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on his imitations of the high priests of that worship; but Did it originate in ministerial despatches, in the I must now content myself with a single illustration : House of Commons, or in the columns of some

" There's Ensign Rennell, tall and proud, journal? Perhaps it came from our French
Doth stand upon the hill,

0. T. D. And waves the flag to all the crowd,

[It seems probable that the expression, “ The PeninWho much admire his skill.

sula,” began to be used, without addition, to signify “ The And here I sit upon my ass,

Iberian Peninsula,” or Spain and Portugal, by the French; Who lops his shaggy ears;

and was adopted from them by us. Bonaparte began to Mild thing! he lets the gentry pass,

operate on Spain some little time before England put her Nor heeds the carriages and peers.”

spoke in his wheel. Peninsula, in old French, is simply He was once infected (but it was a venial sin) by the Péninsule, Chersonèse, presqu'île.” Peninsula in more heresies of the cockney school; and was betrayed, by the recent French, is not only that, but also, in addition, it is contagion of evil example, into the following conceits : used to express Spain—“Il s'emploie quelquefois absolu“ Behold Admiral Keate of the terrestrial crew,

ment pour désigner l'Espagne.Who teaches Greek, Latin, and likewise Hebrew ;

No similar change occurring in connection with the He has taught Captain Dampier, the first in the race,

Peninsular struggle can be traced in the Spanish lanSwirling his hat with a feathery grace,

guage itself: “Peninsula. La tierra que está casi cercada Cookson the rshal, and Willoughby, of size,

del mar" (1798). And again, Peninsula Española, as Making minor Sergeant-Majors in looking-glass eyes."

the title of a Španish periodical, commenced in 1860.] But he at length returned to his own pure and original DUC DE Valois. Can you inform me why the style; and, like the dying swan, he sings the sweeter as title of Duc de Valois, formerly that of the eldest he is approaching the land where the voice of his min son of the Orleans family, has never been borne strelsy shall no more be heard. There is a calm melan- since about the end of the seventeenth century ? choly in the close of his present Ode which is very pathetic, I remember reading of some story of an apparition and almost Shaksperian :

which Madame (Henrietta of England), or some “ Farewell you gay and happy throng!

later Duchess of Orleans, saw while walking in Farewell my Muse! farewell my song!

the dusk about the palace; and in consequence of Farewell Salthill! farewell brave Captain !

which the above title was abandoned, as destined Yet, may it be long before he goes hence and is no more

to bring some terrible evil on its bearer. I am seen! May he limp, like his rhymes, for at least a dozen

curious to kuow more of the story, but I cannot

remember where I saw it touched upon. H. L. years ; for National Schools have utterly annihilated our hopes of a successor !'

[The origin of the change of the title was this :- The “ Paterson finished his apostrophe at a lucky juncture; Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV., married for his for the band struck up, and the procession began to

first wife our English princess Henrietta, the sister of move."]

Charles II. This unhappy lady, it is too well established, THE PENINSULA.— The application of this name

was poisoned. The Duke, who probably was no party universally to the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal wife Elizabeth Charlotte, a daughter of the Bavarian

to the murder of his young wife, married for his second seems to me sufficiently curious to justify a query as to its date. It is an obviously handy and com

Elector. This lady, walking one evening through the prehensive term, and one thať would commend apartments of the palace, met at a remote quarter of the itself readily enough for general adoption when reception rooms something that she conceived to be a once made public. But who did make it public spectre. What she fancied to have passed on that occafirst?

sion, was never known except to her nearest friends ; I presume it became a common representative and if she made any explanations in her Memoirs, the term during the occupation of Spain by the French

editor has thought fit to suppress them. She mentions and English armies ; and it would Have an ob- only, that in consequence of some ominous circumstances vious fitness which the names of the two coun

relating to the title of Valois, which was the proper tries would not possess, as being both terse and

second title of the Orleans family, her son, the Regent, expressive.

had assumed in his boyhood that of Duc de Chartres. His It could scarcely be correct to say, Welling

elder brother was dead, so that the superior title was ton's army in Spain and Portugal," unless that open to him ; but in consequence of those mysterious army happened to be stationed on the confines of omens, whatever they might be, which occasioned much both countries at the same time. But the simple whispering at the time, the great title of Valois has since word, the Peninsula, avoids that difficulty, and is been laid aside as of bad augury.] sufficiently definite for popular use.

THE LARGEST BELL IN THE UNITED STATES is But the question recurs, Who first commended at Notre Dame University, Indiana, and was it to popular acceptance ?—for its use is universal. manufactured in France. It is seven feet high, No soldier speaks of the campaign in Portugal : twenty-two in circumference at the base, weighs he says he was in the Penin-soola.


13,200 lbs. nett, and cost about 16001. Might I

Replies. ask how this bell compares in size and weight with the largest bells in England ? W. W.


(3rd S. xii. 322.) : [We have at least three church bells in England ex Some five-and-twenty years ago, I paid my first ceeding the weight of that at Notre Dame University, visit to Westminster Abbey, and after due delays namely, Oxford, 1680, 7 tons; York, 1845, 10 tons 15 cwt.; found myself with a very miscellaneous party, Westminster, Big Ben, 1856, 15 tons 184 cwt.; but Young under the conduct of an antique, not-too-wellBig Ben, 1858, was above two tons lighter. The diameter informed, and very short-tempered guide. In the of the latter is 9 ft. 6 in.; the height, 7 ft. 10 in. : the course of our round, he pointed out to us a clapper weighs 6 cwt. This bell was found to be cracked whitish mark in a black-marble mural monument on Oct. 1, 1859.]

of the seventeenth century, and told us that it

was caused by a pistol-shot fired by Oliver CromCHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF HISTORIANS.

well, when he turned the monks out of the Abbey. you direct me where I may find a list of historians I ventured to inform him that it was Thomas, arranged chronologically according to the periods Lord Cromwell, a century earlier than Oliver of which they treat ?

G. W.

Cromwell, who had had a hand in the dissolution [The list required may be found in the Appendix to of the monasteries ; to which he replied, “ If you August Potthast's Bibliotheca Historica Medii Aevi, think you know better than I do, you had better Berlin, 1862, 8vo, “Sources of Knowledge for the History do the talking yourself !” And he certainly was of the European States during the Middle Age.” For the remarkably concise in the rest of his descriptions. Early English historians there is a list prefixed to Bohn's Now it would not signify very much if only edition of Roger of Wendover's Flowers of History, 1819. poor mechanics” and crabbed Abbey-guides Dufresnoy, in his Chronological Tables of Universal His were ignorant (in regard to the matter in hand) tory, ed. 1762, i. 236-259, gives a Chronological Table of of the difference between the famous Malleus Learned Men and their works from the Deluge until the Monachorum and the great Protector of the fifth century of the Christian era.]

Commonwealth of England. Their ignorance

would soon be enlightened if others, who have no OLD Song,

such excuses as they have for ignorance, had not “ London Bridge is broken down,

chosen to remain in the dark. The most careless Dance over my Lady Leigh.”

perusal of Dowsing's Journal will show that, with Can some correspondent of “N. & Q.” furnish all his zeal for the destruction of the vestiges of the words of this song, which is noticed in popery, the fiery Presbyterian found (on the whole) “N. & Q.” 1st S. ii. 258 and 338, as it cannot be very little to destroy; and was often constrained found in a copy of Gammer Gurton's Garland, to remove the steps between the nave and the which has been consulted.

E. M. W. chancel of a church, because there was nothing [Three different versions of this old song appeared in else to do. And any one who has read much in The Critic newspaper of Jan. 15, 1857. It is also printed the numerous churchwardens' account books of in Dr. Rimbault's Nursery Rhymes, 1849, and a version

the time of the Reformation, which have been of eight stanzas in Gammer Gurton's Garland, edit. 1810, preserved to this day, knows that the destructive 8vo.]

energy of the Commissioner of the Long ParliaTHE SUBLIME AND RidicuLOUS. – Napoleon's unrelenting spirit of those who were sent out by

ment pales when compared with the fierce and saying, “ Du sublime au ridicule il n'y a qu’un the king's authority after the year 1534, and during pas," was evidently derived from Paine :

the reign of Edward VI. And yet the miserable “ The sublime and the ridiculous are often so nearly Dowsing's name is always held up exclusively to related that it is difficult to class them separately. One odium, while they who effected so much more step above the sublime makes the ridiculous, and one step completely this kind of desecration of our Enabove the ridiculous makes the sublime again." Tom Paine, Age of Reason, Part 2.

glish churches are not even referred to. Did any earlier author suggest the idea to Tom recently a work has been published which showed

that in Northamptonshire it was the Reformers, Paine?

HENRY F. PonsonBY.

not the Presbyterians, who were the great de[Tom Paine borrowed the remark from Hugh Blair, stroyers. But this is almost a solitary case, and Hugh Blair from his brother rhetorician Longinus, One word more. Dowsing and the powers that Treatise on the Sublime, at the beginning of sect. iii. See sent him out to do as much mischief as he could “ X. & Q.” 1st S. v. 100.]

were Presbyterians; Oliver Cromwell was an Independent, and he was in no slight degree stimulated to seize on the supreme power in the country, and in a far greater degree enabled to do so, because he and the religionists he was associated

with were opposed, to the extremity of mortal Hatfield's tomb, and (in the vigorous language of hatred (as was afterwards proved), to these and Mr. Raine),, " unite the two by a sort of patchthe like proceedings of the Presbyterians. work, which he alone could have devised, and

Surely it is not too much to admit, that to call which the period in which he was tolerated could Dowsing as a witness in this case is hardly fair. alone have contemplated with satisfaction ? Dowsing was one of the very men who lost his oc Who but James Wyatt the architect-therecupation through Cromwell's usurpation-one of storer” of the western end of the nare of Herethe creatures whom he afterwards described in such ford Cathedral ? biting words in his speeches,—and who therefore I have referred to Melrose Abbey. When plotted against his life perpetually. And this is per- public attention was drawn to it by Sir Walter fectly well known, that the contiscations and sales Scott, its stones were being carried off in order of royal, ecclesiastical, municipal, and private trea- that they might be cheaply worked in to the cowsures, by which so many of the Presbyterian sheds and bullock-hovels of a neighbouring laird's leaders had grown rich, ceased at once when farmstead. Of Saddell Abbey, Cantire, Mr. MacCromwell turned the Rumps out of the House of farlane says: Parliament and put the key in his pocket.

“ After it had for centuries withstood the violence of B. B. WOODWARD. the solstitial rains and equinoctial gales, the hands of a

modern Goth converted it into a quarry, out of which he

took materials to build dykes and offices, paving some of It seems to be the day for rehabilitating damaged the latter with the very gravestones. He did not, howreputations; and CLARRY seeks to show that ever, long survive this sacrilegious deed, as he soon afterCromwell was no iconoclast.

wards lost his life by a triiling accident, which the country

people still consider a righteous retribution, and the estate « Oliver Crummell

passed into other hands." The nation did pummell,” says the old rhyme-giving the proper pronuncia- Mr. Burns, in his Ecclesiastical Antiquities of

There is a sad significance in these remarks of tion to the proper name; and he pummelled some Scotland : of its ecclesiological glories most severely. Take

" To the last hundred years Scotland can trace more Durham Cathedral for example. Who was it, after

destruction among her antiquities than ever occurred the battle of Dunbar, who shut up 4500 Scotch before ; and her own children, from no religious or party prisoners in the cathedral, and permitted them to prejudices, but from sheer motires of gain, have been the burn the wood-work of the choir, and to damage despoilers. Did the magnates of the burgh want a few the monuments? Who purloined the heads and good feasts? the funds were at hand by an appropriation

of dressed stone from the ready-made quarry presented hands of silver from the figures around the tombs by the old cathedral or abbey: Did the baronial leader, of the Nevilles? Who danced upon the marble or the laird descended from him, want farm-steadings, slab of the altar so as to leave thereupon the im stone walls, or cottars' houses built ? the old abbey or print of iron-heeled boots ? Who totally destroyed castle wall was immediately made use of. Those who the 107 statues, some of them life-size, that adorned

wish proof of this assertion may see its evidences, either at the niches of the beautiful altar-screen? Who

the village of New Abbey, near Dumfries, or in the dikes

about Kildrummie, in Aberdeenshire. So strong, indeed, destroyed all other similar statues in the cathedral,

was the desire for appropriating such precious spoils in excepting those in the trefoil-headed niches above Scotland, that even in a report from a surveyor to the the clerestory, which, being out of convenient government, some few years back, upon the cost of some reach, were spared ? Cromwell and his soldiers repairs to another building, the destruction of one of the must be the answer to these questions, and also

most interesting baronial remains in the country (the

Earl's Palace, at Kirkwall) was suggested, on account of to a long string of queries similar to this :- Who

the saving to be effected by using its materials." placed his cannon at Gattonside, on the Tweed,

CUTHBERT BEDE. and, by their aid, pounded Melrose Abbey into a glorious ruin? On the other hand, there is certainly much to

MARY MAGDALENE. be said in confirmation of another point touched upon in CLARRY's note—that of modern Van

(2nd S. ii. 144.) dalism. Here, again, we might go to Durham, I join my protest with that of MR. THOMAS and note the destruction of its chapter-house, in KEIGHTLEY against the shameful manner in order that it might give place to a comfortable which the character of this most respectable sash-windowed room. And who, too, was it that woman has been taken away in making her, withadvised the demolition of the galilee--and had out even the shadow of proof, and against all eviactually commenced it, by stripping the lead from dence, to have been a woman of loose life.” its roof-in order that there might be a nice car When the London asylum for penitent women riage-drive for the prebends up to the western of the “unfortunate class was about to be doorway? And who was it who proposed to re-established, and the present name for the institumove the altar-screen and the canopy over Bishop tion was proposed, the learned and able author of




The Credibility of the Gospel History, Dr. Nathaniel case with any seals of a similar class and period Lardner, protested against the injustice, in a letter in Scotland, so far as I am aware, and my collecto Jonas Hanway, published in 1758, in which he tion of these is a large one. The fine old double showed how utterly_groundless is the assumption seal of Aberdeen, however, which is not now in which it implies. But prejudice prevailed, and use, though the matrices are still preserved in “The Magdalen Hospital” became a standing libel private hands, has the following inscription on on the memory of an illustrious woman of saintly the back of each matrix - "*YE ZER OF GRAC character, who was one of our Saviour's most M.CCCC.XXX.

ALLDERMAN." attached friends, and employed by Him as the “ AND YES SEL MAD,” the former words being first herald to proclaim his resurrection to the rest engraved in a circle, and the latter ones occupying of his disciples.

the half of an inner circle. This interesting matrix The unjust and injurious opinion respecting her was picked up by its present owner from a lot of has chiefly prevailed in Western Europe. It sprung old iron exposed for sale! It is strange how so at first, as a mere conjecture, out of the several many old matrices have gone astray, and have narratives in which mention is made, by the three cast up from time to time in odd ways; and I Evangelists, of the anointing of Jesus. It is re- may mention a few instances of these, so as to jected, or mentioned with hesitation, by the Greek close with a suggestion or two for the recovery of and Latin Fathers; but was taken up by Gregory others. the Great, and stamped with his authority. It is The double matrix of the large and striking sanctioned by the Roman Breviary (July 22); chapter seal of Dunkeld Cathedral, and that of and its truth was assumed by most of the Latin Francis Scott, second Earl of Buccleugh, 1648, medieval writers. Painters and poets have de- were also both discovered at different times among scribed the supposed illustrious penitent, in loose lots of old broken metal, the latter at Stirling. array, without giving her costume the benefit of The reverse of the chapter seal of Dunfermline her conversion! By these means it became es Abbey (probably of the fourteenth century, the tablished in the popular mind. This was the more obverse being in the Library at Oxford) was picked easy, as it supplied an agreeable and interesting up a few years ago from a barrowful of rubbish contrast. It made one Mary serve as a foil to set | which a man was removing at Gateshead. The off the excellencies of another. Mary, the mother reverse of the ancient seal of the burgh of Rotheof our Lord, became the type of feminine purity; say was lost for more than a century, and was at but the leaders of opinion were not content with last found in a field near Loch

having, it is giving her those honours to which all Christians supposed, been carried out at one time with the consider her justly entitled. To give it, however, refuse of the Town Clerk's office, and thence rethe advantage of a striking contrast, and thus moved with the contents of the ash-pit. A full make it shine with greater splendour, a female cha- account of the singular manner in which the longracter of an opposite description was wanted— a lost seals of the borough of Great Grimsby were type of fallen womanhood, penitent and restored. recovered is given in “ N. & Q.” And S. xi. 46, 47, And as “the woman which was a sinner,” men and a long and very interesting description of tioned by St. Luke in the seventh chapter of his these seals and their singular devices will be found Gospel, is left by the historian strictly anonymous, in the same volume, p. 216, 217. In the ArcheMary Magdalene, whose name occurs in the next ological Journal, No. 47, the Rev. Frederick Spurchapter, was seized on for this purpose, and her rell has a very graphic and detailed account, illuscharacter treated in a way which, by any honest trated with woodcuts, of seven mediæval guild woman, would be deemed worse than martyrdom. and other seals, of the thirteenth and fourteenth

J. W. T. centuries, connected with Wisby in Gottland, and Wigan.

now preserved in the Museum there. Some of

these most interesting examples of ancient art DATES UPON OLD SEALS.

had only been kept from the melting-pot by their

former peasant owners, as they had been found (3rd S. xii. 244, 297.)

useful as stamps for butter and for ginger-bread The old seal described by W. C. B. is that of cakes! About thirty years ago a bundle of matrices the borough of Hedon in Yorkshire, which is in of the old burgh seals of Lanark was accidentally the middle division of the wapentake of Holder- discovered in a long-unopened drawer; and about ness, and the matrix of which is still in use. The the same time the seal of the presbytery of Linlegend is “H. Camera : Regiis : 1598." In- | lithgow, with date of 1583, was also found in a formation as to most of the particulars wished by similar receptacle. W. C. B. will be found in "N. & Q." 2nd S. viii. I could easily add to the above many other 523.

instances of the singular manner in which ancient Several of the older municipal seals of England matrices, long lost, have been accidentally disbear a date in their legends, but such is not the covered; but this is needless, as those who, as I

an, are lovers of such things will doubtless limestone of which the Houses of Parliament are already know of them. The first suggestion, built is mainly due to this cause, and the scrapings however, which I wish to make is, that our town of the stone taste of sulphate of magnesia, or and city clerks should carefully examine their “ Epsom salts,” resulting from the action of the charter-chests and long-unopened drawers filled sulphuric acid on the carbonate of magnesia in with official papers, as in all likelihood, in many the stone. Mr. Spiller has drawn particular atinstances, such as occurred at Lanark, the matrices tention to this in a paper read at the recent of interesting old seals will be found amongst meeting of the British Association at Dundee. their contents. The second is, that any one who He states that a ton of coal evolves during comknows of the existence of matrices of old municipal bustion the astonishing quantity of 70 lbs. of oil seals in private hands, as was the case in those of of vitriol, so that we need not be surprised at the Great Grimsby, should communicate the same injury to stone and other things effected by the through your columns. The third and last is, that sulphurous vapours of smoky towns, especially all gatherings of old metals at the doors or where there are extensive vitriol works. I may windows of brokers' shops should be carefully state, however, for the benefit of the latter, that examined by your readers, in case valuable but I know of a large town in which there was a uncared-for matrices should be among them, as in remarkable immunity from infectious diseases in the instances I have mentioned; and that, when the neighbourhood of the vitriol works, although ever they succeed in finding anything of historical no plants would grow there. Mr. Spiller recomvalue, information as to this should be given in mends the application of a solution of superyour pages. I never pass such an assemblage of phosphate of lime to porous building-stone likely metal" odds and ends” without examination; to be corroded, having found by experiments that and although I have never as yet been so fortunate it hardens and protects the surface. as to fall in with any prize, I still persevere, in The fine sandstone which is the chief building the hope that I may yet thus rescue from destruc- material in the great manufacturing districts of tion some interesting object of antiquity, as others Yorkshire is never corroded by the smoke, being have done before me.

E. C. of a siliceous nature, and containing no lime or

magnesia in any amount to render it susceptible The fine seal of Thomas de Beauchamp, K.G., of such injury. third Earl of Warwick, who died A.D. 1369, bears There is in the new chapel here a sumptuous a dated inscription, which is commenced on the and stately reredos constructed of alabaster and seal and continued on the counterseal, as follows: other“ pleasant stones," with sculpture in Caen (Seal) “S:THOE : COMITIS : WARRWYCHIE: ANNO: stone. While the chapel was temporarily heated REGIS: E: T'cir:" (Counterseal), “POST: COQVESTV: by brasiers, the polished surfaces of marbles ANGLIE : SEPTIO: DECIO: ET: REGNI:SVI: FRANCIE: having carbonate of lime for their basis were QVARTO.” Thus the date of the execution of this quite dimmed by the Acherontic fumes that asseal is the year 1344; and of the eighteen words cended from the open coke fires, and the gaswhich compose the inscription, fourteen are de- standards of “ birnist lattoun” were so blackened voted to the date_four on the seal, and ten on that they had to be “purifyit” and “polist: the counterseal.

over again. The alabaster, fluor spar, lapis lazuli, A good late example is the seal of the Hospital &c. were not affected in the slightest degree. of the Holy Trinity, founded at Guildford by The polish of the injured stones was restored, Archbishop Parker. This inscription reads : and in some measure protected, by a slight apSIGILLVM , HOSPITALIS , BEATÆ .

plication of turpentine and wax, if I remember IN . GVILDFORD. 1622.". CHARLES BOUTELL.

rightly; but they do not look so well as some

which have been added since the building has CORROSION OF MARBLE IN CATHEDRALS, ETC. primitive method of warming been continued, one

been heated by hot-water pipes. Had the more (3rd S. xii. 307.)

of the finest works of the kind ever erected would During the combustion of coal or coke, sul- have been completely spoiled. phuric and sulphurous acids ascend together with

I have often seen coloured marbles in monumuch aqueous vapour, and condense on the cold ments so corroded as to look like common stone, polished surfaces of marble, &c., but most on

but have not observed the preservation of upthose which are turned downward or are vertical, turned surfaces mentioned by J. H. B., though I because these catch the vapours most readily and think I can easily understand it, and shall look retain them longest. When the marble has car

for it in future.

J. T. F. bonate of lime for a main constituent, this is

The College, Hurstpierpoint. decomposed by the more powerful acid and converted into sulphate of lime, which encrusts the Carbonic acid would not affect marble, as that corroded surface. The corrosion of the magnesian is already a carbonate of lime. Coke contains


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