom I greatly esteem.”
VI. In sentences grammatically arranged, the infinitive mood is placed after the verb which governs it; as, “He loves to learn.” In sentences rhetorically arranged, the infinitive mood, when emphatic, is placed before the word which governs it; as, “Go I must, whatever may ensue.” VII. Adverbs are generally placed immediately before or immediately after the words which they qualify; as, “Wery good;’ ‘He acted noisely.’ Adverbs, when emphatic, are sometimes placed at the
beginning of a sentence; as, “Hon completely his pas
sion has blinded him l’ VIII. Prepositions are generally placed before the
words which they govern; as, “With me;’ ‘To them.”
In familiar language, prepositions are sometimes placed after the words which they govern, and even at a distance from them ; as, ‘Such conduct I am at a loss to account for.”
IX. Conjunctions are placed between the words or clauses which they connect; as, ‘Come and see;’ ‘Be cautious; but speak the truth.” 1. Conjunctions of one syllable, with the exception of then, are always placed first in the clauses or sentences which they connect; as, ‘Virtue is praised by many, and doubtless would be desired also, if her worth were really known: see, then, that you do as she requires.” 2. Conjunctions of more than one syllable (with the exception of whereas, which must always be the first word in the sentence or clause), may be transferred to the place where they are most agreeable to the ear in reading; as, ‘Piety and holiness will make our whole life happy; whereas sinful pursuits will yield only a few scattered pleasures. Let us diligently cultivate the former, therefore, while we carefully abstain from the latter.”
Vary the arrangement of the following sentences by transposing the members or clauses:—
I had long before now repented of my roving course of life, but I could not free my mind from the love of travel. Of my roving course of life I had long before now repented, but from the love of travel I could not free my mind. I could not free my mind from the love of travel, though I had long before now repented of my roving course of life. From the love of travel I could not free my mind, though of my roving course of life I had long before now repented.
1. The Roman state evidently declined in proportion to the increase of luxury. 2. For all that you think, and speak, and do, you must at the last day account. 3. The greatness of mind which shows itself in dangers and labours, if it wants justice, is blamable. 4. It is a fact, about which men now rarely differ, that the paper-mill and the printing-press are inventions for which we cannot be too thankful. 5. In all speculations upon men and human affairs, it is of no small moment to distinguish things of accident from permanent Causes. 6. He who made light to spring from primeval darkness, will, at last, make order to arise from the seeming confusion of the world. 7. Early one summer morning, before the family was stirring, an old clock, that, without giving its owner any cause of complaint, had stood for fifty years in a farmer's kitchen, suddenly stopped. 8. Those things which appear great to one who knows nothing greater, will sink into a diminutive size, when he becomes acquainted with objects of a higher mature. 9. Let us not conclude, while dangers are at a distance, and do not immediately approach us, that we are secure, unless we use the necessary precautions to prevent them."
Change the grammatical into the rhetorical arrangement in the following passages:— ExAMPLE.
You may set my fields on fire, and give my children to the sword; you may drive myself forth a houseless, childless beggar,
* Exercises similar to those under. Sections I. II. III. IV. V. and VI. may be prescrihed from the reading-lessons of a class.