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improvement, because they are always liable,
with a little wear, to get out of order. If they PEW'S OR SEATS.
are not glazed, they wear out; and if they are, (3rd S. xi. 46, 107, 198, 338, 421,500.)
become slippery and dangerous, and so cold in
winter that a person obliged to stand long on One word more, Mr. Editor, by your permission, them, as the minister is in reading the Comupon this subject; and that not so much upon munion Service, soon becomes, even if dressed in the antiquity of pews or seats—for their inquiries thick shoes, very unpleasantly sensible of their upon which we are much indebted to your cor
effects in the winter. As to the whole area of respondents- but rather upon the point to which churches having been at any time paved with those inquiries lead, one much canvassed at the them, and that for this reason the same thing is present moment—the propriety of fixing seats or to be done now, it cannot be supposed that the pens in our churches at all.
builders in ruder times either had, or could have I am led to believe (and use this form of expres- made, a sufficient number for the purpose. It is sion to denote simply my own personal belief, and true they are often found in many different parts not as laying down the law for others) that our of our ecclesiastical edifices, but this arises from first churches were very plain, long, and narrow; the fact that they were used only in the most little else, indeed, than a shelter from the weather, sacred parts of these, generally before altars (of not even paved, but strewed with rushes, as one which there were often many in a church), and of your correspondents has described them, and sometimes let into the floor as a mark where cerwith very narrow and many lancet windows-nar tain parties were to take their stand in the Roman row, to keep out the weather, as they were not Catholic processions round the congregation. glazed ; and splayed widely on the inside, or in And the first of these uses seems a direct allusion older cases, as in some at Ripon, towards the out to a passage in the Book of Exodus, xxiv. 8, 9, side. And in this splaying the earliest indication 10: of taste or ornament is to be discovered; for “8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the when made on the inside, not unfrequently the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which light is directed to a certain point, of which a
the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words. remarkable instance may be seen in the chancel Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel :
“ 9 Then went up Moses and Aaron, Nadab and of kilpeck church, Herefordshire (once the old
" 10 And they saw the God of Israel: and there was chapel of a castle), where the light from all the under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, windows in the semi-circular apse is made to fall and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness.” as nearly as possible on the spot where the altar Now, whoever has happened to turn his obstood, and of course guided the eye to that place. servation to the great attention commonly paid to Would that modern architects would attend to what is termed by artists keeping in our ancient apparent trifles of this kind !
churches, where the altar was made the great li we suppose the floors of churches to have point, and everything else kept subordinate to it, been originally of mere earth, and strewed with will easily judge that, even without any reference rushes, of course we cannot suppose them to have to the passage already quoted, whatever was most had seats; and the services being short, these beautiful and attractive would be placed there, might have been dispensed with. But they must and contined to that spot. I am not ignorant that bave gradually come into use, both to relieve the encaustic tiles, especially those commemorative sick and infirm, and to enable the congregation to of benefactors, were very generally employed in kneel. And I believe that a difficulty in cutting chapter-houses, and also perhaps in the monks' a regular pavement gave the first origin to en scriptoria or libraries; but this was the work of a caustic tiles, the earliest builders finding it easier later age; and my purpose is to show that there to make and burn a clay floor than raise one of was a limit to their use in places of public worsmooth stone from the quarry; proofs of which, ship, which it would both be more correct and or what at least appear to me such, are often desirable still to observe. found in the churches of remote and retired vil Upon the question of the precise time when seats lages, many of which have no regular pavement or pews were first introduced into our churches I even at the present day, because the masons of will not enter, leaving it to be settled by those ruder times found difficulty in properly working learned correspondents who have already favoured a material which would be hard enough for the you with communications upon the subject; but purpose.
And I must here, en passant, make a that which does press upon us, in the present remark on the absurdity of the modern custom of church-restoring (query, church-altering?) age, is paving the whole area of a church with encaustic how to arrange the interior of our churches so as tiles, as if it were either a restoration or improve- to attract and accommodate as many as possible ment. That it is not a restoration, I will en within them? And to accomplish so desirable a deavour to show presently; but it is not an purpose, those of the modern school tell us that
pews are to be swept away, monuments taken perty, had it not been professed that the church down, Minton to reign supreme on the floor, and was open and free, which it clearly was not. But some other equally eminent artificer in clay to it may be asked, what arrangement do you proastonish the external world by a fantastic and pose ? You admit that seats are necessary, yet pastry-like looking coping on the roof, and then object to their being perfectly free or approthe minister and congregation will be perfectly priated. Would you go back to pews? Not happy, especially if the services have a reforma- except under strict modifications. tion corresponding to that of the building.
I would propose, in the first place, that all These particulars are not given in caricature, seats in churches should be only so high that, but they so often appear in practice that they when the congregation stand up, they only, and seem to form the staple of church restoration. not their seats, should be seen; that the making Certainly it is extracrdinary that, considering the of pews should be permitted, provided they harsums paid for their erection, and the legal pro- monize in size, height, and other respects with perty which Blackstone tells us families have in other arrangements, and that, if the wind blows them,* parties should submit as they do to have unpleasantly, they should be allowed doors; but the monuments of their ancestors removed and that in all cases, there should be a requisite perhaps destroyed; but it is to be hoped that a number of really free benches for the poor, and late Act t, which gives a remedy independent of that for this purpose, especially in agricultural the Ecclesiastical Courts, by enacting, inter alia, parishes, the pews (if any) should be placed that anyone unlawfully and maliciously destroying against the walls, and the free seats in the middle or damaging any monument, &c., shall be guilty of the church. of a misdemeanour, and liable, on conviction, to There is no point on which people, generally imprisonment for any term not exceeding six speaking, are more sensitive than on the right to months, with or without hard labour, besides a pew; and therefore, in conversation some years being answerable for the damage, may correct since with a venerable archdeacon of our church, this. But with respect to seats or pews in now no more, and who had been very active in churches, our only consideration now appears to refitting the interior of the churches in his disme to be, what is best to be done in the matter, trict, I was astonished to hear him declare that without following blindly either old practices or the distribution and appropriation of the pews, new lights.
so put in order, gave him little or no trouble. I will therefore take it for granted that, unless “My custom,” he explained, "is, sometime before it is wished to have the whole area of a church my visitation, to send notice to the church wardens open, and to hire a chair for one's devotion, as in of each parish, that they should consider and France, it is necessary in England, where the talk over the arrangements of the pews, seating people pray with and follow the minister in what the parishioners according to their rank in society, he is saying, that there should be seats or benches but never removing any one without a sufficient to enable them to do so. And are these to be ap- reason, and when this was done, to enter the propriated or not? If they are simply free to any whole in a roll. When my visitation takes one, there is no opportunity of having a hassock place,” he continued, “ I call for this; and after to kneel on, or having a book to pray from, but examining it, ask publicly if any one is dissatisfied these must be brought and taken away at every with, or has any reason to complain of, any part service. Thus, in truth, it is found that the seats of the proposed arrangement; if such complaint called open are generally appropriated, from the is made, I hear and determine it; which done, or necessity of the case; and, to mention a circum- | in case there is no appeal, I sign the roll to be stance which occurred to myself, upon going some deposited in the parish chest, and that arrangetime since into a church in Wiltshire, considered ment of seats continues in force for three years, to be par excellence a free church, and attempting until my next visitation, but only in regard to to take my seat, before I could say a word of such parties as continue to reside in the parish, prayer, the verger, approaching me, said, “Sir, and to attend the church services." you cannot sit here." "Why not?” I replied ; I have before observed that the first origin of " is not this a free church?” “Don't you see the pews is a question for antiquaries, and of little card ?” he rejoined ; “ you can sit here," pointing practical utility. The point with us is, to know to seats evidently meant for servants. I should how congregations may be enabled, either by an old not have objected to being so displaced, whatever or new arrangement, to say
devoutly I might have thought of the seat so rudely and in comfort; and the plan suggested by my appointed me, because there was a handsome friend the archdeacon appears to me, from its cushion on the bench of which I had originally simplicity and compliance with the law, fully and taken possession, which clearly was private pro- satisfactorily to accomplish this, and to be liable * BI. Comm. ii. 428.
only to one objection, that it certainly is not † 24 & 25 Vict. ch. 97, § 39. destructive.
end. The second of these is clearly the one we
want, and he gives the following example: (3rd S. xii. 165.)
" Que dol si del cap tro als pes.” I think your correspondent D. P. S. does very
Guillaume Adhémar (died A.D. 1190). wisely in thus asking for examples of the occur- This he translates by “Qu'il se plaint de la tête rence of this phrase before proceeding to give his jusqu'aux pieds.” theory of the etymology; for it is not uncommon When your correspondent says he doubts this for etymologists to construct a theory first, and explanation, I suspect he is being misled by a look about for facts afterwards, and it is this prac- French proverb giren by Cotgrave, viz. “ n'avoir tice which has often brought etymology into con que la cape et l'épée,” which means,
"to have tempt. In the present instance, I think the re- nothing left but your mantle and your sword, to ceived explanation may stand.
be brought to dependence on your own exertions." First, by way of examples. The phrase occurs, | The resemblance between the two phrases cap-aaccording to the dictionaries, both in Prescott and pie (head to foot), and cape et l'épée (mantle and Swift. In A.D. 1755 we meet with
sword), is certainly striking, but they seem to be “ Armed cap-a-pee, forth marched the fairy king." quite distinct nevertheless, and I do not think
Cooper, Tomb of Shakspear. they can be proved to be otherwise. Tracing back, we come to
WALTER W. SKEAT. “: Arm’d cap-a-pie, with reverence low they bent."
22, Regent Street, Cambridge. Dryden, Palamon and Arcite, 1. 1765. There is also another curious instance. In a Shakspeare no doubt wrote cap-à-pie, for he has poem called “Psyche, or Love's Mystery,” by repeated the same expression on the same subject Joseph Beaumont, published in 1651, we have ---- twice a few lines below : "from top to toe,” “from " For knowing well what strength they have within,
head to foot.” The corresponding
modern French By stiff tenacious faith they hold it fast ;
is the reverse, de pied en cap. But Montaigne How can those champions ever fail to win,
(ii. 9) wrote de cap à pied. The armour which Amidst whose armour heav'n itself is plac'd." Shakspeare had in his mind was of the time of Psyche, canto xii, st. 136.
Richard II., and probably that made at Milan At that time, Joseph Beaumont was an ejected expressly for Henry Duke of Hereford,* to wear Fellow of St. Peter's College, but he lived to be in the famous duel at Coventry; for the most chamaster of the college nevertheless, and half-a- racteristic novelty is the visor, ventaille or bavière century later his poem attained to a second edition, as it is indifferently called), of the bascinet, viz. in 1702. In its second form, the poem was which, from having been simply convex, had much expanded, so that the above stanza, 136, assumed the shape of a truncated bird's beak. became stanza 154, and at the same time a varia- To this Shakspeare refers when he says, “he tion was made, so that it ran thus :
wore his bavière (beaver) up.” In a MS. copy of ** How can those champions ever fail to win,
the “Roman de la Rose," two women are repreWho, cap-a-pe, for arms, with heaven are drest.” sented fighting-one with sword, the other with I have little doubt but that many more examples spear – in ordinary dress, except that each has a might be found ; and now for the etymology. helmet or bascinet, with long projecting bavière
The received one is, that cap-a-pied means from down. (See “ British Costume," L. E. K., 159.) head to foot, and surely it is simply equivalent to
T. J. BUCKTON. the usual French phrase, “ armé de pied en cap,"
Streatham Place, S. for which Raynouard gives the quotation: “ De pied en cap s'armera tout en fer.”
I venture to give an extract from the play of Laboderie, Hymn Eccl. p. 282.
Albumazar with reference to cap-à-pie, and, The only objection to this seems to be that there although the word there is not so compounded, it is a reversal of the
order of the words. But if, affords an example of early English literature leaving the Langue d'Oil, we consult the Langue (quarto edition of 1615, Act II. Sc. 1): – d0c, we shall then find the words in their right
“ Trinculo. Hee that saith I am not in love, hee lies order, and at the same time establish, as I think, De cop a pe; For I am idle, choicely neate in my cloaths, the right explanation beyond a doubt, besides valiant, & extreme witty : My meditations are loaded
with metaphors, & my songs sonnets : Not a cur shakes showing that the phrase existed in the twelfth his taile but I sigh out a passion: thus do I to my century. In his Provençal Lexicon, Raynouard mistresse,” &c. &c. gives — “CAP, KAP, 8. m. Lat. caput, tête, chef”;
Whatever opinions may be formed with regard and he goes on to explain the phrases de cap en to this inimitable play, it is quite certain that the cap (from one end to the other); del cap tro als pes (from the head to the foot); del premier cap * Afterwards King Henry IV. See Shakspeare's tro en la fi (from the first beginning even to the Richard II.
plot and details are unequalled, and that it was Christ., ii. 203.) It will be sufficient to add, that written in 1603. (Mr. Tomkis was paid in 1615 the see of Daulia, or Diaulia, was in the diocese for making a transcript of it.) The mystery at- of Illyricum Orientalis and province of Hellas, tending this play will certainly be cleared up; being a suffragan bishopric of the metropolis of and I am quite sanguine that my views, so often Athens. expressed, as to “Shakspeare being the author of Perhaps a few additional particulars regarding it, and the maker of the manuscript notes in my Bishop Hay may here be introduced with refercopy,” will be found to be correct.
ence to “N. & Q.” (3rd S. xi. 312) and MR. HENRY INGALL.
He was of Protestant parentage, and was eduThis compound word occurs twice in Shakspeare cated as a physician; but, having become a -in The Winter's Tale as well as in Hamlet. Roman Catholic in 1748, he entered the Scottish Quoth Autolycus (Act IV. Sc. 4, 1. 717, Cam College at Rome Sept. 10, 1751, and was orbridge ed.), “ I am Courtier Cap-a-pe.” (Thus
dained priest there April 2, 1758. Having returned spelt and italicised in folio, 1623.)
to Scotland in the autumn of 1759, he was sent The Hamlet line stands in the first folio as missionary to Preshome, Banffshire, in Novemthus
ber of that year.
Soon after Bishop Smith's “ Arm’d at all points exactly, Cap a Pe;”.
death in 1766, Mr. Hay was appointed to the while the quartos of 1603 and 1604 both read Edinburgh mission; and, on Bishop Grant's posCapapea.” “See, however, Cambridge Shakespeare tulation, he was nominated coadjutor for the for other variations of spelling,
Lowland district of Scotland ; his consecration JOHN ADDIS, JUN.
taking place on Trinity Sunday, May 21, 1769
(the year “1729 ” is a misprint in the Catholic Cap-a-pie is used by Lord Berners in his trans- Directory for this year), in the chapel of the lation of Froissart, chap. ccxxxvi. fol. 137, col. 2: it is believed, Bishop James Grant, on whose death
seminary at Scalan, the officiating prelate being, “ Also we have xx thousand of other moūted on
in 1778 he succeeded to the sole cure of the genettes cap apee.”
HENRY H. GIBBS.
vicariate. On Aug. 24, 1805, by virtue of powers given him by the Holy See, Bishop Hay transferred
his episcopal authority and vicarial faculties to his BISHOP HAY.
coadjutor, Bishop Alexander Cameron, and re(310 S. xi. 427.)
tired to the seminary at Aquhorties, where he
died Oct. 15, 1811, in the eighty-third year of his In the English Catholic Directory for 1867, age, fifty-fourth of his priesthood, and forty-third the episcopal title of Bishop Hay, V.A.L.D. of of his episcopate. Scotland is “Daulia," and correctly so. Episcopus He was the author of numerous works, chiefly Dauliensis—the name of this church, in partibus controversial and devotional, most of which have infidelium-should not be Daulis, with all defer- been republished at various periods up to the preence to F. C. H. I state this on the authority of sent time; and they are still greatly valued by Le Quien's Oriens Christianus (tom. ii. p. 235), members of the Roman Catholic church, of which which ought to be conclusive on the subject. he was so distinguished an ornament. Under the head of “ XLII. Ecclesia Diaulia” is
A. S. A. given —
India, July, 1867. “Diaulia, Alavnía, vel Alaúnela; civitas episcopalis, est secunda sub Athenarum metropolita in notitiis Leonis Imp., et aliis deinceps, B'.8 Alavalas. Ipsa nimirum est
DEBENTURES (3rd S. x. 501; xi. 47.) – This quæ Ptolemæo Aavals, Daulis, Straboni Aaúdelov, Dan- word is older than the “Rump Act" of 1649. lium, urbs quædam exigua Phocidis in monte assurgens, Among the minor poems of Ben Jonson is a droll ubi vicus hodie est, quindecim millibus pass. Delphis copy of verses, beginning – distans ad septentrionem. Plinius, lib. is. cap. 3, Dry
Father John Burges, mæum regionem Daulidem appellatam dicit. In episcopa
Necessity urges tum unum Diaulia conjuncta est cum Talantio, de quo
My humble cry supra."
To Sir Robert Pye, From this it is sufficiently evident tbat it is
That he will venture Diaulia or Daulia, and not “ Daulis ; ” and in the
To send my debenture ancient lists are found the names of the following (or sign), or words to that effect, for I am quoting Greek bishops of the united sees of Diaulia and without book, and many years have passed since Talantium or Oreum”-1. “ Sophronius, episco- I read the verses. Their gist is, that Ben wants pus Diaulie et Talantii, Alavalas kal Talavrlov his pension, which has fallen into arrear, and to Ewopónos;" and 2. “Chrysanthus Diaulie, adeo- this intent' importunes “ Father John Burges," que Talantii ; Chrysantho de Diaulia.” (Oriens probably an underling in the Exchequer, to move
Sir Robert Pye, a still more important official in upon all occasions he spoke his sentiments freely, my Lord Treasurer's department. The “ De- and won all hearts by his plain, manly, straightbenture” itself, I conjecture, was a species of forward dealing both with officers and men under I. O. U. issued by the Crown when-as frequently his command. The motto, therefore, chosen for happened—it could not pay ready money to its him by his sister, when the admiral was raised servants : the which I. O. U.'s the recipients got to the peerage, was deemed appropriate, and, after cashed or discounted, as they might, by goldsmiths the general fashion of mottoes, had a double or money-scriveners, who, in their turn, took their meaning. The sailors, however, of later days, chance of the Court being in funds to come down through a mistaken conception of the sound, and in force on the Exchequer. Similar I. 0. U.'s, ignorant of the term, call out, “Very well, Dice!" under the more pretentious title of “ Certificates when, if spoken correctly, they ought to say, Very of Indebtedness, were issued by the United well Thus”; just as we familiarly say, “Do soStates Government to their contractors and others and-so Thus."
J. S. during the recent Civil War. Royal Debentures,
Stratford, Essex. flung to various parasites, were common at the Court of Spain during the sixteenth and seven
DUKE OF MONCADA, MARQUIS D’AYTONE (3rd teenth centuries.
S. xii. 66.) - Aytone seems to be the same as GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA.
Aytona or Aitona, the name of a small place near “OIL OF MERCY" (3rd S. xii. 73.)—This legend
Lerida in Catalonia. is much older than the “Cursor Mundi.” It is
Aytona is not an Anglo-Saxon name (cf. taken from the apocryphal "Gospel of Nicode- Ayjones in New Castile, Ay, Saint-Ay, Aydius, mus,” part 11., otherwise called “The Descent of Aydie, Aynac, Ayrens, Aytré, &c., in France; Christ to the Underworld;”, where, at the express capital of North Etruria ; Dertona, nowTortona,
and Cortona (Kóptwva) or Crotona, the ancient desire of Adam, his son Seth relates to the pro- in Liguria, Cortona in the land of the Jaccetani, phets and patriarchs assembled in Hades his expedition to the gate of Paradise in quest of the &c.; also Aytane, the name of a mountain in oil. A curious illustration of the popularity of
Valentia). this legend occurs in the famous History of Rey, cerning the Duke of Moncada, Marquis D’Aytone,
I am not acquainted with any particulars connard the Fox. One of the jewels which Reynard but I Know of a William Raymond de Moncada, pretended to have
sent as a present to the king who distinguished himself in 1140 at the capture was “a rynge of fyn golde, and within the runga of Alcaraz, a fortified
town near Lerida. next the fyngre were wreton lettres enameled
G. A. S. with sable and asure, and ther were thre hebrews names therin.” Reynard could not read Hebrew, “ CUT ONE'S STICK" (3rd S. xi. 397.) — An so he applied to “ Maister Abrion of Trier," a American savant having suggested that the exjew, who understandeth wel al maner of lan- pression was derived from Prospero's breaking his guages," and learned from him that “they were wand (see The Tempest), the editor of Yankee tho thre names that Seth brought out of Paradys Notions said that such derivation must be erroneous, whan he brought to his fadre Adam the Oyle of as, in America, those who "cut their sticks” were Mercy.” (Caxton's Reynard, p. 112. London, anything but Prosperous !
S. J. 1844. Here we have a different version of the
story, for Coat is provincially used for Court in the North of
COAT CARDS OR COURT CARDS (3rd S. xii. 44.) in the Gospel abovementioned it is distinctly England. Th stated by Seth himself that the angel sent him
in Craven, a house which forback without the oil. (Cowper's Apocryphal Gos merly, belonged to the Hebers is called “Stainton pels, &c. Lond. 1867, p. 302.); and Sir John Coat,” but “Stainton Court" is the real name. I
could give other examples.
S. J. Maundeville, who relates it as he found it current in his day among "the Cristene men that dwellen “SUPPRESSED POEM OF LORD BYRON” (3rd S. beyond the sea in Grece,” with considerable addi- xi. 477, 528.)–FILIUS ECCLESIÆ must excuse me tions as quoted by Mr. Cowper in his introduc- but I cannot but tell him that his reply to my tion, p. xxxvii., says, that "the aungelle wolde query is not very logical.
“ Don Juan” was not late him come in, but seyed to him that he never a "suppressed poem.” No publisher in 1867 myghte not have of the Oyle of Mercy.” I can would call it so. “ Don Leon was advertised in find no mention of the three names anywhere but several papers. A friend writes me that he bein the Reynard.
F. N. lieves, "owing to some interference, the poem of “Taus!" EARL ST. VINCENT (3rd S. xii. 106.) Don Leon' has been burked.” The sudden withThe motto Thus is a naval term, an order given to drawal of the advertisements seems to warrant
S. JACKSON. the steersman when he must not deviate from such a belief. the point he is steering. Now Lord St. Vincent PERJURY (3rd S. xi. 497.) — The per in this was celebrated for his straightforward conduct; word is, as A. B. rightly surmises, a negative