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tour sincère à la religion catholique, professés par

THE EPISCOPAL WIG. mes ancêtres." It is towards the end of this Introduction, which fills nearly fifty pages, that the

(3rd S. xii. 205, 277, 335.) account of Scottish manners occurs, alluded to by

Wigs from the time of Charles II. to the days MR. RAMAGE.

of the Prince Regent (afterwards George IV.) Mr. De Joux was seventy-three when he wrote his work, and he died very soon after. His

were worn by laymen as well as by ecclesiastics.

Those of the latter (as any one may see who will daughter, Miss De Joux, was extremely displeased inspect the portraits at Lambeth and in several at her father's conversion, but his edifying death episcopal palaces) varied according to the fashion made a great impression upon her, and she made her abjuration of Calvinism before the Archbishop When the powdered wig gave way among the

of the period during which their wearers flourished. of Paris on December 15, 1825, and soon after laity to “ the brown scratch, it was still retained published a letter to her sister, explaining the by many deans and other church dignitaries. motives of her conversion. Of other members of The Deans of Ely (Pearce), of Norwich (Turner), his family I can give no information. F. C. H.

Dr. Barnes, Master of Peter House, Dr. Gaskin of

S. P. C. K., wore the powdered wig till their Benjamin de Joux was Protestant minister at deaths. Só also did the Venerable Dr. Routh of Die in 1674, at which time he was accused of Magdalen College, Oxford. having preached that monks were drones and The first bishop who wished to avoid wearing ought to be expelled the kingdom. In 1682 he it was Dr. Legge, Bishop of Oxford. In a satirical appears as a pastor at Lyons, but in 1685 he was poem he is represented asking the Prince Regent a refugee in London, where he continued his to excuse him from adopting it on his elevation to ministry for some time. His son James, also a the episcopal bench. The lines run somewhat in refugee, became chaplain on board the Northum


way : berland, but afterwards settled at Plymouth as a • For then on his knees the Episcopal Prig pastor. It has been said that Pierre de Joux, Was entreating the Regent to spare him the wig." after whom MR. RAMAGE inquires, was his de

In 1831, William IV., who, unlike his predescendant; but it appears that he was born at Geneva in 1752, and was probably of a different throne. Bishop Blomfield, it was said, requested

cessors, did not wear false hair, ascended the family of refugees who settled in Switzerland his majesty's sanction for the discontinuance of from Dauphiné. Pierre de Joux studied at Geneva, the capitular appendance by the bishops. The in England, and at Bale, where he was conse- king was indifferent in the matter

, and Bishop crated at the age of twenty-three. He subsequently Blomfield and other prelates relinquished their went to Paris, where he was associated with wigs. But some of the older bishops continued Court de Gebelin. Afterwards he was director of to wear them. Dr. Sumner, who was elevated to a college in the department of Léman, then a

the bishopric of Chester on Bishop Blonifield's pastor at Nantes, and finally rector of the University of Bremen, where he confesses he remained appointment to London, assumed a wig when long after he changed his opinions. In 1815, did not wear it in private life. I have seen him

wearing his episcopal vestments in church, but and before he professed himself a Catholic, he went into Italy, and next to Scotland, where he (in 1845) officiating on a Sunday morning in Dur

ham Cathedral wearing his wig. In the evening taught in an academy at Dollar. Finally, he went back to France and avowed himself a Catholic.Galilee without the wig. When he became

of the same day I have seen him at worship in the He died at Paris in Oct. 1825. His son Jean Archbishop of Canterbury, I have seen him in his Marc was an Anglican clergyman in Mauritius. wig at service in the cathedral, and without it in He wrote various works, of which a list is given the evening when presiding at an S. P. G. meeting in Messrs. Haag's France Protestante, from which in the Assembly Rooms at Canterbury. Archthe above details are abridged. There is no book bishop Musgrave of York adopted the same usage. about Scottish manners, but there is Lettres sur

I saw his grace in a wig at the reopening of St. T Italie, from a religious point of view, in two vols. Mary's Church at Scarboro', and on the same day Paris, 1825. This is probably the work inquired without a wig at the public luncheon. Bishop for, as it is " from end to end a panegyric of Monk, I believe, followed this rule, and probably Catholic worship, popes, Jesuits, religious cor- Bishop Murray of Rochester. I have seen both porations," &c. The Messrs. Haag say it is a

in church wearing a wig, and in private life withpoor affair, although revised by an abbé.

out it. B. H. C. The Irish_bishops discontinued the wig long

before the English. In 1820 I have seen Irish prelates with their own hair powdered; but I recollect that Archbishop Stuart of Armagh (who

had been translated from an English see) usually in oil colours. Quoting an English work, I reply wore a wig:

that it is said of Frank Hals that he painted porThose who are curious as to this branch of the traits in one hour, for a low price, at one sitting; and hairdresser's art, will find, on inspection of old that Vandyck, on his way to Rome, sat to him for portraits, that the shape of the wig altered con an hour's portrait. When the hour and the porsiderably between 1770 and 1830. Cavus. trait were completed, Vandyck (who was person

ally unknown to Hals) said to him that it was a

very easy matter, and that he could do the same; Of what value is history.? I was ordained by whereupon Hals sat to him for an hour, expecting Bishop Blomfield at Christ Church, Newgate to have a good joke at the stranger, and to find Street, in 1837. To the best of my memory he that he had only executed a daub. Instead of this, wore a wig. Scores of your readers must re he found a picture that surpassed his own; upon member Bagot, Bishop of Oxford. To the best of which he said “ You must either be Vandyck or my memory he was translated to Wells in 1846, the devil!” Such is an abbreviation of the anecand therefore Bagot of Bath and Wells could not dote given at p. 52, vol. i. of The Arts and Artists, have left off his wig before that date. I remember by James Elmes, M.R.I.A.; and it will be found Redgate, the Nottingham bowler, bowling in knee- to differ from the French anecdote quoted by breeches to me in 1836 or thereabouts.

FITZHOPKINS from the Biographie Générale

, esThe last judge who wore a wig was

pecially in abbreviating, by one half, the time for " James Allen Park,

the painting of the picture. Perhaps both anecWho to England stark

dotes are equally wrong and destitute of any real Naked came;

foundation. But now he's a beau,

In reference to the question about rapidity of And wears fine clo',

execution," Mr. Elmes' work supplies the following And is not all the same.”

examples: Eldon, C.-J. of the Common Pleas (say 1801) "A handsome young woman came before" Sir asked George III. to be released from wearing á Godfrey Kneller, as a Justice of the Peace, “ to wig, saying that it made his head ache, and quoted swear a rape. Struck with her beauty, he conthe precedent of Sir Matthew Hale. To which tinued examining her as he sat painting, till he had the king replied, “That if Eldon would wear taken her likeness.” (I. 163.) mustachoes like his predecessors, he might drop Rosa da Tivoli, when his purse was exhausted, the wig." Therefore I do not think that Bishop would ride out with his servant to a tavern, there Van Mildert dropped his wig till some years after paint a picture, and send his servant out to sell it his becoming a bishop in 1791.

(I. 11); and, to decide a wager between the ImJ. WILKINS, B.C.L. perial Ambassador, Count Martizen, and a Swedish

General, he painted, in half an hour, a three

quarter size picture of a landscape, with sheep In the history of the decline and fall of the and goats and one figure. (I. 16.) episcopal wig, one point has not been noticed. The end of the wig on bishops' heads was not rapidity as to finish a portrait generally within

Vandyck, when in England, “worked with such abrupt, but gradual and intermittent.

the day.” (II. 32.) sometimes resumed on state occasions, when not Tintoret dashed off a picture to show some generally worn. For instance, Archbishop Mus- Flemish painters “how we poor Venetian painters grave of York only wore his wig at visitations, are accustomed to make pictures." (III. 263.). confirmations, &c.; and his portrait, in full robes,

Examples of rapidly-executed pictures might, hangs in Bishopthorpe Palace with his natural hair. probably, be adduced of many other painters, from What impresses this off-and-on habit on my me Rubens to Morland. Was not Sir Joshua Reymory is, that Archbishop Musgrave, who looks nolds' “ Puck” painted in one day? I believe well with whiskers in the excellent picture at that Sir E. Landseer's Challenge (“Coming Events Bishopthorpe, presented a discrepancy in his ap- cast their Shadows before"), painted for the Duke pearance when the whisker on either cheek curved of Northumberland, was the work of a few days. from under the corners of the wig.

The same artist's “ Spaniel and Rabbit,” exhibited Can any one identify the first wearer of the

at the Art_Treasures Exhibition, Manchester episcopal wig?

D. D.

(No. 405, “ English School,") was painted in two hours and a half, according to an inscription pen

cilled by the painter on the stem of the tree in the RAPIDLY-EXECUTED PICTURES.


CUTHBERT BEDE. In the note on “ Vandyck” (3rd S. xii. 326), FITZHOPKINS, quoting a French work, has asked, “ Can a portrait be painted in two hours ?” that is,

It was


that the title of Duchess can be given correctly to (3rd S. xii. 185.)

Madame De Pompadour, whose politico-amorous Edward Newton's invention for “ Improvements with a certain amount of indulgence, for the sake This is evidently an adaptation of Mr. William life ought perhaps to be treated with a little more

many of her faults to be looked at in machinery or apparatus applicable to wheels or axles for counting and indicating the number of of the many good qualities of her heart and mind. rotations made thereby." The provisional speci

In reference to the reign of Louis XV. I think fication of this invention was deposited at the it merely as the reign of his mistresses, and there

some of our teachers have been inclined to treat office of the Commissioners of Patents on Feb. 26, 1853, but was rendered void by reason of notice

fore the less deserving of consideration; but I

think the tremendous events of the great revoluto proceed not having been given within the time prescribed by the Act.

tion in the succeeding reign require, in order to The specification is rather long, but as it is very with the social condition of France, especially in

make them intelligible, a rather minute familiarity interesting, and describes the principle of the machine, perhaps “N. & Q.” will not object to it discontent began to exhibit a very decided cha

the latter part of the reign of Louis XV., when in extenso :

racter. “In adapting the apparatus which forms the subject of the present invention to the wheel or axle of a locomotive

In conclusion, I beg to remark that the student engine or carriage, the box which contains the mechanism

of history of either sex must meet with narratives is fixed in the grease-box or other convenient part con upon which it would be indelicate for the two tiguous to the nave of the wheel or end of axletree. A sexes to exchange ideas, although necessary to be small crank, which is fastened on to the rotating part of known by both.

RHODOCANAKIS. the wheel or axle, is made to take into the forked end of

Kersal Dale Villa. a lever, which forms part of the counting apparatus. By the rotation of this small crank, the forked lever is made

“ Archives de l'Empire, to vibrate, and being furnished at the opposite end with a

Bin 21,211. click, it will drive forward a ratchet-wheel, one tooth for

“ Paris, le 23 octobre 1867. every rotation of the running-wheel and its crank. This

“ Prince, running-wheel is made to act on a train of wheel-work to “ Par la lettre que vous m'avez fait l'honneur de show 100, 1000, 10,000 up to any required number. For

m'écrire le 7 de ce mois vous me priez de vous faire savoir convenience, the numbers are engraved on the peripheries

si Madame de Pompadour fut créée Duchesse par Louis of the counting-wheels, so that at a simple inspection the XV en 1752 ; et s'il existe aux Archives de l'E

bire des number of rotations made by the running-wheels, or axle, documents relatifs à cette création. may be at once seen. The apparatus is equally applicable

“ Les recherches que je me suis empressé de prescrire, 10 stationary engines or machinery to show the number faites avec tout le soin désirable dans les diverses séries de of revolutions performed by any of the principal wheels

nos dépôts où il y avait chance de trouver les renseigneor shafts. When the apparatus is applied to stationary ments qui font l'objet de votre demande, viennent d'être engines, I sometimes combine with it a clock, to indicate terminées. Elles n'ont produit malheureusement qu'un the time the engine or machine has been at work. In this résultat négatif ; il n'a été trouvé aucune pièce de rapcase, the clock and counter may also be so combined and portant à cette création, mais bien que les Archives de arranged that, immediately the machine or engine is l'Empire ne puissent vous fournir la solution de la quesstopped, the apparatus consequently ceases to count. А tion qui vous intéresse, on sait que la Marquise de Pomspring connected with the counting apparatus is allowed padour à été élevée au rang de Duchesse par brevet royal to act on an arm-lever or rod, which will stop the clock

du 12 octobre 1752. Elle fut en conséquence de ce titre work, so that the number of rotations made by the prin- présentée, à cette époque, au Roi et à la Reine et eut le cipal or other shaft within a given time may be seen at

droit d'ajouter à ses armoiries la ronne et le manteau ducals.

“ Veuillez agréer, Prince, l'expression de mes sentiOne of these beautiful pieces of mechanism is

ments les plus distingués, etc. etc. Le chef de Section, attached to the stationary engine in the new chargé de l'Administration des Archives de l'Empire, workshops of the Stockton and Darlington Rail- pendant l'absence du Directeur Général en congé. way Company in this town, and is made to count

“ (Sign.)


"A Son Altesse up to 4,999,999 revolutions, when it requires to

“Monseigneur le Prince Rhodocanakis, etc. etc. be reset, which is done at once by a key. Enlarge

« Kersal Dale Villa, the capacity of the box for the peripheries, and

“ Broughton, with suitable clock-work for winding, instead of

Angleterre." an eight-day we could have a year-day (?) clock.



xii. 411.) — In corroboration of MR. HERMANN MADAME DE POMPADOUR.

KINDT's note there appears, among the recent

“Papers connected with the Abyssinian Expedi(3rd S. xii. 153, 214.)

tion” (No. 397, p. 178), a letter, written in very From the contents of the following letter, written indifferent French, from "Fr. Alexander Ms. Marby the representative of the General Director of zara Bridgtower," who says he has documentary the Archives of the French Empire, it may be seen evidence (1784-95) showing that an Abyssinian



“ MERCI " (3rd S. xi. 66.) — As a person who has passed all his life among Latin races, perhaps I always have a negative sense, though it is con

at table). The tone and gesture has a great deal born herself in a small village of the province of thing exactly may be said of the Italian grazie Cadiz, called Bornos, and her first work, called and the Spanish gracias. The Portuguese obri husband was the Marquis of Arco Hermoso. She either; and I well remember Marshal Beresford's pected with an unexpected and violent death, too Lisbon, if a Portuguese guest unwittingly answered

anger, when he helped a dish at his dinners at

noble came to London from Poland (Polonie), | lady occupied an apartment in the Alcazar of Se. where he married Mary Ursula, of the family of ville, which has been appropriated to her use by the Counts Schmidt. Ile was a great favourite the Queen of Spain. It is said that she wishes to of George III., who gave his son the name of retire into a convent, but as yet this intention has “George Bridgtower," and who would have made not been put into execution. The reputation of the latter an admiral but for his being short- Fernan Caballero, on this side of the Pyrenees

, is sighted. He however displayed great talent for chiefly owing to an amiable and erudite French music, became an excellent player on the violin, gentleman, Monsieur Antoine de Latour, formerly and was appointed by George IV. director of the preceptor to the Duc de Montpensier, and a resicourt concerts, with a residence at Carlton House. dent in his family at Seville. Monsieur de Latour From his intimacy with the royal family, he was has himself written various interesting works on mixed up with the trial of Queen Caroline ; but Andalucia and other parts of Spain, The work disapproving of certain steps taken in the case, he that Fernan Caballero prefers himself (or herself) retired into private life, and was subsequently is the Familia de Alvareda. I think most persons deprived of his pension through the intrigues of will give the palm to the first part of the Gariota

, a personal enemy. On the accession of her pre- which is an admirable description of popular life. sent Majesty, “Sir Bridgtower,” who had been The second part, which attempts to describe living at Bath, returned to London, and presented fashionable society, a thing for various reasons his daughter the writer's mother) to the Queen, always so difficult, is immeasurably inferior. expressing a hope that a place might be found

HOWDEN. for her among the ladies of the court: an arrangement, however, which was not carried out. The personal experience give a singular example of

LUNAR INFLUENCE (3rd S. xi. 8.) – I can from writer further states, that his great-grandfather was the irrefutable influence exercised by the moon the rightful heir to the throne of Abyssinia ; that he proceeded to Dresden, Rome (where he kissed and beautiful species of matting made in Brazil,

over vegetable matter. There is a rery excellent the Pope's toe), Paris, and London; and that he was known as the "Black Prince.” He refers casion to wonder why some of these mats, at the

near the new town of Petropolis. I had often ocfor information to Archbishop Manning, the Eng- same prices and of the same appearances

, lasted for lish Consulat Alexandria, and to Monsignor only a few weeks, while others lasted as many Bianchieri.

months, and I was told as an incontrovertible fact

, AGE OF THE VÂLMîKI RÃMÂYANA (3rd S. xii. in which I believe from experiment, that when 264.)—A communication I have received from the canes for making the mats were cut between Oxford makes the important discovery, that there the new and full moon they retained their hardwas recently a MS. copy, dated 1433, in the Bod- ness, while if cut during the waning moon ther leian Library :


“Oxford. “ The MS. of Valmiki's Ramayana, dated 1433 (A.D.), Symson is said to have died in 1742 in the note

MATTHIAS SYMBON (3rd S. xii. 348.)—Matthias formed part of the well-known Fraser Collection. When to Nichols's Literary Illustrations (vol. i. p. 357)

, the books of that library were removed to the New

where will be found a few of his letters to Dr. Museum, the Fraser MSS. were deposited for a time in Zachary Grey. the Bodleian Library. They have now been removed from that library, and are, as I am informed, offered for sale. The only way, therefore, of getting information on the points mentioned by Colonel Ellis is by applying to the Radcliffe Trustees.

may be allowed to state that merci alone does not M.M."

R. R. W. ELLIS. Starcross, Exeter.

FERNAN CABALLERO (3rd S. xi. 22.) – Mr. to say to this, one way or the other. I NoELL RADECLIFFE's question should not have tradict S. H.' as to its absolute signification, for remained so long unanswered had I seen it before the very fact of the verb remercier quelqu'un being In 3rd S. xi. 163, there is indeed an answer,

but adopted in France as a civil manner of saying that Faber

, whose father was born at Hamburg, was situation, shows its negative tendency. The more A Summer in Bornos, was written there. Her first gado is used more decidedly, married again, and there are circumstances, conpainful be . vo; at


L. L. II.

as a

negative than

which the marshal used invariably to say fiercely,

“ The fact of a lady in distress applying to some reObrigado si, senhor, o obrigado no? As for the nowned knight for assistance, belongs as much to the word thanks, it is universally now employed in the history of chivalry as to its romance. Vows on the Heron,

the Pheasant, and the Peacock, to do some deeds of arms, most select society—ask Lord Granville.

were common in the olden times." HOWDEN.

No doubt the charming poetess had looked for BISHOP KEN's HYMNS (3rd S. xii. 327.)-Bishop authorities for her theme, beyond the picture Ken was by no means the first who paraphrased which immediately suggested it, where the peathe original hymns. Every admirer of the Religio cock, in his gorgeous plumage, was chosen as best Medici of Sir Thomas Browne must have found suited to the extraordinary powers of the artist's there a beautiful hymn of thirty lines, which he magnificent pencil. The poem admirably determs “ the Dormitive I take to bedward"; and scribes the picture, and thence pursues an imain which nearly the whole of the Evening, and ginary tale in which the valiant knight Leoni part of the Morning Hymn, are plainly embodied. vows on the peacock to redress the wrongs of the As the book is so readily accessible, I quote only unfortunate Queen of Cyprus. Perhaps Messrs. a few lines :

Saunders and Ottley may still preserve copies of * Let no Dreams my Head infest,

this interesting volume ? BUSHEY HEATH. But such as Jacob's Temples blest. While I do rest, my Soul advance;

POLKINHORN (3rd S. xii. 330.)- In the third Make me sleep a Holy Trance;

edition of Burke's General Armory is the followThat I may, my rest being wronght,

ing account: Awake into some holy thought,

“POLKINGHORNE (Polkinghorne, co. Cornwall; traceAnd with as active vigour run

able to the year 1299. The heiress of the elder branch marMy course as doth the nimble Sun.

ried, circa 1500, Williams, who took the name and arms Sleep is a death ; O make me try,

of Polkinghorne, and was ancestor of Otho Polkinghorne, By sleeping, what it is to die;

whose daughter and heir, Mary, married Thomas Glynn, And as gently lay my Head

of Helston, Esq., and is now represented by the Rev. On my Grave, as now my Bed.

Richard Gerveys Grylls of Helston). Ar. three bars sa. Howere I rest, great God, let me

Crest. An arm in armour, embowed, holding a battle-
Awake again at least with thee.

axe ppr.”
And thus assured behold I lie
Securely or to wake or die."

In a note respecting the family of Keigwin of

CALCUTTENSIS. Mousehole, in vol. ii. p. 664 of Burke's Dictionary “THE DARK-LOOKING MAN” (3rd S. xii. 79, of the Landed Gentry, 1852, it is stated that, in 250, 316.) - Similar mottoes in Mr. Barham's Borlase's MSS. in the possession of the late Sir writings are :

John St. Aubyn, Bart., it is said that, in: 1410,

John Polkinghorne, of Cornwall, married Mar1. “ Hos ego versiculos feci; tulit alter honores.

garet, daughter of Carne Keigwin. I wrote the lines: stole them : he told stories."

The name is classed by Bowditch, in his Suf(Parody on “ Death of Sir John Moore.")

folk * Surnames (3rd edition, 1861), among those 2. “ Virginibus puerisque canto.- Horace.

derived from music. He met with the name in Old maids and bachelors I chant to.-T. J.!". an English divorce case of Mr. and Mrs. Polking

(“Aunt Fanny.”)

horne in order for trial, May, 1859. 3. “ To Mrs. Hughes, who made me do 'em,

W. H. W. T. Quod placeo est-si placeo-tuum!"

Somerset House, London, The last was inscribed in a copy of the In PETER WILKINS (1st S. x. 212.) goldsby Legends, presented by their author to Mrs.

“ I think I have clearly traced his (Robert Paltock's] Hughes, to whose encouragement the production band in another work of fiction published shorals afterof very many of them was in great part owing, wards, to which in a future communication I may draw

X. C. the attention of the readers of N. & Q.'

“Jas. CROSSLEY." THE VOW OF THE PEACOCK (3rd S. xii. 108, 336.) A. A. will find, in the Royal Academy Exhibition Catalogue for 1835, “The Chivalric Vow of the referred to, and which I also believe from examin

aware, I beg to supply what I believe is the book Ladies and the Peacock, D. M'Clise,” with a

ation is by Robert Paltock. It is : quotation referring to its origin, which may ex. plain the subject; but which, not preserving the

" Memoirs of the Life of Parnese, a Spanish Lady of catalogue, I cannot supply. This splendid pic-lated from the Spanish MS. By R. P. Gent. Lond. for

Vast Fortune, written by herself . (62 words ] transtorial achievement was the object of universal W. Owen, &c., and W. Clarke. 1751, 12mo. Dedicated attraction, and, among other excitements, inspired to Mrs. Frances Mitchell

, wife of the Member for Westthe pen of the gifted L. E. L., whose volume, bury, Wilts, Nov. 3, 1750." entitled The Vow of the Peacock, was published

OLPHAR HAMST, Bibliophile. by Saunders and Ottley in the autumn of the same Suffolk County means Boston, and its immediate viciyear. The preface observes:

nity, U.S.

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