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"In the reign of Henry IV., there was a club called La Court de bone Compagnie," of which the worthy old poet Occleve was a member, and probably Chaucer. In the works of the former are two ballads, written about 1413; one, a congratulation from the brethren to Henry Somer, on his appointment of the Sub-Treasurer of the Exchequer, and who received Chaucer's pension for him. In the other ballad, Occleve, after dwelling on some of their rules and observances, gives Somer notice that he is expected to be in the chair at their next meeting, and that the styward' has warned him that he is

"for the dyner arraye

Ageyn Thirsday next, and nat is delaye.'"

"That there were certain conditions to be observed by this Society appears from the latter epistle, which commences with an answer to a letter of remonstrance the 'Court' has received from Henry Somer, against some undue extravagance, and a breach of their rules."

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OLD ENGRAVERS.-I shall be glad of information respecting two old prints in my possession. The one represents our Saviour with the crown of thorns and purple robes, and bearing the reed in his hand, mocked by the soldiers. In the lefthand corner are the subjoined date and signature"1538, 10. AN. BO."

The subject of the other print is Christ disputing with the doctors in the Temple. The date and signature are in the right-hand corner as follows: "1568, (B.” S. L.

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V. H.

"GLUE" FOR "GLAZE."-In Newton's Travels and Discoveries in the Levant, vol. ii. p. 81, I observe the following statement:

glaze canvas on the upper surface, and to lay a bed of "The usual mode of taking up mosaic pavement is to plaster of Paris upon this."

May I not ask, if the word "glaze,” in the above sentence, is not a misprint for glue?

W. W.

Malta.

-

THE HAMILTON FAMILY IN IRELAND. Could any of your correspondents, who have of late been writing so intelligently respecting the Hamilton family, inform me concerning that branch of the family which, early in the seventeenth century or previously, settled in the North of Ireland? I am especially desirous of ascertaining whether there is any notice in the public or private records of the Hamiltons of the marriage, in 1682, of Mary Hamilton, daughter of the Presbyterian minister at Bangor, to a John Alexander, whose son, I am informed, became one of the Presbyterian ministers at Dublin.

CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. 2, Heath Terrace, Lewisham.

"HIGH LIFE BELOW STAIRS."-Some years ago I inquired in these pages for evidence of the authorship of the abovenamed farce, which is sometimes attributed to Garrick-sometimes to Dr. Townley.

[* The writer of this farce was the Rev. James Townley, master of Merchant Taylors' School. It was printed in 8vo in 1759. See "N. & Q." 2nd S. xi. 191.]

I have not at the moment my "N. & Q." to refer to, but the impression left on my mind is that the replies elicited went to prove that the divine, and not the actor, was to be accredited as the writer, the subject, as is well known, being suggested by a paper in The Spectator. I revert to the matter in consequence of a statement which appears in All the Year Round (July 20), entitled "Old and New Servants," in which it is stated :

"There is an admirable farce, the credit of which a clergyman-schoolmaster assumed, which really came from David Garrick," &c.

I should like to know whether the writer of the article in question has any authority in support of this distinct charge against the "clergyman-schoolmaster," or whether, in accusing another of a breach of the eighth commandment, he places himself in a position to be reminded of the ninth? CHARLES WYLIE.

LANGMEAD FAMILY.- Richard Langmead (son of Nicholas Langmead, of East Allington, co. Devon, gent.), matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, March 14, 1667, at the age of eighteen; took his B.A. degree, Oct. 16, 1671; and M.A. July 9, 1674. Any information respecting his subsequent career will oblige

T. P. TASWELL-LANGMEAD. 2, Tanfield Court, Temple.

A LITERARY TRICK.

"A French author, finding his reputation impeded by the hostility of the critics, resolved to adopt a little stratagem to assist him in gaining fame and money in spite of his enemies. He dressed himself in a workmanlike attire, and retired to a distant province, where he took lodgings at a farrier's shop, in which he did a little work every day at the forge and anvil. But the greater part of his time was secretly devoted to the composition of three large volumes of poetry and essays, which he published as the works of a journeyman blacksmith. The trick succeeded-all France was in amazement. The poems of this child of Nature,' this 'untutored genius,' this inspired son of Vulcan,' as he was now called, were immediately praised by the critics, and were soon purchased by everybody. The harmless deceit filled the pockets of the poor poet, who laughed to see the critics writing incessant praise on an author whose every former effort they made a point of abusing."—Birmingham Journal, July 28, 1867.

The above has an historical air, but I think is not entirely new. It looks like an old story with the names omitted and the facts altered. Í shall be glad to be directed to the original.

FITZHOPKINS.

Garrick Club.

"MARRIED ON CROOKED STAFF."-In the Dublin Weekly Journal, February 20, 1747, the following announcement appeared:

"Last week Mr. Travers Hartley, an eminent linendraper in Bride Street [and for some time, if I mistake not, M.P. for the City of Dublin], was married to Miss

Spence on crooked staff, a young lady of great beauty, fine accomplishments, and a large fortune."

What is the meaning of the phrase here em-. ABHBA. ployed? NATIONAL AND FAMILY PORTRAITS.-Much interest has been felt in our Gallery of National Portraits, and would you allow me to ask how it is that in the mansions of our nobility and gentry the portraits are generally restricted to their more immediate line? Many old families have formed alliances with distinguished races now extinct, but whose portraits remain in out-of-the-way places, or left on the walls of residences possessed by new people. These portraits are often by first-rate painters of the day, and would they not form an interesting addition, both as regards art and association, to many an ancestral hall? Perhaps, if you will admit this suggestion, many portraits of value may be preserved or recovered. H. B.

THE OATH OF LE FAISAN.-In p. 8 of Duruy's Histoire des Temps Modernes, we meet with the phrase "Toute la noblesse de Flandre et de Bourgogne jura sur le faisan de s'armer," &c. What IGNORAMUS. is the oath of "le faisan"?

OBITUARY MEDALET OF EDWARD V.-I have now in my possession a curious silver medal, which I will describe in the hope that a short notice of it may prove interesting to those readers of "N. & Q." who, like myself, have not before met with an example.

Its weight is rather more than that of a sixpence of 1864; it measures 1 inch in diameter, and the engraving is now very faint.

16

On the obverse there is an oval band, supported by two nondescript figures, apparently satyrs; and surrounding a king, robed, standing, with crown "above his head, and holding a sceptre tipped with a fleur-de-lis, in his right hand. On the oval band is a legend, of which, by the help of a lens, I can distinguish these words:1483 Y . EDWARDVS . 5. REX."

--

"OBIIT

Perhaps the "y" is the second letter of the month June.

On the reverse in the centre, a shield of arms, encircled with the Garter of the Order, and ensigned with a crown, bearing quarterly 1 and 4 France modern, 2 and 3 [England]; with the legend:

"RAINED 2 MONTHES BVRIED IN DE TOWER."

At the time of his father's death, April 9, 1483, Edward V. was thirteen years of age; he was deposed June 22, 1483, and, with his brother the Duke of York, murdered in the Tower.

W. H. SEWELL.

Yaxley.

"REV. THOMAS PIERSON, LATE PASTOUR OF BROMPTON BRIAN, HEREFORD."-Such is the name and designation found on the title-page of a small

quarto, entitled Excellent Encouragements against Afflictions, or Expositions of Four Select Psalms (1647), issued under the care of good Christopher Harvey, who is so lovingly associated with the saintly George Herbert. I am anxious to know more of Pierson. Can any reader of "N. & Q." give me references to authorities other than Wood, Athene (a mere scrap), and the notice (very slight) in the Cole MSS.? Harvey dedicates the above volume to Sir Robert Harley, Knight, and intimates that Pierson had bequeathed his MSS. to him and the publication of any approved to himself. I should greatly like to have information on Pierson and Harley. Pierson edited Perkins's works, and is by all spoken of as "famous," and yet nothing seems known of him. STUDENT.

QUOTATION.-Can any reader of "N. & Q." inform me if the following verse (written on the margin of an old Bible, "breeches" copy, 1597) is part of any old tradition; and, if so, where to be found? I copy literatim:

"but whilst John at Jerusalem did staye god tooke the blessed virgienes life away that holy wife that mother that pure maid at getsemany in hir graue was laid."

RYDER, WYVILL, AND MORE FAMILIES.-Can any reader of "N. & Q." give me information respecting the descendants of Sir Thomas More, especially the descendants of his grandchildren? Also if there is any note of any branch of the family going to America about 1634? There was a family of More living near Haddon, Bampton, and Bicester, county Oxon, previous to 1637. Notices of them especially required. Also, of family of Wyvill of York, and of the family of Rider or Ryder. Was Edward Ryder any relation to Sir Wm. Ryder, Lord Mayor of London, who died 1669, and is the Journal of the aforesaid lord mayor extant? Address, H. A. B., Mr. Lewis, Bookseller, Gower Street, Euston Square, London,

N.W.

W. R. S. ROYAL AUTHORS.-Will any of your correspondents kindly give me their assistance in forming a correct list of royal authors at the present time? With your permission I will begin by naming H.M. Queen Victoria, the Emperor Napo-State leon, King Louis of Bavaria, the King of Sweden, who "paints fairly and writes poetry;" as also the Swedish Prince Oscar, so well known by the translation of The Cid into his native language, by a volume of pleasing poetry, and very recently by his valuable contributions "to the war history of Sweden." W. W.

Malta.

MICHAEL WIGGINS. ·In Bombastes Furioso we read, "play Michael Wiggins o'er again!" What tune is it, and where can it be found?

S. J.

Queries with Answers.

――――

Christian name of the Lord Howard who appears LORD HOWARD OF ESCRICK. What was the so discreditably in the Rye House Plot trials? Was it Thomas or William? Was he the second or the third Lord Howard of Escrick, and if he his succession to the title? The was William, the third lord, what is the date of peerage-chroniclers, Collins, Banks, and Burke, all make the mistake of giving Edward, the first Lord Howard of Escrick, the discredit of the proceedings which belong to one of his sons. They all agree, notwithstanding, in saying that the first lord died in 1675. Collins and Banks make the second lord, Thomas, die in 1683; Burke says he died in 1678. Whenever he died, he was succeeded by his brother William. Was this in 1678 or in 1683, or when? CH.

Foot Guards, and died at Brussels in 1678, whilst with [Thomas Howard, the second baron, was in the first his regiment. William his brother and third baron, took a very active part in the Committees of the House of Lords soon after he was there seated, in giving credit to Oates's plot, and to the proceedings and trial of his innocent relation, the Viscount Stafford, whom he condemned. He became the chief evidence against his friends in the Rye House Plot, as well as on the trials of Lord William Russell and Algernon Sidney. From all accounts he was desperate both in character and estate, and was con

sidered a disgrace to his family. He died in 1694. Consult Burnet's History of his Own Time, and Cobbett's

Trials, viii. 370; ix. 430, 602, 850, 1065.]

JOHN ARCHER.-This person wrote a pamphlet

on

"The Personall Reigne of Christ vpon Earth. That Jesus Christ with the Saints shall visibly possesse a Monarchiall State in this World. By Jo. Archer, 1643." Does he figure among the Fifth Monarchy men of that time? GEORGE LLOYD. Darlington.

[The first edition of The Personall Reigne of Christ was published in 1642, under the name of Henry Archer. He is also called Henry in the account of him by Benjamin Brook in the Lives of the Puritans, ed. 1813, ii. 455, but his correct name is John Archer. He was minister of Allhallows, Lombard Street, London, and on account of his nonconformity was suspended by Archbishop Laud. He retired to Arnheim, in Holland, and became co-pastor with Dr. Thomas Goodwin of the English church. He appears to have been living in 1645.]

DESIGNATION OF SCOTCH LAW COURTS.-Until Scotland were styled "Supreme": for instance, now, I had understood that the law courts in the title of "S.S.C." always stood for "Solicitor to the Supreme Courts." In a marriage notice which has just appeared in our local papers, the term "Solicitor before the Imperial Courts of Scotland" is used. I should be glad to know

when the change was made. Doubtless some of your Edinburgh correspondents can give the information required. J. MANUEL.

Newcastle-on-Tyne.

[No change has taken place in the title of the corporation referred to. The substitution of Imperial for Supreme is simply a mistake. Very probably the drawing up of the marriage notice was entrusted to an English velative of the bride, and he did not do so until after the departure of the happy couple, hence the error.]

SCOTTICISMS.-Can any of your readers tell me the meaning of "casten" and "broken" in the following passage?

"The Crowner suld haue all the cornes lyand in binges

and mowes casten and broken."-Skene, De Verborum Significatione, 1597. H. B.

[Anglice.-The Crowner is entitled (when grain has

been left in the field lying in heaps or small stacks) to all single pickles that may be thrown or shaken off, and to the whole ears in the case of barley and wheat, and several pickles connected by their stalks in the case of oats which may have been broken off.]

Replies.

LUCIFER.
(3rd S. xii. 47.)

*

66

I think it should be noted that Lucifer was applied to Satan, in English literature, at least four hundred years before Milton's time, and probably long before that. In some Early English Homilies," which Mr. Morris is editing for the Early English Text Society, and the date of which is about 1220-30 A.D., it is stated most explicitly. The book is not yet published, but I quote from a proof-sheet, p. 219:

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Compare the Septuagint version—ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη τὰ ὑψηλὰ τὰ πρὸς βοῤῥᾶν; and the English, “in the sides of the north." Thus, even as early as Cadmon, who speaks of Satan as "like to the light stars," we find, "that he west and north would prepare structures"; as Thorpe translates it in his edition, at p. 18. So, too, in the "English Homilies," three lines below the quotation already given: "and sitte on north[d]efe hefene riches," i. e. and sit on the north-part of the kingdom of heaven. So again in "Genesis and Exodus,” 1. 277:

"Min flight-he seide-Ic wile uptaken, Min sete north on heuene maken."

Piers Plowman, as, e. g. -
So again in some (not in all) of the MSS. of

"Lord, why wolde he tho, thulke wrechede Lucifer, Lepen on a-lofte in the northe syde?"

Langland, Piers Plowman, ed. Whitaker, p. 18. In fact, Satan's name of Lucifer, and his sitting in the north, are generally found in company. Even Milton has –

"At length into the limits of the north They came; and Satan to his royal seat

The palace of great Lucifer," &c.
Paradise Lost, v. 755-760.
WALTER W. SKEAT.

Cambridge.

To the bold assertion from MALVERN WELLS, that it is certain that in the fourth century there was no use of the name Lucifer to designate Satan, as it was then a Christian name, and borne by the celebrated Bishop of Cagliari, I answer that it was applied to Satan by that learned expositor of Holy Scripture, the illustrious Origen, in the third century: :

"Unde vel ille qui Lucifer fuit, et in cælo oriebatur," etc.-In Ep. ad Rom., lib. v.

And by Theodoret in the fourth :—

....

Εωσφόρον αὐτὸν καλεῖ, . . . . ἀπείκασεν ἑωσφύρῳ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ εἰς γῆν πεσόντι.-In Esaia cap. xiv. 12. "He calls him Lucifer, .... he compared him to Lucifer who fell from heaven to earth."

....

Also by St. Jerom in the fourth century:— "Et cecidit Lucifer. . . . . Et ille qui in paradiso deliciarum inter duodecim nutritus est lapides, vulneratus a monte Domini ad inferna descendit; (Esai. xiv.) unde et Salvator in Evangelio, Videbam, inquit, Satanam quasi fulgur de cælo cadentem. Et tamen cum ceciderit Lucifer, immo post casum coluber antiquus: virtus ejus in lumbis ejus."—Adv. Jovin., lib. ii. cap. 3.

The famous Bishop of Cagliari was named Lucifer by a singular exception; but I believe no other instance can be found. It is not true, as asserted by Miss Yonge, that the name was borne by any Pope: she probably had in her mind the name of Lucius. Much less is it true that its application to the devil arose from any "popular misunderstanding" of the text of Isaias. For the holy Fathers in general understood that passage primarily of the fallen angel Lucifer, though applied by the prophet to the King of Babylon, whose pride might be compared to that of the fallen angel. Thus, the passages above quoted from Origen, Theodoret, and St. Jerom; to which may be added the following:

From Tertullian, in the third century:

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"Præ manu erit hujus ævi dominum diabolum interpretari, qui dixerit, propheta referente: Ero similis Altissimi, ponum in nubibus thronum meum.”—Adv. Marcionem, lib. v. cap. xi.

From St. Athanasius, in the fourth century:— Πάντες δὲ οἱ ὀρθῶς πιστεύοντες εἰς τὸν Κύριον, πατοῦσι τὸν εἰπόντα, θήσομαι τὸν θρόνον μου ἐπάνω τῶν νεφελῶν, ἀναβήσομαι, ὅμοιος ἔσομαι τῷ ὑψίστῳ.—Contra Arianos,

Orat. I.

"All who rightly believe in the Lord, shall trample upon him who said: I will place my throne above the clouds, I will ascend, and I will be like to the Most High." F. C. H.

This name has been applied to Satan by the Fathers and later writers of the Church, ever since the time of St. Jerome. Cornelius a Lapide constantly so uses it in his Commentary, and its use is not in the least "poetical." It may have arisen, not so much from a "misunderstanding" of Isaiah xiv. 12, as from a deeper understanding of it, as referring not only to the fall of Belshazzar, but to the still greater fall of Satan, as Miss Yonge so well shows. (See Cornelius a Lapide, in loco.) J. T. F.

The College, Hurstpierpoint.

ASSUMPTION OF A MOTHER'S NAME.
(3rd S. xii. 66.)

A question has been asked by E. S. S. which opens a very interesting part of the genealogical history of the country. His question is indeed only what a man can do now. There is no doubt that any man can take any name. All dispute as to the legality of this proceeding is at an end; and those who dislike the practice have only to hope that its possible inconvenience in the future may at last end in some late remedy. If any one wishes to "take his mother's maiden name or to "add it to his own surname "-changes not at all unreasonable in themselves-he has only to publish his choice in The Times or elsewhere, and he will be legally known by his new name.

long prescription of use. But this change to the mother's name has a I give Habington's account of it. The extract is made from Lord Lyttelton's manuscript of Habington's "Collections for Worcestershire made in reigns of James and Charles I." By the kindness of Lord Lyttelton I had the MS. in my possession for a considerable time, and made this and other extracts from it. Speaking of Warmedon, he says:

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"In the body of the churche and southe window, gules a fesse or, and towe mollettes in cheife argent. This coate is often boren in Malvernes faire churche [it is still to be seen there.-D. P.] and elsewheare as Bracies' armes. But in my opinion is Pohers' coate wch Braci as heyre to Poher did assume for his owne. For before kinge Edward the thyrd 13 of hys raygne quartered France and England, all our gentellmen men bore singell coates, in so muche as yf a gentellman had maryed with a gentellwoman who was an inheritrice and had a sonne by her, thys heyre yf hee wold chuse hys mothers armes must refuse hys fathers. And it was moreover used to keepe hys fathers name and beare hys mothers coate. Or, on the contrary, to take hys mothers name and continewe hys fathers armes. And so Bracie of Warmedon and the Ligons theyre heyres have borne eaver since not Bracies'

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but their ancestors Pohers' armes."

This statement of Habington exhausts the subject. Instances are familiar to those who have given attention to genealogy. But the knowledge of the rules stated in this passage of Habington may save persons to whom it is a new study some perplexity and surprise. I said something on the subsequent practice as to arms before the institution of the College of Arms, in vol. vi. p. 126, which I will not waste time in repeating.

D. P.

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells.

There is nothing to prevent E. S. S. from publishing his change of surname, and then what he wishes to do is legally complete. (See the case of Luscomb v. Yates, 5 Barn & Alderson's Reports, 555, and Falconer on Surnames, p. 9; and Supplement, pp. 15 and 16.) There never was a public authority to invent new names. The thousands of surnames which are used were originally

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