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personal and private inventions. The Par. Paper, April 14, 1863, No. 157, p. 5, gives the items of charges on obtaining a royal licence to change a name. They amount to 447. 138. exclusive of the stamp duty, and the stamp duty is 107. when the change is voluntarily made, and 50%. when conditionally made under the direction of a will or settlement.

In Scotland it is not the practice to ask the sovereign to sanction what the law permits all persons to do. Any person may by his own act change his name (as Lord Clyde did from Mc Liver to Campbell); and if in Scotland an official certificate of the change is desired, such certificate is granted by the Lyon-King-of-Arms Office; and by the recent Act of Parliament, 30 Vict. c. 17 (May 3, 1867), the fee to be paid for a "certificate regarding change of surname " is fixed to be fifteen shillings. C. C.

E. S. S. may take his mother's maiden surname, or any other surname he pleases, either in tution of, or in addition to, his present surname. The change must be a total one; that is, he cannot retain the old name for any particular purpose, or adopt the new with any exception; and it must be made publicly. Some have considered it sufficient public notice to insert an advertisement in The Times or other newspapers, and the cost of this need be but a few shillings. Others think it desirable to add solemnity to the act by executing a deed-poll to be enrolled in Chancery. This was the course adopted by the late learned editor of Hayes and Jerman On Wills, and reader on real property to the Inns of Court, Mr. T. S. Badger, who assumed the additional name of "Eastwood on acquiring an estate so named. This method need not cost more than a few pounds. Others, again, where required by the terms of any will, or where a change of arms as well as of name is desired, or where from any other cause they desire to obtain a higher sanction to the change than their own mere volition, apply for a licence under the royal sign manual, which of course is much more costly. All this ground, however, has been gone over before in several learned articles in the sixth volume of your present series.

JOB J. B. WORKARD.

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The subject is characterised by Mr. Townshend as a disagreeable" one; he is forced to recur to it (such at least is the drift of the second letter); but why was it imperative upon him to revive a topic associated with so much of unpleasant feelsubsti-ing, except for the reason that the answer to his former appeal had been evasive? As regards Burke, we find that this reiterated and more sifting inquiry "gives him pause"; he must need "consult his pillow twice," before he can venture to say "No!" to a plain question on a matter of fact. Is it not probable (to say the least) that the interval, with its "pillow" consultation, was devoted to the consideration of a question of moral casuistry, in relation to the matter as it stood the question, namely, whether he was under any social obligation to declare "the whole truth, and nothing but the truth," in the demand of a self-constituted and unauthorised inquisitor? On the principle enunciated by Johnson (in reference to this particular subject) there was no such obligation. It will be remembered, however, that Johnson takes the distinction, that the disavowal of Burke, addressed to himself, was a voluntary one. If it had been elicited by questioning, he might not have felt himself bound (as we may infer) to give it his implicit credence. Burke, nevertheless, may have reasoned to his own conviction, that, even in that case, he was answering the question of general society-one which individuals of it, a part for the whole, had already thrust upon him, personally and pertinaciously.

It should seem that Mr. Fitzherbert himself was scarcely satisfied. He repelled the accusation, but "in so awkward a manner as to increase, rather than remove, the suspicions of the company he was addressing." Anything like embarrassment, on such an occasion, can only be attributed to misgivings in his own mind, which perplexed him in the performance of the task assigned to him. He spoke as an advocate, from instructions furnished to him by the accused party. He was the familiar friend, the "alter ego 37 of Burke

In Scotland, when the mother retains her maiden name, a son may, at his option, take either father's or mother's name, or both: this is the Roman, or civil law, view of the case. But in the English ecclesiastical law a woman, on marriage, becomes so incorporated with her husband that neither her name nor anything else belongs to her-except her wedding ring, and one shift. How the tables will be turned when the Houses of Ladies and Commons' women make the laws! T. J. BUCKTON.

JUNIUS, BURKE, ETC.
(3rd S. xii. 34, 73.)

Your noble correspondent will, I trust, permit me to remark, that a character of "special pleading," and something very like equivocation, pervades the letter of Burke to which he refers. The first letter to Markham was unsatisfactory to the prelate, and required to be supplemented. The "denial" which it contains is, at most, a protest against the charge of authorship, and little else than a dexterous fence of words. That the long letter would have been equally ineffectual, was acknowledged by the writer of it, when he resolved to suppress so elaborate a vindication of himself.

(whom he had introduced into public life), and when we read of his "awkwardness," we can scarcely refrain from a surmise that he knew more than had been confidentially imparted to him. Mr. Townshend was of opinion that Dr. Markham's "doubts ought to be removed. Mr. Burke made an attempt that way, and kept it to himself! Perhaps he regarded the bishop as a sort of "father confessor," and felt compunctions about offering to his ghostly teacher a masterpiece of writing, when nothing was needed in the matter but plain speaking. It would have been easier (at least) to say, "I know no more who wrote, dictated, inspired, or (in any sense of the word) 'authorised the 'Letters of Junius,' than I know the same things concerning the first 'Book of Chronicles." 999

In the Correspondence of the Earl of Chatham, there is a letter from the Duke of Grafton to Lord C (then at Bath) recommending Mr. Burke for office (most likely for high office) in the strongest manner. This may have been the very situation in the Ministry, his aspiration to which Burke so ingeniously vindicates, or palliates, in the reply to Markham, the bishop (as we learn from that letter) having sneered at the "ambition" of the political adventurer (as manifested on some particular occasion), characterising it as overweening, if not ridiculous, when measured with his pretensions; using, in fact, the argumentum ad hominem in a spirit not very nearly akin to spiritual-mindedness!

The prime minister declined to accede to the proposition, alleging, as a main objection, "the gentleman's principles of trade." It is possible that Burke never became aware that the duke's professions of a zeal to serve him had been acted upon; or he may have attributed the ill success of the project to a want of earnestness on the part of his grace. It will be seen by the letter referred to that the duke had done his utmost.

It is well known that contemporary opinion pointed to Burke, and to Burke alone; and of the contemporaries of Junius, one at least, and he not the least interested in the question-Lord Mansfield (who survived the period twenty-four years) retained, to the last, the conviction that Burke

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was the man." But is it to be doubted that Lord Mansfield was conversant with the case in all its bearings, with the imputations and the denials; and that he had brought to bear on the determination of it all the powers of the most consummate judge of evidence the world ever

saw?

And besides, although, if Burke was not the writer of Junius, he must have bethought himself who was. We have not heard that he ever betokened an interest in the subject, or offered an opinion or a surmise in relation to it.

After all-with respect to the negative allega

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POETIC PAINS.

(3rd S. xii. 22, 72.)

C. A. W., I think, departed somewhat from the courtesy belonging to literary discussions when he termed the transposition which I proposed in the last stanza of Campbell's "Hohenlinden" "wretched jingle." I further cannot agree with him in thinking that it would have been better if the final lines of the stanzas did not rhyme. J.A. G. and the well-known and respected contributor to "N. & Q.," F. C. H., are far more courteous; and I have only to remind them that, by Mr. Redding's account, the poet did not pronounce the word sepulchree. I must further remind J. A. G. that the poet's idea seems to have been that the snow would form one vast "winding-sheet," covering the whole of the dead without distinction; and, as they would only be thus far buried, the word "sepulchre" as applied to the spot where each lay would be quite inappropriate.

I will now observe that Campbell has likewise marred two of his other finest poems by the employment of inappropriate terms at the end of lines. In his beautiful "O'Connor's Child" we

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"When all was hushed at eventide,

I heard the baying of their beagle; Be hushed, my Connocht Moran cried, 'Tis but the screaming of the eagle."

"The baying of their beagle"! He might as well have said "the baying of their poodle." It is a catachresis indeed to use "beagle" for bloodhound, the dog that was meant, and how easily it might have been avoided! If I had been the poet et I would have given in preference"Their bloodhound's baying reached my ear,"

""Tis but the eagle's scream we hear,” ""Tis the eagle's scream; there's nought to fear."

P

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Surely Campbell designedly wrote the unrhyming word sepulchre in the last line of his very fine stanza sepulchre as we usually pronounce it. The very jar in the rhythm seems to my ear to make the poem only more beautiful, breaking as it does the monotonous smoothness of the linesthat smoothness which is to some ears tiresome in Moore's polished sonnets. He must have done it on the principle of the break of line in Virgil, "Arcades ambo."

I remember a poor fellow, an usher in a school, being terribly laughed at for making, in his copy of Campbell, a pencil note-" cemetery would read better here." F. C. H.'s conjecture that the poet meant the word to be pronounced sepulchree is, I think, incorrect. Massacre used, I know, to be pronounced massacree, but sepulchre was formerly called sepulchre. The poor people in Cambridge to this day call the church there St. Se-púl-cur's, the accent being thrown on the middle syllable. C. W. BARKLEY.

SURNAME OF "PARR" (3rd S. xii. 66.)-The origin of this name, like that of Parry, Price, and Dalton, is to be found by separating the initial P and D from the root words Arry, Rice and Alton. So also Bowen, Belis, Powel. Parr as originally written was probably Ap-Ar son of Ar. Ar in Gaelic means ploughing, tillage, agriculture. Ar or air in the same language means battle, slaughter, field of battle. Ar also means a bond, tie, chain, guiding; likewise land, earth (Macleod and Dewar, p. 31.) In the Welsh language Ar means speech, also surface, tilth, or ploughed land. (Pughe, i. 109.) But par (=py-ar) in Welsh means a pair, fellow, match, or couple; and par (=pa-ar) means causing, causative. (Pughe, ii. 396.) If another probable derivation be sought, then it may have its origin from the same root as the German aar, a bird of prey, particularly the eagle. Er in Bretagne still means an eagle, and the initial syllables of Aruspex may have affinity with the same root. (Adelung, Wörterb. p. 5.) T. J. BUCKTON.

Streatham Place, S.

This patronymic is by no means uncommon, and I consider it to be an abbreviation of Parry, derived from ap-Harry, the Welsh form of Harrison. The ancient and ennobled family, Parr of Kendal, formerly Parre, must, I think, be a corruption of the Norman Barri; the letters P and B become counterchangeable in the course of centuries, and the heraldic bearings are sufficiently near to countenance this supposition.

As to the old township of Parr in Prescott (i. e. Priest's-cot) parish, Lancashire, it would arise from some local peculiarity or distinction-such as a park, parish, parsonage, priest's or pardoner's A. H. cell, probably long since swept away.

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CALLIGRAPHY (3rd S. xi. 402.) - The finest Danish specimen which I have seen is Joh. Christoph. Oehlers' Die offene Schreib-Schule (long title), oblong folio, undated. Oehlers here calls himself "Buchhalter, bestellten Schreib- und Rechne-Meister zu St. Nicolai in Flensburg, anjetzo verordneten Ober-Meister zu St. Jacobi in Hamburg. The work is dedicated to the Danish King Frederick IV., and is written throughout. Some of the plates are wonderful masterpieces. Plate 3 is a large portrait of Frederick IV. on horseback-all as delineated by Oehlers in the pen-manner. This rare work is without place or date. When it appeared I do not know, probably at Hamburgh somewhere about 1720, or a little later. GEORGE STEPHENS.

Cheapinghaven, Denmark.

BEAUTY UNFORTUNATE (3rd S. xi. 517; xii. 18.) The Host of the Canterbury Tales thus bewails the fate of Virginia, as related by the Doctor of Physic:

"Allas! to deere boughte sche hir beauté. Wherfore I say, that alle men may se, That giftes of fortune or of nature Ben cause of deth of many a creature. Hir beauté was hir deth, I dar wel sayn Allas! so pitously as sche was slayn! [Of bothe giftes, that I speke of now, Men han ful often more for harm than prow."] (1. 1378-13,715, ed. Wright.) JOHN ADDIS, JUN.

Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex.

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QUARTER-MASTERS, ETC. (3rd S. xi. 501.) Relative rank is even now a vexed question of the present system, and we frequently see gazette announcements of honorary rank being conferred on individuals; and a case occurred a few years since of an officer using, on his visiting card, the style of his relative rank.

Honorary rank is simply the shadow of a substance to meet certain supposed social requirements, while relative rank is an official fiction for the prevention of disputes, but which does not in the least assimilate the functions of individuals.

A curious treatise might be written on names

and titles that have lost their original force or significance.

For example:-" Cæsar" in the first century, and "Cesar" in the fifth. Caliph, Khalifa, &c. Kooli, Cooly. Captain, in all its varied associations. Sergeants, at law and in the army. Major and sergeant-major (apropos, the corporal-major referred to by your correspondent would not be styled "major," except by one of his own or of an inferior class-an officer would not so style him).

Subadhar, the native captain of a Sepoy regiment, although bearing that lordly title, was nevertheless under the orders of the European sergeant-major; and although he could be a member of a court-martial, composed however only of natives, his title meant nothing, and practically and virtually he was simply a regimental sergeant.

In the same way, we have honorary University degrees: and in the army the rank even of "general officer" conferred on men who to all intents and purposes have none of the attributes of a bona fide general; but it is a graceful compliment paid, under certain circumstances, to old officers and means no more than what the world may choose to value such rank at. In certain grades of society "the general" is greatly revered; and there are men who would sacrifice even the comfort of their families to enjoy a distinction which a return ticket to America can equally effectually confer !

There is a great difference, however (heraldically speaking), between the real rank and the honorary or relative. Thus, an honorary captainsay an old paymaster or quarter-master-does not hold the commission of a regimental captain, which gives the latter a legal precedence even of those who hold equal relative rank.

Some men obtain from society-as by some inherent attraction in themselves-titles to which they are not entitled, while others are denuded of those which they really do possess.

Thus, an unobtrusive D.D. will be constantly addressed "Mr.," while the more important looking inferior B.D. is styled "Doctor." the pretentious looking old subaltern will be styled "Major," while his captain is addressed "Mr." Of course these mistakes do not occur in good society. SP.

"STUART OF THE SCOTCH GUARD" (3rd S. xii. 67.)—What did this "Discours" discourse about, if it gave neither the "causa causans of this Scotch "Seigneur's" beheading, nor any particulars about his pedigree?

His being decapitated under Lewis XI. was not proof evident of his being an "unworthy Scotch Guard," as many an innocent man was sent ad patres by this cruel and unscrupulous monarch. P. A. L.

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ROYAL ARMS OF SCOTLAND (3rd S. x. 231, 279, 316, 379, 479.) - There were a few articles in "N. & Q." in regard to the "Royal Arms of Scotland," and a monument in Westminster Abbey, circa 1570, was one of the earliest quoted. Irrespective of coins, I find it on the title-page of Major's History of Scotland, printed at Paris 1521; on the Black Acts of Scotland, printed at Edinburgh, by Davidson, 1541; and again by Lekprevik, 1566. And in addition, I am in possession of a MS. on vellum, formerly belonging to Rev. Dr. Wellesley, Principal of the New Inn Hall, Oxford, with the Rules of the Order of the Garter, where he notes:

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STYLE OF "REVEREND” AND “VERY REVEREND" (3rd S. xii. 26, 78, 98.) G., who dates from Edinburgh, ought to have known better than to venture the assertion that the Principals of the Scottish Universities "are always clergymen of the Established Church," and "have the title of Very Reverend." Is not Sir David Brewster, the present distinguished Principal of Edinburgh University, a layman? Is not Principal Forbes of St. Andrew's a layman? Neither of these Principals have ever assumed, or have ever been addressed as "Very Reverend." No doubt it was formerly provided that the Principals of the different Scottish Colleges should be in orders, but this provision was altered by a recent Act of Parliainent. The truth plainly is, that "Very Reverend" is from mere courtesy applied to Scottish

Principals of Colleges who happen to be in orders to the Moderator of the General Assembly, and to Provincial Synods. The practice of such courtesy titles is comparatively modern. The designation of "Reverend " is not used in the Acts of the General Assembly. Each clerical member of the court is styled thus,-"Mr. A. B., Minister at C." Formerly two persons only in a parish were honoured with the prefix of "Mr.," these being the minister and the schoolmaster. CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D.

2, Heath Terrace, Lewisham.

I feel indebted to MR. VERE IRVING for his satisfactory explanation, which besides suggests the origin of another matter. I mean what is called the "Committee of Bills" in the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Before any business is submitted to the consideration of the full house, it is brought under the examination of that committee, and reported on by it, which Scotch Parliament as to the "Lords of the Artiquite corresponds with the procedure in the cles," whose duties seem to have been analogous

to those of this committee.

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"Most potent, grave, and reverend Seigniors." Father," without the adjunct "Right." Cranmer Bishops were originally styled "Reverend was thus designated in the title of one of his controversial works printed by Daye, 1580; and this style was not confined to prelates. In a letter from Laurence Humphrey to Henry Bullinger, dated Feb. 9, 1566, the latter is addressed, "pater in Christo reverende."

One has often heard dissenting ministers charged with "usurping" the style of "Reverend." There is really no usurpation in the matter. The title is only conventional, and commonly given to all ministers of religion, without reference to their state connection or theological opinions." HENRY PARR.

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