Page images

side, abbord; to be, or lye by the side of; also, to

“ CHEVY CHASE." coast along by, or go by the coast of.”

The ballad bearing this title has been a source Coleridge's proposed emendation

of serious difficulty to students alike of history “ That give accosting welcome ere it comes,” or ballad literature. While professing to give an scarcely affects the meaning of the passage ; for, account of a certain contest at Otterbourne, and as Sir Toby Belch tells us, " • Accost' is front her, borrowing remarkable incidents from the historiboard her, woo her, assail her."

cal battle fought at that place, the causes, dimenAccost, I think, had not its modern (narrowed) sions, and effects assigned to the struggle are so signification in Shakespeare's time; though the very dissimilar that the opinion has been started, Twelfth Night passage might indicate a new- and strongly, pressed by Bishop Percy, that a fashioned use of the word. Twelfth Night has separate battle is referred to, with which the aumany allusions to the affected language of the thor of the ballad mixed up the incidents of time.

Otterbourne. My object is to prove the utter The Latin costa would be equally the root of worthlessness of the ballad historically, to explain coasting and accosting. JOIN ADDIS, Jun. in a novel way the name of the battle, and thence Rustington, Littlehampton.

to show the hunting expedition, which forms the

chief stumbling-block of commentators, to be a “ As YOU LIKE IT,” Act II. Sc. 7.

fiction engendered by a curious instance of lin“ Sans teeth, sans eyes,” &c.

guistic corruption.

The two versions of the ballad, the older and As Shakspeare's originality of idea or expres

the more recent, are of course to be found in sion has given rise to so much discussion, it may Percy's Reliques; they agree throughout in statbe presumptuous to put forward a scrap like that ing the facts as follows:- The combat took place which is now sent to you. Should it be thought of at Otterbourne, and was occasioned by the

Percy's any value, or should it not have been hit upon by

vow to hunt the Cheviot in spite of Douglas. any commentator, of which I am not aware, it The result was indecisive, 1447 out of 1500 Engmay perhaps obtain a place among your various lish bowmen being killed, and 1945 out of 2000 collections respecting him.

Scotch His reading and acquaintance with books has

spearsmen. Douglas was shot dead by an

arrow; Percy slain by a lance thrust. been canvassed by those who are better acquainted with the subject than myself

. But it is agreed Otterbourne was contested on the one side by

The only battle that ever took place at or near that the translation of " The Essayes of Michael Douglas, with 2000 foot and 300 lances; on the de Montaigne, by John Florio (I forget his real other, by Harry Hotspur and Ralph, sons of the name), printed at London by Val. Sims for Ed- Percy, commanding 8000 foot

and 600 spears.

It ward Blount, dwelling in Paule's Churchyard, was occasioned by Northumberland sending his song 1603,” was a production not unknown to him.

to encounter the two Scotch armies which had Indeed this was proved by the discovery some

entered England. The English attacked the eneyears back of a copy of this small folio, containing my's camp between Otterbourne and Newcastle, the autograph of the poet, and now placed among and were eventually routed with the

loss of 1800 the literary treasures of the British Museum.

men, 1000 others being wounded. The invaders Turning over the pages of one in my possession lost only 100 in killed, 200 in prisoners. Douglas the other day, I came upon the following passage

was slain by a spear thrust, while Hotspur was in the second book, 12th chapter, p. 306; where

captured. is a long rambling dissertation, as usual, of “

I have given this brief summary of the fight, nium gatherum” amounting to an hundred pages, which occurred August 19, 1388, after reading the and hooked upon the simple title of “ An Apologie very full narrative of Froissart, derived from two for Reymond Seybond." It is merely the expres- French knights who had served on the English sion that struck me with its similarity to the side in the contest, and from “a knight and two phrase in the celebrated close of the Stages of squires of Scotland, of the party of Earl Douglas.” Man, and it runs thus in exposition of a passage The minuteness of this account, the fact that it from Cicero, De Natura Deorum :

was obtained from combatants on both sides, and * The infinite number of mortall men, concludeth a the confirmation afforded by other historians, are like number of immortall. The infinite things that kill a sufficient guarantee for Froissart's accuracy. and destroy, presuppose as many that preserve and profit.

It will be at once seen from this bare outline As the soules of the Gods, sans tongues, sans eyes, and sans eares, have each one in themselves a feeling of that

that the ballad consists of a pitifully mangled which the other feele," &c.

account of the battle of Otterbourne: and the Has this been observed by any of the annota- minstrel, besides openly mentioning this place as tors upon Shakespeare ?


the scene, has so blended various incidents and names connected with that contest as to destroy all doubt on the subject. Nor was there any


other occasion on which a Douglas was slain. Dowlah and Hirondelle have become Sir Roger The only reason for supposing a separate battle is Dowlas and Iron Devil, and Caton Fidéle has unthe much dwelt on hunting-party. Yet why dergone transmutation into a Cat and Fiddle. It should the least credit be attached to a writer so is also remarkable that Chevy-Chase is invariably grossly ignorant of the circumstances of Otter- written in the ballad with a hyphen, and not bourne, and so dependent as to borrow whole separatim. stanzas from the more ancient and (except where Hence then, in my belief, arose the idea that numbers are concerned) very accurate ballad, the battle of Otterbourne took place during a “ The Battele of Otterbourne.”

hunting expedition in Cheviot. The story itself Again, the composer places the event in the furnishes corroborative testimony. The composer reign of Henry IV. and “ Jamy the Skottishe shows his ignorance by speaking of Otterbourne Kyng,” and makes it immediately antecedent to as in Cheviot, although at least a dozen miles Hombledon; but Richard II. reigned in England, distant. Nay, the very vow of Percy would have the first “ Jamy was not born till ten years been unnecessary, or rather a proof of cowardice, after, and Hombledon was not fought till 1402. for the Cheviots were no less Northumbrian than The writer, therefore, must have lived a very long Scotch, Cheviot itself clearly appertaining to Engperiod subsequent to Otterbourne, or its chro- land rather than Scotland. nicler, whose last stanza proves him to have com No one can admire more than myself the quaint, posed his poem after 1403.

martial, racy style of the ballad in its older form, From this disgraceful distortion of the simplest but I cannot side with Bishop Percy in the face facts we may gather that any event narrated by of the silence of historians, the self-evident ignorthe writer of our ballad is ipso facto disentitled to ance of the author, and the improbability of the our credit. It remains to be seen whether we narrative. Very careful investigation satisfied me cannot even find further reasons for setting aside of the truth of a conjecture which, if correct, that story of the hunting expedition which affords settles the whole question, and completely reits title to the ballad, and forms so prominent a moves an historical difficulty. It has received feature in it. My own conjecture is that this the unqualified approval of those whose judgarose from Otterbourne being styled “The Battle ment on such a point is more safe and valuable of (the) Chevachées.” Chevachées or chevachies than my own; and I submit it to the readers of (otherwise chivachies) were forays, raids over the “N. & Q.,” deprecating any severe censure on an border into an enemy's country, in one of which attempted solution, whether true or false, of a the Scots were engaged at this very time. The question at once interesting and perplexing. word occurs in Chaucer, during whose life Otter

E. B. NICHOLSOX. bourne was fought. I find it in the eighty-fifth

Tonbridge. line of the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, where Wright has a note on it. It still exists in POLITICAL EPIGRAMS OF LAST CENTURY, the French chevauchée and our chivy. What could be more natural than that the

I have never happened to note in any miscella

neous collection of epigrams or political squibs knightly class should style this “The Battle of (the) Chevachées," just as they spoke of the Battle the title runs :

any extracts from a very odd volume, of which of Spurs and that the Saxon populace, ignorant of these long aristocratic French words, should Translated, Imitated, Adapted, and Addrest to the Nobi

“ Epigrams of Martial, with Mottoes from Horace: construe the title into “Battle of (the) Chevy- lity, Clergy, and Gentry. 'With Notes Moral, Historical, Chase”?

Explanatory, and Humorous. By the Rev. Mr. Scott, If we place together the various orthographies M.A., late of Trinity College, Cambridge.

London : of both words, the change becomes astonishingly Printed for J. Wilkie St. Paul's Church-yard, J. Walter,

Charing Cross, and H. Parker, Cornhill, MDCCLXXIII."

The oddity of this remarkable volume lies in

the perfect unreserve with which the author, who

is a clergyman, and who publishes his name, alChase Chyviat

ludes to all the current political and private

scandal of the time. Not often does one meet are the spellings of ballads. The other has four with plainer speaking. The volume, moreover, forms

contains numerous allusions to personages and Chevachies -ées

events of the time which a tolerably extensive Chivachies -ées.

acquaintance with the gossip literature of the It is impossible for any change to be more last century does not always help me in deciphersimple; while there exist numberless instances of ing. Thus, I at once recognise Burke under the similar corruptions-e.g. lantern into lanthorn, nickname of the “ Irish Jesuit Edmund;" but I asparagus into sparrowgrass; while the Surajah am at a loss to guess who “Cream-coloured

easy. Thus:

Tommy" and "Jerry Mungo” were, with several his early productions, led the public to believe they were other equally pointed and picturesque personal

from the pen of Mr. James Scott, late Fellow of Trinity allusions.

College. His work, The Epigrams of Martial, was pub

lished on the first of January, 1773, and on the eighth of Perhaps a few specimens of this reverend epi

the same month the following paragraph made its apgrammatist's quality may not be unacceptable to pearance in the Public Advertiser: the readers of “N. & Q." Here is a hard hit at a

“We can assure our readers that a book lately pubnoted political character of the period :

lished by J. Wilkie in St. Paul's Churchyard, entitled To the Right Hon. Richard Rigby, Esq.; when mellow,

Epigrams of Martial, &c., is not written by the Rev. promising everything ; but when sober, performing nothing.

James Scott, late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge,

and now rector of Simonburn in Northumberland ; nor “ You are full of promises, my friend! When you are drunk all night :

does that gentleman know anything either of the work

or its author.”
And say that everything shall end
To all my wishes quite.

His next production, A Sermon on Bankruptcy, 1773,
But in the morn you nothing do,

is one of Bishop Fleetwood's discourses, with some alterAnd therefore be advised;

ations. (See his Works, p. 728, fol.) His Sermon on Be drunk both night and morning too,

the King's Accession, preached on Sunday, Oct. 25, 1772, Your word will then be prized.”

is dedicated to David Garrick, and as he rightly states

in the Dedication, “ will be thought, no doubt, as much Here is a severe blow levelled at an eminent

out of character as dedicating a comedy to an archastronomer:

bishop.” In 1774 he published two sermons, entitled “ To Mr. Neville Maskelyne.-On an Empty Fellow.

O Tempora! O Mores! or, the best New Year's Gift

for a Prime Minister ; by the Rev. William Scott, late * ONevill! why do you oppose

of Eton," and dedicated it to“ Lord North, Prime Minister A vacuum in nature ?

of England.” On its title-page is the following: “N.B. Since by your head you so disclose You're such an empty creature!”

The pulpit was refused at eight of the most capital

churches in the city. Above a thousand copies were The epigrammatist is particularly severe on ordered before it was sent to press; and two hundred Wilkes, Dr. Dodd, Stephen Fox, and the Whig

more by a gentleman for one of our North-American leaders generally. Dodd he plainly stigmatises as

colonies.” After the year 1778 we lose sight of our

author.-ED. a tuft-hunter, a sycophant, and a specious hypocrite. To Wilkes he applies a translation of the epigram of Sannazarius on Cesar Borgia :

ENGLISH ADHERENTS OF THE HOUSE OF « • Nothing or Cesar,' Borgia would be. True:

STUART. Since he's at once both · Nought and Cesar' too!”

Of Francis Turner, Bishop of Ely, it is said :An epigram on Lord Holland makes allusion to

“There can be no doubt that after Francis Turner's a dark and dubious transaction in his lordship's return to England he carried on a secret correspondence career:

with the Court of St. Germains, and was deep in Sir 66 To Lord H-I-d.

John Fenwick's plot. While that bold Northumbrian “Would I slip out and Aing the Bailiff ?

baronet stood at bay, nearly hunted to the death, the As somebody once, 'tis said, did Ayliffe :

government blood-hounds were keen on the scent of one No, not of Egypt were I Caliph ?"

Grascome, a nonjuring clergyman, who had hitherto

defied all their efforts in tracking his whereabouts. AlMany of the epigrams are not quotable, and but

though the most active of all the pamphleteers who stirred few of them possess any literary merit. One

up the fire of insurrection in those times, Grascome walked supplied to the author by an “unknown hand" invisible through all plots. At last he was ascertained seems to me extremely fine:

to be in the house of a French silkweaver in Spital

fields. The Prince of Orange's messengers surrounded « On the Passage of the Israelites out of Egypt. the house with an armed force, then went in and captured “When Egypt's King God's chosen tribe pursued a gentleman, who gave his name as Harris. He was, In crystal walls th' admiring waters stood.

however, identified by several persons there as the deWhen through the desert wild they took their way, prived Bishop of Ely, Dr. Francis Turner. When he The rocks relented, and poured forth a sea.

was questioned, and asked to give an account of himself, What limits can Almighty Goodness know,

the bishop said very coolly, “that he had no other account When seas can harden, and when rocks can flow? to give but that he came there to dine, for he did not Is there anything known of the author of this

live there, his lodgings were at Lincoln's Inn.' When he book?


found that the government officials meant to detain him,

he wrote to Secretary Vernon (who details this odd adMelbourne,

venture in his letter to the Duke of Shrewsbury (Earl of [With our correspondent we are curious to know a Shrewsbury]), and demanded his freedom, alleging that little about the author of these Epigrams. He is clearly he held a pass to go to France if he chose, but he had the “Rev. William Scott, A.M., late scholar of Eton, and made no attempt to avail himself of it.' Secretary Verof Trinity College, Cambridge," probably the A.B. 1746, non and the other State Minister, Windebanke (to whom and A.M. 1750, of the Cantabrigienses Graduati, and the the bishop likewise appealed), referred him to Sir William author of several pamphlets. At one

time he is styled Trumbull. The oddity of the case was, that the Bishop *Morning Preacher at St. Michael's, Wood Street ”; and of Ely knew as well they did that the Prime Minister, again, “ Assistant Morning Preacher at St. Sepulchre's, Shrewsbury, was himself deep in the plot, and was only Snow Hill.” He appears to have been a caterer for the watching the signs of the times to declare for King booksellers; and by not publishing his Christian name in James II. The result was that Sir William Trumbuli



set the dauntless clerical Jacobite at liberty. He retired Fata MORGANA IN THE JAPYGIAN PENINSULA. to his lodgings in Lincoln's Inn, where he rested perdu, Have travellers in Italy found this natural phevarying the monotony of seclusion by occasional visits to Moor-park, that fair oasis in the Southern Highlands of

nomenon anywhere else than at the Straits of England, cultivated and improved by Sir William Tem- Messina ? In travelling over the Japygian peninple. All the doings therein were completely isolated from sula, which I have in a late number of “N. & Q.” the rest of the island, excepting the near town of Farnham, (3rd S. xi. 516) mentioned in respect to artificial by the deep sands of the wild Surrey heaths. Here Francis | mounds, I heard the natives speak of what they Turner was received with great affection by that myste- called “Mutate," and on questioning them as to rious statesman Sir William Temple. We can trace the Christian prelate's influence for good on the mind of Tem

what they meant, I found that this was only ple's protégé, Jonathan Swift. His noble ode to Truth, another name for what is known as the “Fata written in memory of Sancroft, is endorsed as composed Morgana.” At Nardo and Galateo, and more at the request of Dr. Turner, Bishop of Ely."

particularly at Manduria, they assured me that at So far Miss Strickland, in her Lives of the Seven dawn, when the atmosphere is perfectly calm, or Bishops, and your correspondent would observe when a “scirocco” is just beginning to blow, the that the English adherents of the House of Stuart appearances at times are very remarkable, exhave been underrated in their services in favour of hibiting, if we can believe them, beautiful reprethe Scotch and Irish followers of the same noble sentations of castles, plains with cattle and flocks, house. One may instance General Monk's great men on horseback, and, what must be striking, service in restoring King Charles II. Next in

the edges of the figures are often fringed with the order comes the Duke of Berwick, whose success- prismatic colours. The figures are constantly ful enterprise in setting the crown of Spain on the changing, and hence no doubt the origin of the rightful claimant's head, the Duke of Anjou, the

“ Mutate " which the natives apply to it. I grandson of Louis XIV., made the Bourbon family am not able to confirm this from personal obsercompact possible. Then Lord Chatham's (who, vation, nor have I been able to find any mention under the name of patriot, was no doubt a con

of the phenomenon in any English work. Percealed Jacobite ; his frequent attacks on the em

haps some of your correspondents can refer me to ployment of Hanoverian troops in this country

The only allusion to it that I have seen is show his leaning) measure in attacking Canada, in. Antonii de Ferrariis Galatei De Situ Japygie and taking it from the French, resulted in France Liber (Lycii, 1727). He says : and Spain joining to support American indepen "In his paludibus (agri Veritini) ut in campis Mandence, and wrested the American colonies-now durii et Galesi et Cupertini phasmata quædam videntur, the fine country of United States-out of the hands

quas mutationes aut mutata dicunt vulgus. . Videof the House of Hanover.

bis quandoque urbes et castella et turres, quandoque

pecudes et boves versicolores et aliarum rerum species Washington was the descendant of a Royalist

seu idola, ubi nulla est urbs, nullum pecus, ne dumi quiwho fought for King Charles I.; and Lord Mahon dem. Mihi voluptati interdum fuit videre hæc ludicra, mentions in his History of England that, when hos lusus naturæ. Hæc non diu permanent, sed ut vathe Scotch in the neighbourhood of New York pores, in quibus apparent, de uno in alium locum et de offered to raise the standard of Prince Charles Ed

unâ formâ in aliam permutantur, unde fortasse mutata

nominantur." ward Stuart, a paper among the Stuart Papers states that his answer was “ for them to mind their own

I have observed in another part of Italy some business ;” that is, that the then representative of approach to the “mirage ” which is here described. the Stuart family wished them to side with At early dawn, on my way through the Caudine Washington, which no doubt they did. And, Forks towards Benevento, thick mists rested on lastly, let us not forget Dean Swift, whose the lower valleys; as the sun rose and the mist Drapier Letters to the People of Ireland kept began to be dissipated, the villages seemed to be them from a useless insurrection, and paved the raised by the refracted light into the heavens. It way, with William Pitt's union of England and no doubt requires a peculiar vapoury state of the Ireland, to the measure, afterwards carried by atmosphere to produce the refraction necessary to Daniel O'Connell, of Catholic Emancipation, and cause such appearances.

C. T. RAMAGE. seating the Irish Catholic members in the English House of Commons; thus creating a powerful

NOTES ON FLY-LEAVES. - At the end of the body of Irish Catholic members in support of the MS. No. XLV., in University College, Oxford English Catholics, always great adherents of the which contains a copy of Piers Plowman in its House of Stuart. This measure (the Catholic earliest form—is the following note : Emancipation) would have been of no use if Wil- “ Euery man whoes wise wereth a great horse must liam Pitt, the worthy son of Lord Chatham, keep a frenche hood, quod Josua S— in the parlement had not by the union of Ireland with England

house. abolished the Irish Parliament, because Ireland kepe a great horse; all one to hym.

“ Euery man whoes wife wereth a frenche hode must was commanded by the English fleet.

the kinge was borne thre yeer after I cam to yo Y. C.


I cam to ye court iij yeer after the king was borne. AN OLD DON-JUANIC RHYME. - In his transla" Drinke er you goe horse-mylle,

tion of Don Quixote, Shelton (or his reviser, goe er you drinke ) mylle-horse. * If Hunne had nat sued the premunire, he shuld nat

Captain Stevens, edit. 1700), commences his verhaue ben accused of heresie.

sion of Abtissidora's farewell to her impracticable " If Hunne had nat ben accused of heresie, he shuld knight-errant thus nat haue sued the premunire.

“Now, in the name of the devil, * The cat kylled the mouse. mus necabatur a cato.

Why, Sir Knight, so uncivil, " The mouse kylled the cat. catus necuit murem,

To be gone, and take never a leave of us? * catus muri mortem egit.

Pray do not bestir * mus interemit catum,"

So, with whip and with spur, All this obviously refers to some member of The ribs and the flanks of your furious Bucephalus.” Parliament who was unfortunate enough to put

E. L. S. the cart before the horse, evidently to the great LINES FROM A CANADIAN PAPER.-I enclose an amusement of some hearer who "made a note” imperfect copy of a few lines from a Canadian of it.


newspaper, of date 1833. They were probably FALSE QUANTITY IN Byron's “Don JUAN.” taken from L'Ami du Peuple, printed in Montreal. Vot only in Clarke's, but Murray's edition, I find As the lines express attachment to our governthe following line:

ment as well as patriotic feeling, I would send “ And so Zoe spent her's, as most women do." copies of “N. & Q.” to an old friend in Canada I have corrected my copies as follows, till the should you think them worthy of a place. I think true or a better reading is announced :

that the perusal of the lines will be gratifying to " And so too Zoe spent her's as most women do."

readers of the paper, if it be still in circulation (ii. 136.) after so long an interval: T. J. BUCKTON.

* * * * Canada, terre chérie,

Par des braves tu fus peuplé; SILVER Font.—The font at Canterbury was of

Ils cherchoient, loin de leur patrie, silver, and was sometimes sent for to West

Une terre de liberté. minster on the occasion of a royal christening: “Nos pères, sortis de la France, Simpson refers to Harl. MS. 6079, which I had

Etoient l'élite des guerriers, not time to consult.

W. H. S.

Et leurs enfans en leur vaillance

N'ont jamais fétris les lauriers. WASHINGTON'S MASONIC APRON.–At a recent masonic celebration in Winchester, Virginia, the

“ Belles, sont belles nos campagnes!

In Canada qu'on vit content ! masonic apron worn by the orator, W. H. Travers,

Sublimes montagnes, Esq., formerly belonged to General Washington,

Bords du superbe St.-Laurent. having been presented to him by General La

“Habitant de cette contrée fayette. This apron has the flags of France and

Que nature veut embellir, the United States combined, beautifully wrought

Tu peus marcher tête-levée, upon it in silver and gold, forming by their com

Ton pays doit t'enorgueillir. bination the principal masonic emblems. It was

“Respecte la main protectrice sent to Mount Nebo Lodge, of Winchester, Vir

D'Albion, ton digne soutien ;

Mais fais échoir malice ginia, by a member of the Washington family, in

D'ennemi nourri dans ton sein. 1811, and has been ever since carefully preserved by the brethren.

W. W.

“Ne fléchis jamais sous l'orage,

Tu n'as pour maîtres que les loix; STUFFING THE EARS WITH COTTON.-It is an

Tu n'es point fait pour l'esclavage, odd coincidence that this phrase, which was used

Albion veille sur tes droits. in the condemned cells of Newgate during the

« Si d’Albion la main chérie chaplaincy of the excellent and book-loving Rev.

Cesse un jour de (te) protéger, H. S. Cotton, to express the exhortations of the

Soutiens toi seule, ô ma patrie, minister of religion to the condemned criminal,

Méprise un secours étranger.” was used with an exactly similar meaning by

CONSTANT READER. Henry IV. of France. When it suited the HOLLAND: FINE LINEN.- We are assured by humour or the policy of that monarch to turn the learned Samuel Johnson that HOLLAND means Catholic for a time, his confessor was the Abbé Fine linen made in Holland; and so wrote Noah Coton; and Henry was accustomed to say of the Webster for the information of transatlantic confessor's pious counsels, that they were “stuffing students. Such also was the conclusion of the his ears with Coton.” The immediate authority writer till he chanced to hit on the paragraph for this anecdote is Steinmetz’s History of the which follows: Jesuits, but it is the common property of all the “ La ville de GLADBACH est petite, il y a des Calvinistes writers

upon the times of Henry IV. D. BLAIR. et des Juifs, mais le nombre des Catholiques, qui ont Melbourne.

pour curé un religieux, est plus grand. C'est là qu'on

« PreviousContinue »