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MAY-FIRES, ISLE OF MAN.

“ The sun was anciently worshipped by the Celts under

the name of Bel, Beal, Baal, Boal, or Beul, and by the The custom of making, on the night of May 11

Greeks under the name of Apollo, which differs very (May eve, 0. S.), large fires similar to the Irish little in the sound. He [ A pollo] was called Grian, from fires referred to by Mr. J. HARRIS Gibson in grianey or grianagh, to bask, heat, or scorch ; which word “N. & Q." (3rd S. xii. 42), still obtains in the Isle was Latinised into Grynæus and Grannus, which became of Man. On a fine evening these fires have a

a classical epithet of Apollo.” very beautiful appearance, as they blaze on the The alleged derivation of Grynæus from the mountains and other elevations. While the fires Manx word grian, the sun, few antiquaries will, are burning, horns are blown in all directions. It I think, be prepared to adopt. It is, I think, quite is customary, too, on the same evening to place as probable that Apollo, as schoolboys are taught “May-flowers," as they are termed by the pea- to believe, derived the epithet from the town of santry, at the entrances of the cottages, and of Gryneum, where he is said to have had a temple. the out-offices in which the domestic animals of It is, moreover, doubtful that Apollo and the sun the farm are kept. The flower used for the pur were identical. Dr. Lempriere says: pose is the marsh marigold (Caltha palustris).

“ Apollo has been taken for the sun, but it may be Crosses made of sprays of the mountain ash-or proved by different passages in the ancient writers that keirn, as it is called in the Manx dialect-are Apollo, the Sun, Pbabus, and IIyperion were all difworn on the same night.

ferent characters and deities, though confounded together. Though the pretext for these customs is pro- sented with a crown of rays on his head, the idea was

When once Apollo was addressed as the Sun, and repretection against witchcraft, there seems to be little adopted by every writer, and thence arose the mistakes." faith now entertained as to their efficacy. The peasantry say that the fires are supposed to burn Dr. Kelly gives the word Baalan-feale-oin, which the wizards and witches; while the keirn cross, he translates—“The chaplet of the plant (5) worn

on the eve of St. John the Baptist.” He says posed to possess a charm against the supernatural that the etymology of the word is, An, a chaplet, powers of enchanters and mountain hags.

Baal, of Baal, feailly, on the feast, Eoin, of John. Sir John Lubbock, in his learned and interest- The word is, however, spelled by the editor Boling Prehistoric Times, when alluding to Professor lan-y-feail-oin. Mr. Kelly does not seem to have Nilsson's opinion that the Phoenicians had settle- known the name of this plant, which is the mugments in Scandinavia, says :

wort (Artemisia vulgaris). “ The festival of Baal or Balder was, he [Professor

The words Laa Boaldım (Cregeen), May-day, Nilsson] tells us, celebrated on Midsummer's night in Dr. Kelly writes Baaltinn (Laa); and attaches Scania, and far up into Norway, almost to the Loffoden the meaning—"May-day, or the day of Baal's Islands, until within the last fifty years. A wood fire fire or of the sun; from tinn, celestial fire, and was made upon a hill or mountain, and the people of the Baal, the god Baal, or the sun.” Boayldin (Creneighbourhood gathered together in order, like Baal's prophets of old, to dance round it, shouting and singing. geen), a name given to two valleys in the island, This Midsummer's-night-fire has even retained in some is also spelled by Dr. Kelly in the same manner, parts the ancient names of Balders bal, or Balders fire."— | and supposed by him to have the same etymology P. 47.

as the other word applied to May. He also Sir John further:

affirms that the word Tynwald has the same “Baal has given his name to many Scandinavian etymology, a word which is clearly not a Manx localities : as, for instance, the Baltic, the Great and word at all, but is derived from the two Danish Little Belt, Beltberga, Baleshaugen, Balestranden,” &c.- words ting, a court, and bold, a mound of earthP. 48.

the Court on the Mound, where the Manx statutes The Rev. John Kelly, LL.D., who died in 1809, are promulgated. in his Manx and English Dictionary (which had Of Laa Boaldyn, May-day, Cregeen says its not been published, until recently printed by the etymology is not well known; but observes that Manx Society, and edited by the Rev. William it is said by some to have been derived “from Gill) has ingeniously endeavoured to show that boal, a wall, and teine (fire), Irish, in reference to numerous Manx words are derived from the name the practice of going round the fences with fire of the Phænician deity, and indicate the worship on the eve of this day.” As to the word Boaylof the sun as Baal. Mr. Archibald Cregeen, how- dyn, Cregeen states that the valleys are no doubt ever, in his Dictionary of the Manx Language, so called from boayl dowin, a low place. As boayl published in 1835 (a work of great research and means place, why should not boayl tinn mean the ability), does not, I believe, even mention the place of fire, and not Baal's fire ? name of the god.

Dr. Nuttall, in his Archeological and Classical Dr. Kelly gives Baal as a Manx word, signify- Dictionary, quoting, I think, from Dr. Jamieson, ing “Baal, Apollo, the sun, Beel, Bel or Bol, king says that — a Among the ancient Scandinavians of the Assyrians," &c. In reference to the Manx and Caledonians the words bael, baal, bail, bayle, word Grian, the sun, he remarks:

&c., denoted a funeral pile, or the blaze there

says

from." The word baal, in the Danish language, “ RATTENING.” – As this word has become signifies “ a pile of wood”; but the Eastern word notorious in the inquiry into the Sheffield outBaal, I believe, denotes “lord.” The word beeal, rages (and has recently been introduced into the in the Manx dialect

, means “ entrance": thus, beeal London book trade), and as its origin is uncertain, y phurt denotes an entrance into a harbour. Is it may be well to inquire about its early use and it not possible that some at least of the prefixes, real meaning while there are some alive who forming parts of Scandinavian words, and men may be able to say whence it came and what the tioned by Sir John Lubbock as being derived

word really means. In the recent inquiry at from the Phoenician Baal, may have had their Sheffield, the word seemed generally to mean the origin in equivalents of bual, an entrance, boal, a concealment or destruction of the “bands” (the wall

, or boayl, a place, in the Celtic or some other straps by which grindstones, &c. are turned), in ancient European languages?

order to compel some obstinate workman to conThat the sun was worshipped by the early in- form to the “Union" rules. My own recollechabitants of Man, I am much disposed to believe. tion of the meaning of the word is very different, The form of some of the ancient tumuli of the and on referring to a work where I first saw thé island leads to this belief: two seem to have been word many years ago, I find the following: constructed in an annular form, with radiations.

“ The murders which these men sometimes commit are But if the sun was a deity among its primeval perpetrated by a process known under the name of ratoccupants, was he worshipped under the name of taning. The grinder in Sheffield performs his daily Baal?

J. M. JEFFCOTT.

labour seated across a sort of wooden bench, known by Isle of Man.

the name of the Horse, the place which would be that of the lowest part of the horse's neck being the position of

the grinding stone, which is sent round with the greatest THE SEVEN AGES OF MAN.—In a poem entitled

velocity by a mill. The stone is made steady upon its

iron spindle by means of wedges, and rattaning consists “ This World is but a Vanyte," from the Lambeth in driving one of these wedges so far as slightly to crack MS. 853, about 1430 A.D., printed in Hymns to the stone. The effect is, that soon after the stone is put the Virgin and Christ (edited by F. J. Furnivall into its full motion, it separates, the pieces flying off as for the Early English Text Society), at p. 83 we though sent from the mouth of a cannon, and the unhave a very curious comparison of the life of man

happy workman, bending in unconsciousness over the

instrument of his destruction, experiences a most horrible to the seven times of the day. The number seven death.”—The Age of Great Cities; or, Modern Civilisation is here determined apparently by the hours of the viewed in its Relation to Intelligence, Morals, and Religion. Romish church. Thus, corresponding to matins, By, Robert Vaughan, D.D., President of the Lancashire prime, tierce, sext, nones, vespers, and compline, Independent College. Second edition. London : Jackwhich were called in old English uhtsang, prime

son & Walford, &c. 1843. seng, undernsang, middaysang, nonsang, evensang, Although the passage is rather verbose and nēghtzang, we have the following periods of the clumsy, the process of “rattaniny” is described day and of man's life:

pretty clearly, and apparently from positive per1. Morning. The infant is like the morning, at sonal knowledge. What, then, is the etymology first born spotless and innocent. 2. Midmorrow. of the word ? Did “ rattaning

begin with This is the period of childhood. 3. Under grinders? How long has the word been used (9 4.1.). The boy is put to school. 4. Midday. in a more general sense ? How should it be He is knighted, and fights battles. 5. High Noon spelled ? Rattaning, rattening, rattan-ning? (i. e. nones or 9th hour, P.M.). He is crowned Fifty years hence these and a dozen other queries a king, and fulfils all his pleasure. 6. Mid- will be asked about what is now unfortunately overnoon (i.e. the middle of the period between a very “ familiar word,” and then there will be high noon and evensong). The man begins to no hope of an adequate reply. For the present droop, and cares little for the pleasures of youth. I withhold my own speculations and researches 7. Evensong. The man walks with a staff

, and (which are in no way satisfactory) in the hope death seeks him. After this follows the last that some philologist or some Sheffield reader

will settle the whole question by a brief history “ • Thus is the day come to nyght,

of this word, as to its origin, its changes, and its That me lothith of my lyuynge,

ESTE.
And doolful deeth to me is dight,
And in coold clay now schal y clinge.'

WRITING ON TILE GROUND.-In John, viii. 6,8,
Thus an oold man y herde mornynge

our Lord is so represented. In the Acharnians Biside an holte vndir a tree.

(v. 31) of Aristophanes the word ypáow is used by God graunte us his blis euerlastinge!

Dicæopolis (=a just citizen) to express, with other This world is but a vanite!”

words, how he tried to pass off the tedium of attendThe resemblance of this to Shakespeare's ing in the Pnyx, or one of the Grecian Houses of “ Seven Ages” is curious and interesting. Commons. This word is translated scribble by Hic

WALTER W. SKEAT. kie, but Artaud renders it "je trace des caractères

stanza:

use.

sur la sable," I draw figures on the sand. As this ORIGIN OF MOTTO ES.—Allied to the subject of play was written B.C. 425, it is probable that gpáow punning mottoes, of which many examples have was used in its primary sense of to scratch, scrape, been given in “N. & Q.," is the origin of mottoes or draw marks or figures, and not in the sense of of particular families, which are often of historical writing letters or words, which being done on the interest. I find the following account of the ground or sand would be speedily obliterated. I origin of the mottoes of the different branches of have seen in engravings of the woman taken in the Campbell family in The Scotsman's Library, adultery, the Hebrew words represented on the 1825, p. 219:ground, meaning " thou shalt not commit adul • The motto of the armorial bearings of the family is, tery,” but such writing seems to me improbable. Follow me.' This significant call was assumed by Sir The act, whatever it was, appears to have been a

Colin Campbell, laird of Glenorchy, who was a Knight

Several cadets of the family sign on the part of our Lord, used twice at this Templar of Rhodes.

assumed mottoes analogous to that of this chivalrous interview, to show his unwillingness to hear knight; and when the chief called • Follow me,' he found further the subtile crimination of the Jews; for a ready compliance from Campbell of Glenfalloch, a son when he looked up the second time after he had of Glenorchy, who says, “ Thus far,' that is, to his heart's again written on the ground, all had gradually blood, the crest being a dagger piercing a heart ; from departed, probably considering that their position Achline, who says, With heart and hand"; from Achal

lader, who says, “With courage'; and from Balcardine, in moral logic was indisputable. As to the French

who says, ' Paratus sum'; Glenlyon, more cautious, says, translation of ypáow, drawing figures on the sand . Quæ recte sequor.' A neighbouring knight and baron, in this particular passage, it seems to me erroneous, Menzies of Menzies, and Flemyng of Moness, in token of for the Pnyx is represented as crowded, and sand friendship, say, “Will God I shall,' and “The deed will

show."" was probably not there at all, for it was cut out of solid rock. "What Dicæopolis scratched or drew The “Grip fast” of Leslie, Earl of Rother, was upon was a tablet, atuktos nivat (Hom., II. S. 169), gained by the founder of the house, who saved answering the purpose of our pocket memorandum Queen Margaret of Scotland from drowning by books as well as of our post letters.

seizing hold of her girdle when she was thrown

T. J. BUCKTON. from her horse in crossing a swollen river. She Streatham Place, S.

cried out, “ Grip fast,” and afterwards desired her DRAMATIC CRITICS. — The following list of

words to be retained as her preserver's motto.

“Primus è stirpe" was the motto assumed by the dramatic critics, taken from the September number of The Broadway, in an article written by precedence as the eldest of the younger branches of

family of Hay of Leys to indicate their right of Mr. John Hollingshead, may be worthy of a the house of Hay of Errol. “Quæ amissa salva," corner in "N. & Q.";

the motto of the Earl of Kintore, refers to the Times.-Mr. John Oxenford.

preservation of the regalia of Scotland by Sir John Morning Post.-Mr. Dumphy.

Keith, the first Earl, who during the usurpation Daily News.-Mr. John Hollingshead. Herald and Standard.Mr. Desmond Ryan.

of Cromwell, buried them in the church of Kenneft, Telegraph.-Mr. E. L. Blanchard.

and pretended to have carried them to France, in Star.-Mr. Leicester Buckingham,

consequence of which all search for them ceased. Advertiser.-Mr. F. G. Tomlins,

These few examples of the origin of particular Pall Mall Gazette.--Mr. G. H. Lewes. Globe,-Dr. Granville.

mottoes will, I hope, induce some of the correspondents of “ N. & Q." to continue the subject, which is full of interest.

H. P. D. Saturday Review.-Mr. John Oxenford. Examiner.-Mr. Henry Morley.

OXYMELI EPISTOLARE. — Some ninety years Illustrated News.-Mr. J. A. Heraud.

ago, Monsieur Elie Beaumont, a distinguished Athenæum.-Mr. J. A. Heraud.

member of the French bar, and founder of an anIllustrated Times.-Mr. W. S. Gilbert. Dispatch.-Mr. Bayle Bernard.

nual “ Fête des Bonnes Gens" at his country seat, Weekly Times.-Mr. F. G. Tomlins.

sent eight partridges to his parish priest in Paris, Lloyd's Newspaper.—Mr. Sidney Blanchard. with instructions to distribute them among his

BUSKIN. poor parishioners. His reverence's reply merits, I

think, a corner in “N. & Q.” (Anecdotes Secrètes, WASHINGTON RELICS. — A lady has recently à Londres, chez James Anderson. Paris, 1779):announced in a New York journal that she will

“ Paris, le 23 Janvier, 1778. dispose of (for the benefit of the Catholic fair in “ J'ai reçu, Monsieur, les huit Perdrix rouges que vous that city) a piece of the coffin in which Wash m'avez adressées, afin d'en faire la distribution à mes ington's remains were buried for thirty years, as

pauvres. Vous me supposez, sans doute, le talent de notre also a piece of the ferrule of his walking-stick, and poissons, nourrissoit des milliers d'hommes. Il ne fau

divin Sauveur, qui, avec cing pains et autant de chétifs a cutting from the embroidered silk dress which droit moins qu'un prodige pareil pour repartir huit was worn by Martha Washington. W. W. perdrix rouges entre vingt mille malheureux environ, que Malta.

j'ai à soulager tous les jours. Il n'est pas d'anatomiste

qui pût faire cette dissection. D'ailleurs, que vous ne

Queries. voulussiez me promettre de fournir souvent à mes pauvres une nourriture aussi succulente, ce seroit un mauvais

COLONEL JOHN VERNON. service à leur rendre, que de les en faire tâter, et les remettre ensuite à un pain grossier et à une soupe peu

Can any correspondent of “N. & Q.” give me substantielle. J'ai pris le parti, Monsieur, de faire ser some particulars respecting Colonel John Vernon, vir votre gibier sur ma table, et d'y substituer huit écus to whom were granted, in 1664 or 1665, lands in que j'ai remis à la messe des aumônes. J'espère, Mon- Antigua? He was an officer in the Royalist sieur, que vous ne me ferez plus manger dorénavant de perdrix aussi chères. Réservez ce goût délicat, cette re

army, and died in 1689. I wish to ascertain the cherche ingénieuse qui vous caractérise, pour vos produc

name of his first wife. His second wife was Elizations littéraires ou pour vos institutions sociales, et beth Everard, widow of Thomas Everard, Govermettez plus de bonhomie dans vos charités. Permettez nor of the Leeward Islands. I wish also to moi, en qualité de votre Pasteur, de vous rappeler la ascertain the Christian name of his father, the maxime évangélique : Beati pauperes spiritu ! "J'ai l'honneur d'être, etc. etc.'

name of his mother, and the name of his eldest E. L, S.

son's wife. This son was also John Vernon, and

died in 1704, at Golden Square, St. James's, WestTOWN AND COLLEGE.—I see that Mr. Britton, minster; and was buried at St. Edmund's, Lomin his very valuable Architectural Dictionary, bard Street, as was also his eldest son, the Hon. speaks of the word town as denoting any collec- John Vernon (I believe a colonel in the army), tion of houses too large to be termed a village.” who was a Privy Councillor for Antigua, and died Local custom in my neighbourhood takes quite a

in 1765 ; having married (1) Anne Lysons, daughdifferent view of the word. Our own village is ter and heiress of George Lysons of Gloucesterconstantly called the “town,”—and I heard the shire, by Magdalene, daughter of Sir Marmaduke name applied a few days ago to a neighbouring Rawdon of Hoddesdon, Herts. Their son, James village containing only seventy inhabitants as its Vernon, took the estates after his father, but died whole population. The word “college” is also in 1769 8. p., and was buried at St. Edmund's, curiously applied to any block or attached body Lombard Street. He married Margaret Gasof two or three cottages. But this is not so coyne, daughter of Sir Crisp Gascoyne, Knt., of frequent.

FRANCIS TRENCH. London, and sister of Bamber Gascoyne, M.P. for Islip Rectory.

Truro, &c.

The Hon. John Vernon married (2) Elizabeth Conduit MEAD. — Conduit Mead was formerly Weston, who died in 1760, and was buried at

open field of twenty-seven acres, held in fee by Paddington Church, as were also her parents. the City of London. In 1666 a lease of it was (I should like to ascertain some particulars about granted to the Earl of Clarendon, for ninety-nine the pedigree of this Weston family.). Their son, Fears, at 8l. a-year; and a further lease of one John Joseph James Vernon, born 1744, died 1823, hundred years, to commence at the termination took the estates on the death of his half-brother of the former, was given to Lord Mulgrave in in 1769. He was a captain in the 4th Dragoons. 1694, of a little more than two acres- a parcel of He married (1) Mary, daughter and heiress of the the same lands. Upon it, in 1744, stood New Rev. Randal Andrews, Vicar of Preston, LancaBond Street, Conduit, George, and other adjacent shire. Their eldest son, John Vernon, born 1773, streets, numbering 429 houses besides stables, died 1859, took the estates. He was a lieut.out-buildings, &c.; producing an annual rental colonel in the 18th Hussars. He married E. G. computed at 14,2401. 158.

Casamajor, daughter of Justinian Casamajor of Such description I found in an old pamphlet, Potterells, Herts. Their three sons—John, Juspublished in the middle of the last century, com

tinian (captain, 15th Hussars), and George James plaining of the waste of the corporation property (captain, 8th Hussars)--all died 8. p. in the management of this important estate. Its

Captain Vernon married (2) Hannah Mason, value now must have enormously increased, and daughter of Miles Mason of Westhouse, Dent, does the City of London still retain the ground Yorkshire; and their eldest son, W.J.J.J. Vernon, rents, &c. ? THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.

in holy orders, and formerly Vicar of LittlehampTaE THREE Oldest Towns IN THE UNITED family, and I am his eldest son,

ton and Patcham, Sussex, is now the head of the STATES.–St. Augustine, in Florida, founded by

I cannot find the will of Colonel John Vernon the Spaniards in 1565; Jamestown, in Virginia, (ob. 1689) at Doctors' Commons. I think he founded by the English in 1607; and Plymouth, must have died at Antigua. The executors of Massachusetts, founded also by the English under the will of John Vernon (ob. 1704) were Sir WilGovernor Winthrop, in 1620.

W. W. Malta.

liam Mathew, K.B., Colonel Rowland Williams, Colonel Edward Byam (of Antigua), Major Edmund Nott, Archibald Ilutchinson, and Nathaniel Carpenter. The executors of the will of the Hon.

an

John Vernon (ob. 1765) were Sir Edmund Thomas, return to the brevity and condensation of the Bart., of Wendoe Castle, Glamorganshire ; Rev. primitive form. I should be glad to recover the Martin Madan, and Charles Spooner, Esq., of St. passage

I have in mind.

Q. Q. Christopher's, W. Indies; and W. Brown of Cur

Buns.-When did this term come into ordinary sitor Street, Middlesex. An official account in Heralds' College, I be

use in England ? Cotgrave, in v. “Pain,” menlieve) of the funeral of John Vernon (ob. 1704)

tions “ a kind of hard-crusted bread, whose loaves

doe somewhat resemble the Dutch bunnes of states that he was a cousin of the Right Hon.

our Rheinish-wine house." This allusion would James Vernon, Secretary of State to King William III. ; and that the funeral was attended by

appear to show that the buns of the seventeenth

century were different in character to the articles Secretary Vernon, Mr. Vernon “of the Exche

now so called.

J. O. HALLIWELL. quer,” Lord Radnor (Chas. B. Robartes), Sir Charles Hedges, and Mr. Constantine Phipps “of CAMPBELL'S “HOHENLINDEN." — Is there any the Temple."

truth in the following story relative to Campbell's I believe some or all of the following families poem of the "Battle of Hohenlinden ? " It was were related to the Vernons of Antigua, viz.: told to me when a boy, by an old tutor :Boyle, Berkeley, Carew, Clifford, Robartes,

What gave Campbell the first idea of writing Hedges, Phipps, St. John, Moore, Duncombe,

the poem was, one night he was returning from a Oxenden, Hurst, Philpott, Bethell, Tipping dinner-party,'having freely partaken of the good Manning and Bray, in their History of Surrey, things of this world. On his way he had to pass mention a place near Egham, as formerly the

a sentinel, who challenged him with, “Who goes seat of the Vernons,” but they give no details.

there?"

To which Campbell replied, “I, sir, I have found among family papers a letter, rolling rapidly!'

G. S. R. dated from Antigua, and signed “Duncan Grant” (Mr. Grant was father-in-law to Mr. Justinian

FITZRALPI BRASS.-In Pebmarsh church, EsCasamajor), and directed to “James Vernon, Esq.,

sex, is a brass, c. 1320, commemorating a member Little Foster Hall, near Egham.” This James of the Fitzralph family. Wanted, any particulars Vernon was the above-named J. Vernon who respecting the family, and the name of the person married M. Gascoyne, and he was my great uncle.

whose brass is in the above church ? Mr. Grant was his agent in Antigua. Little

Joux PIGGOT, JUN. Foster Hall” is now " Egham Lodge.” The arms HARVEST HOME. What authority have we for of this family are: Or, on a fesse azure, 3 garbs supposing this festival to have been observed by or. Crest. On a wreath or, a demi-figure of Ceres, the Greeks and Romans ?

A. E. D. habited azure, crined or, holding a garb or in the sinister arm, and a reaping-hook in the dexter

H. L. W.- In the Christian Observer, about hand. Motto. “Ver non semper viret."

the year 1835 or 1836, there were several poems Arms precisely similar to these were granted in of a religious kind, having the signature of 1583, by Flower, to a John Vernon of Cheshire.

“ II. L. W.”: one a hymn, “God is my step(Vide Gwillim's Display of Heraldry.)

herd, tender, kind," &c.; also some poetry, having I should feel much obliged to any of your cor

the title “Scenes in Heaven." Can any reader respondents who could assist me in my inquiries. inform me as to the authorship? I think the The references to the pedigrees of the London editor at that time was the Rev. S. C. Wilks, at and Surrey Vernons, in the British Museum, are present rector of Nursling, Hants.

R. I. as follows:

KEY-COLD: KEY: QUAY. - To the instances of Vernon (London), from Derby and Hunts (Add. MS., 5533, p. 81).

key-cold given by MR. SKEAT (3rd S. xi. 171), Vernon (London), from Middlewich (1096,

may be added one showing that it was a familiar fol. 102 b).

phrase some time after Shakspeare, from DryVernon of Camberwell, Surrey (Add. Ms., den's Sir Martin Marall, Act III. Sc2 (produced

in 1667): – 5533, fol. 272 B). Vernon of Farnham, Surrey (Add. MS., 5533,

Mrs. Millisent. Feel whether she breathes with your fol. 278).

W. J. VERNON.

hand before her mouth.

Rose. No, Madam, 'tis key-cold." Leek, Staffordshire.

In Dryden's Annus Mirabilis, in the description APHORISMS.—I think it is Bacon who says that, of the Great Fire of London, it is said : amongst all nations the primitive form of phi “ A key of fire ran all along the shore, losophy is that of aphorisms and proverbial

And lightened all the river with a blaze." phrases, and that in the most advanced stage of Scott preserves the word kcy. Mr. R. Bell has philosophy men will perhaps discard the cumbrous printed quay. What is the sense of the word in impedimenta of many words and many books, and this passage ? Should it be key or quay? CH.

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