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personal and private inventions. The Par. Paper,

JUNIUS, BURKE, ETC. April 14, 1863, No. 157, p. 5, gives the items of

(3rd S. xü. 34, 73.) charges on obtaining a royal licence to change a name. They amount to 441. 138. exclusive of the Your noble correspondent will, I trust, permit stamp duty, and the stamp duty is 101. when the me to remark, that character of " special pleadchange is voluntarily made, and 501. when condi- | ing," and something very like equivocation, pertionally made under the direction of a will or vades the letter of Burke to which he refers. The settlement.

first letter to Markham was unsatisfactory to the In Scotland it is not the practice to ask the prelate, and required to be supplemented. The sovereign to sanction what the law permits all is denial” which it contains is, at most, a protest persons to do. Any person may by his own act against the charge of authorship, and little else change his name (as Lord Clyde did from than a dexterous fence of words. That the long Mc Liver to Campbell); and if in Scotland an letter would have been equally ineffectual, was official certificate of the change is desired, such acknowledged by the writer of it, when he recertificate is granted by the Lyon-King-of-Arms solved to suppress so elaborate a vindication of Office; and by the recent Act of Parliament, himself. 30 Vict. c. 17 (May 3, 1867), the fee to be paid The subject is characterised by Mr. Townshend for a “certificate regarding change of surname as a “disagreeable” one ; he is forced to recur to is fixed to be fifteen shillings.

C. C. it (such at least is the drift of the second letter);

but why was it imperative upon him to revive a E.S.S. may take his mother's maiden surname, topic associated with so much of unpleasant feelor any other surname he pleases, either in substi- ing, except for the reason that the answer to his tution of, or in addition to, his present surname. former appeal had been evasive ? As regards The change must be a total'one; that is, he cannot Burke, we find that this reiterated and more retain the old name for any particular purpose, or sifting inquiry gives him pause"; he must adopt the new with any exception; and it must need “consult his pillow twice,before he can be made publicly. Some have considered it suffi- venture to say “No!” to a plain question on a cient public notice to insert an advertisement in matter of fact. Is it not probable (to say the The Times or other newspapers, and the cost of least) that the interval, with its " pillow" conthis need be but a few shillings. Others think it sultation, was devoted to the consideration of a desirable to add solemnity to the act by executing question of moral casuistry, in relation to the a deed-poll to be enrolled in Chancery. This was matter as it stood—the question, namely, whether the course adopted by the late learned editor of he was under any social obligation to declare Hayes and Jerman On Wills, and reader on real the whole truth, and nothing but the truth," property to the Inns of Court, Mr. T. S. Badger, in the demand of a self-constituted and unwho assumed the additional name of “ Eastwood authorised inquisitor? On the principle enunon acquiring an estate so named. This method ciated by Johnson (in reference to this particular need not cost more than a few pounds. Others, subject) there was no such obligation. It will again, where required by the terms of any will, or be remembered, however, that Johnson takes the where a change of arms as well as of name is de- distinction, that the disavowal of Burke, adsired, or where from any other cause they desire dressed to himself, was a voluntary one.

If it to obtain a higher sanction to the change than had been elicited by questioning, he might not their own mere volition, apply for a licence under have felt himself bound (as we may infer) to give the royal sign manual, which of course is much it his implicit credence. Burke, nevertheless, more costly. All this ground, however, has been may have reasoned to his own conviction, that, gone over before in several learned articles in the

even in that case, he was answering the question sixth volume of your present series.

of general society - one which individuals of it, JOB J. B. WORKARD. a part for the whole, had already thrust upon

him, personally and pertinaciously, In Scotland, when the mother retains her It should seem that Mr. Fitzherbert himself maiden name, a son may, at his option, take either was scarcely satisfied. He repelled the accusafather's or mother's name, or both : this is the tion, but “in so awkward a manner as to increase, Roman, or civil law, view of the case. But in rather than remove, the suspicions of the company the English ecclesiastical law a woman, on mar he was addressing.” Anything like embarrassriage, becomes so incorporated with her husband ment, on such an occasion, can only be attributed that neither her name nor anything else belongs to misgivings in his own mind, which perplexed to her-except her wedding ring, and one shift. him in the performance of the task assigned to How the tables will be turned when the Houses him. He spoke as an advocate, from instructions of Ladies and Commons' women make the laws! furnished to him by the accused party. He was

T. J. BUCKTOX. the familiar friend, the “ alter ego of Burke

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(whom he had introduced into public life), and tions of an incriminated party, whether spontawhen we read of his “awkwardness,” we can neous or the reverse—the question presents itself, scarcely refrain from a surmise that he knew more does the right exist to enforce confession by torthan had been confidentially imparted to bim. Mr. ture, physical or moral ? In other words, is a Townshend was of opinion that Dr. Markham's man entitled to have a secret, and to keep it, alta “ doubts” ought to be removed. Mr. Burke mente repostum? made an attempt that way, and kept it to himself! The first right is absolutely conceded, the Perhaps he regarded the bishop as a sort of second is virtually denied, if you hold that he is • father confessor,” and felt compunctions about bound to indulge the curiosity of every meddler, offering to his ghostly teacher a masterpiece of in regard to that which he would have owned writing, when nothing was needed in the matter before, if it had consisted with his inclinations but plain speaking. It would have been easier or his convenience to do so. Sir Walter Scott

(at least) to say, “I know no more who wrote, must have denied the authorship of the Waverley dictated, inspired, or (in any sense of the word) Novels, in direct terms, hundreds of times before "authorised' the 'Letters of Junius,' than I know he aroued it.

L. the same things concerning the first ‘Book of Chronicles.'" In the Correspondence of the Earl of Chatham,

POETIC PAINS. there is a letter from the Duke of Grafton to Lord C- (then at Bath) recommending Mr.

(3rd S. xii. 22, 72.) Burke for office (most likely for high office) in the strongest manner. This may have been the C. A. W., I think, departed somewhat from the very situation in the Ministry, his aspiration to courtesy belonging to literary discussions when which Burke so ingeniously vindicates, or pal- he termed the transposition which I proposed in liates, in the reply to Markham, the bishop (as the last stanza of Campbell's “Hohenlinden", we learn from that letter) having sneered at the “ wretched jingle.” I further cannot agree with “ ambition ” of the political adventurer (as mani- him in thinking that it would have been better if fested on some particular occasion), characteris- the final lines of the stanzas did not rhyme. J.A.G. ing it as overweening, if not ridiculous, when and the well-known and respected contributor to measured with his pretensions ; using, in fact, the “N. & Q.," F. C. H., are far more courteous; argumentum ad hominem in a spirit not very nearly and I have only to remind them that, by Mr. Redakin to spiritual-mindedness!

ding's account, the poet did not pronounce the The prime minister declined to accede to the word sepulchree. I must further remind J. A. G. proposition, alleging, as a main objection, “the that the poet's idea seems to have been that the gentleman's principles of trade.” “It is possible snow would form one vast"winding-sheet,” coverthat Burke never became aware that the duke's ing the whole of the dead without distinction; professions of a zeal to serve him had been acted and, as they would only be thus far buried, the upon; or he may have attributed the ill success word “sepulchre” as applied to the spot where of the project to a want of earnestness on the part each lay would be quite inappropriate. of his grace. It will be seen by the letter re I will now observe that Campbell has likewise ferred to that the duke had done his utmost.

marred two of his other finest poems by the emIt is well known that contemporary opinion ployment of inappropriate terms at the end of pointed to Burke, and to Burke alone; and of the lines. In his beautiful “ O'Connor's Child” we contemporaries of Junius, one at least, and he not have the least interested in the question-Lord Mans “When all was hushed at eventide, field (who survived the period twenty-four years)

I heard the baying of their beagle ; retained, to the last, the conviction that Burke

Be hushed, my Connocht Moran cried, “ was the man." But is it to be doubted that

'Tis but the screaming of the eagle.” Lord Mansfield was conversant with the case in "The baying of their beagle! He might as all its bearings, with the imputations and the well have said “the baying of their poodle.' It is denials; and that he had brought to bear on the a catachresis indeed to use “ beagle” for blooddetermination of it all the powers of the most hound, the dog that was meant, and how easily consummate judge of evidence the world ever it might have been avoided ! If I had been the saw ?

poet I would have given in preference And besides, although, if Burke was not the writer of Junius, he must have bethought himself

“ Their bloodhound's baying reached my ear," who was. We have not heard that he ever be

and tokened an interest in the subject, or offered an

“ "Tis but the eagle's scream we hear; opinion or a surmise in relation to it.

After all-with respect to the negative allega “ 'Tis the eagle's scream ; there's nought to fear.”

or

on

The other poem begins thus —

This patronymic is by no means uncommon, and “ Ye mariners of England !

I consider it to be an abbreviation of Parry, deThat guard our native seas,

rived from ap-Harry, the Welsh form of Harrison. Whose flag has braved a thousand years The ancient and ennobled family, Parr of Kendal, The battle and the breeze!”

formerly Parre, must, I think, be a corruption of Now surely “the breeze" never was an object the Norman Barri; the letters P and B become of terror to a seaman. The last line, since storm counterchangeable in the course of centuries, and could not be used, should have ended with gale; the heraldic bearings are sufficiently near to counand how easy would it have been to make a tenance this supposition. second line ending with the noun or verb sail! As to the old township of Parr in Prescott (i.e.

These remarks of mine will, I trust, be regarded Priest's-cot) parish, Lancashire, it would arise in their true light as merely critical exercitations. from some local peculiarity or distinction—such

Thos. KEIGHTLEY. as a park, parish, parsonage, priest's or pardoner's cell, probably long since swept away.

A. H. Surely Campbell designedly wrote the unrhym CALLIGRAPHY (3rd S. xi. 402.) – The finest ing word sepulchre in the last line of his very fine Danish specimen which I have seen is Joh. Chrisstanza sepulchre as we usually pronounce it. The toph. Oehlers' Die offene Schreib-Schule (long very jar in the rhythm seems to my ear to make title), oblong folio, undated. Oehlers here calls the poem only more beautiful, breaking as it himself “ Buchhalter, bestellten Schreib- und does the monotonous smoothness of the lines—Rechne-Meister zu Śt. Nicolai in Flensburg, that smoothness which is to some ears tiresome anjetzo verordneten Ober-Meister zu St. Jacobi in in Moore's polished sonnets. He must have done Hamburg." The work is dedicated to the Danish it on the principle of the break of line in Virgil, King Frederick IV., and is written throughout. “ Arcades ambo."

Some of the plates are wonderful masterpieces. I remember a poor fellow, an usher in a school, Plate 3 is a large portrait of Frederick IV. being terribly laughed at for making, in his copy horseback-all as delineated by Oehlers in the of Campbell

, a pencil note—“ cemetery, would pen-manner. This rare work is without place or read better here.” F. C. H.'s conjecture that the date. When it appeared I do not know, probably poet meant the word to be pronounced sepulchree at Hamburgh somewhere about 1720, or a little is, I think, incorrect. Massacre used, I know, to later.

GEORGE STEPHENS. be pronounced massacree, but sepulchre was for

Cheapinghaven, Denmark. merly called sepulchre. The poor people in Cambridge to this day call the church there St. BEAUTY UNFORTUNATE (3rd S. xi. 517; xii. 18.) Sc-púl-cur's, the accent being thrown on the The Host of the Canterbury Tales thus bewails middle syllable.

C. W. BARKLEY. the fate of Virginia, as related by the Doctor of

Physic:

“ Allas! to deere boughte sche hir beauté. SURNAME OF “ PARR” (3rd S. xii. 66.)—The Wherfore I say, that alle men may se, origin of this name, like that of Parry, Price, and That giftes of fortune or of nature Dalton, is to be found by separating the initial P Ben cause of deth of many a creature. and D from the root words Arry, Rice and Alton.

Hir beauté was hir deth, I dar wel sayn So also Bowen, Belis, Powel. Parr as originally

Allas ! so pitously as sche was elayn!

[Of bothe giftes, that I speke of now, written was probably Ap-Ar= son of Ar. Ar in

Men han ful often more for harm than prow." ] Gaelic means ploughing, tillage, agriculture. Ar

(1. 1378–13,715, ed. Wright.) or air in the same language means battle, slaughter,

JOHN ADDIS, Jun. field of battle. Ar also means a bond, tie, chain, Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. guiding; likewise land, earth (Macleod and Dewar, p. 31.) In the Welsh language Ar means QUARTER-MASTERS, ETC. (3rd S. xi. 501.) speech, alsó surface, tilth, or ploughed land. Relative rank is even now a vexed question of (Pughé, i. 109.). But par (=py-ar) in Welsh the present system, and we frequently see gazette means a pair, fellow, match, or couple ; and par announcements of honorary rank being conferred (=pa-ar) means causing, causative. (Pughe, ii. on individuals; and a case occurred a few years 396.) If another probable derivation be sought, since of an officer using, on his visiting card, the then it

may have its origin from the same root as style of his relative rank. the German aar, a bird of prey, particularly the Honorary rank is simply the shadow of a subeagle. Er in Bretagne still means an eagle, and stance to meet certain supposed social requirethe initial syllables of Aruspex may have affinity ments, while relative rank is an official fiction for with the same root. (Adelung, Wörterb. p. 5.)

the prevention of disputes, but which does not in T. J. BUCKTON.

the least assimilate the functions of individuals. Streatham Place, S.

A curious treatise might be written on names

and titles that have lost their original force or QUOTATION WANTED (3rd S. xi. 457.)— significance.

“For treason, d'ye see For example :-“Cæsar” in the first century,

Was to them a dish of tea, and “ Cæsar” in the fifth. Caliph, Khalifa, &c.

And murder bread and butter." Kooli, Cooly. Captain, in all its varied associa

LYDIARD will find in Shenstone's Rape of the tions. Sergeants, at law and in the army. Major Trap the following lines : and sergeant-major (apropos, the corporal-major

“ A river or a sea referred to by your correspondent would not be

Was to him a dish of tea, styled “major," except by one of his own or of

And a kingdom bread and butter.” an inferior class—an officer would not so style No doubt but that Sir W. Scott borrowed the him).

lines from Shenstone, altering them to his own Subadhar, the native captain of a Sepoy regi- purpose.

C.J. ment, although bearing that lordly title, was nevertheless under the orders of the European

REFERENCES WANTED (3rd S. xii. 91.)— sergeant-major; and although he could be a mem

St. Bernard ber of a court-martial, composed however only of “ Inter sæculares nugæ nugæ sunt; in ore Sacerdotis natives, his title meant nothing, and practically blasphemiæ.". and virtually he was simply a regimental sergeant.

The correct reading I believe to be as follows:In the same way, we have honorary University degrees: and in the army the rank even of

Vugæ siquidem inter sæculares nugæ sunt, in ore

autem Sacerdotis blasphemia.” * general officer" conferred on men who to all

Lib. II. de Consideratione, cap. 13. intents and purposes have none of the attributes

St. Cyprian. of a bona fide general; but it is a graceful com

“ Ad unum corpus humanum supplicia plura quam pliment paid, under certain circumstances, to old

membra.” officers and means no more than what the world may choose to value such rank at. In certain This also is incorrectly worded; in St. Cyprian grades of society “the general” is greatly re- it stands thus : vered; and there are men who would sacrifice “ Ad hominis corpus unum supplicia plura quam memeren the comfort of their families to enjoy a bra."--Epist. I. ad Donatum. distinction which a return ticket to America can

St. Ambrose. equally effectually confer !

.“ Nulla ætas ad perdiscendum est.” There is a great difference, however (heraldically speaking), between the real rank and the

I believe the sense is given here instead of the honorary or relative. Thus, an honorary captain- true reading, and I suspect the following is in

tended : say an old paymaster or quarter-master-does not hold the commission of a regimental captain,

“ Nemo est qui doceri non egeat dum vivit."

Lib. I. Officiorum, cap. 1. which gives the latter a legal precedence even of those who hold equal relative rank.

Or perhaps this: Some men obtain from society—as by some in

“ Omnis ætas perfecta Christo est."

Ep. 30 ad Valentinianum. herent attraction in themselves—titles to which

F. C. H. they are not entitled, while others are denuded of

M. W. will find the words those which they really do possess.

“ Da pater angustam menti conscendere sedem ; Thus, an unobtrusive D.D. will be constantly

Da fontem lustrare boni,”addressed “Mr." while the more important looking in the ninth poem of the third book of Boëthius. inferior B.D. is styled “Doctor." the pretentious looking old subaltern will be They are continued as follows: styled "Major," while his captain is addressed

da luce repertâ “Mr.” Of course these mistakes do not occur in

in te conspicuos animi transfigere visus.” good society.

SP.

According to the Leyden edition of 1671, they

were imitated by Buchanan “in Franciscano “STCART OF THE Scotch GUARD” (3rd S. xii. thus : – 67.)-What did this " Discours " discourse about,

“ Ad fontes penetrare boni, tenebrisque remotis if it gave neither the "causa causans of this

Tollere perspicuos animi ad cælestia visus.” Scotch " Seigneur's” beheading, nor any par

E. B. NICHOLSON. ticulars about his pedigree?

Tonbridge. His being decapitated under Lewis XI. was not The first from Childe Harold, canto II. It proof evident of his being an " unworthy Scotch should, however, be “palikar,” not “ soldier.' Guard,” as many an innocent man was sent ad The third from T. Moore's little poem, patres by this cruel and unscrupulous monarch. remember Ellen." W. J. BERNHARD SMITH.

P. A. L. Temple.

6 You

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G.

ROYAL ARMS OF SCOTLAND (3rd S. x. 231, 279, Principals of Colleges who happen to be in orders
316, 379, 479.) — There were a few articles in to the Moderator of the General Assembly, and to
"N. & Q.” in regard to the "Royal Arms of Provincial Synods. The practice of such courtesy
Scotland,” and a monument in Westminster Ab- titles is comparatively modern. The designation
bey, circa 1570, was one of the earliest quoted. of “Reverend” is not used in the Acts of the Ge-
Irrespective of coins, I find it on the title-page of neral Assembly. Each clerical member of the
Major's History of Scotland, printed at Paris 1521; court is styled thus,—“Mr. A. B., Minister at C.”
on the Black Acts of Scotland, printed at Edin- Formerly two persons only in a parish were
burgh, by Davidson, 1541 ; and again by Lek- honoured with the prefix of “Mr.,” these being
previk, 1566. And in addition, I am in possession the minister and the schoolmaster.
of a MS. on vellum, formerly belonging to Rev.

CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D.
Dr. Wellesley, Principal of the New Inn Hall, 2, Heath Terrace, Lewisham.
Oxford, with the Rules of the Order of the Gar I feel indebted to MR. VERE IRVING for his
ter, where he notes :

satisfactory explanation, which besides suggests * This identical book sent, with the Insignia of the the origin of another matter. I mean what is Garter, to James V. of Scotland."-Vide Ashmole, p. 396. called the “Committee of Bills” in the General

In this book is a beautiful illumination of the Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Before arms of England and Scotland of the period, circa any business is submitted to the consideration of 1535.

W. P. TURNBULL. the full house, it is brought under the examinaPhiladelphia.

tion of that committee, and reported on by it, which THRECKINGHAM FONT-INSCRIPTION (3rd S. xii. Scotch Parliament as to the “Lords of the Arti

quite corresponds with the procedure in the 66.) – I remember examining this inscription cles," whose duties seem to have been analogous about the year 1844, after my friend Mr. F. A.

to those of this committee. Paley had stated, in his Introduction to Van Voorst's Baptismal Fonts, that no one had de

I regret that I cannot assist your correspondent ciphered it. It is a rather badly cut black-letter

as to Professor Aytoun's brochure. I trust he inscription, and I made it, without much doubt, may yet procure a copy of it, as it must be to be this : "* Ave Maria gracie p.d.t (plena,

worthy of preservation. dominus tecum]."

TITLES OF THE JUDGES (3rd S. xü. 67.)- The Another inscription, in a more uncommon posi- term “Reverend " seems to have been originally tion, occurs at Scredington church, in the same

used in the sense of “venerable," and hence apneighbourhood. It is on the side of the dress of plied to those who by age or office were such.

to know if it has been deciphered ? At Newton, commences his pedigree of the Howards with near the same places, is the indent of the brass of William Howard," a learned and reverend judge a small mitred figure. What bishop or abbot of the Court of Common Pleas.” was buried there?

Thus, too, it was applied to senators, as in the On the last page of Thoroton's Nottinghamshire opening of Othello's apology: – (vol. i. 4to, ed. 1790) there is an absurd cut of “ Most potent, grave, and reverend Seigniors." the font-inscription at Newark, quite unintelligible. I have a note that it should be : “Carne Father,” without the adjunct “ Right.” Cranmer

Bishops were originally styled “Reverend innati sunt hac .... fonte renati." C. R. M.

was thus designated in the title of one of his STYLE OF“REVEREND"AND"VERY REVEREND” controversial works printed by Daye, 1580; and (3rd S. xii. 26, 78, 98.) – G., who dates from this style was not confined to prelates. In a Edinburgh, ought to have known better than to letter from Laurence Humphrey to Henry Bulventure the assertion that the Principals of the linger, dated Feb. 9, 1566, the latter is addressed, Scottish Universities are always clergymen of the “ pater in Christo reverende.”. Established Church,” and “have the title of Very One has often heard dissenting ministers charged Reverend." Is not Sir David Brewster, the pre- with usurping" the style of " Reverend." There sent distinguished Principal of Edinburgh Univer- is really no usurpation in the matter. The title sity, a layman? Is not Principal Forbes of St. is only conventional, and commonly given to all Andrew's a layman ? Neither of these Principals ministers of religion, without reference to their have ever assumed, or have ever been addressed state connection or theological opinions. as“ Very Reverend." No doubt it was formerly

HENRY PARR. provided that the Principals of the different

Yoxford Vicarage. Scottish Colleges should be in orders, but this IMMORTAL BRUTES (3rd S. xii. 66.)—By Ishprovision was altered by a recent Act of Parlia- mael's ram, is meant the ram “a noble victim” inent. The truth plainly is, that “Very Re- (Koran, surat xxxvii. p. 369, Sale): the very verend” is from mere courtesy applied to Scottish same which Abel sacrificed, and which was sent

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