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pag. 2; Icon S. Hieronymi, Char. Goth. Donatus ethim
ologisatus; Char. Goth. Cf. Santander, ii, 380; Brunet, ELIUS DONATUS DE GRAMMATICA. and Panzer. One edition under this title was printed at (3rd S. xi. 6.)
Spire, a. 1471. (In the Royal Library, Brit. Mus.)
Another at Memmingen. Donatus Minor cum Remigio THE HISTORY OF PRINTING.
ad vsum Scholarü anglicanarū pusillorü in domo Caxton
westmonasterio (Wynkyn de Worde], quarto. See (1• S. i. 277, 340, 402; viii. 62; 2nd S. v. 439; Dibdin's edition of Ames & Herbert, ii. 306-8. “ In the xi. 23; xii. 124, 171.)
Pepysian collection, Cambridge, supposed to be unique.”
Hartshorne. Is it not the same edition as that mentioned " It seems unpardonable,” says Beloe, in his Anecdotes
in the Bodleian Catalogue, 4to, Lond. per Wynandum de of Literature, iv. 365, “ to undertake the giving an ac
Worde, s. a. ? Wynkyn de Worde, Caxton's journeyman, count of the writers on the subject of Grammar, without
continued printing from 1495 to 1536. Editio altera, saying something of Donatus, whose tract on the eight
Donatus pro pueris. Ad calcem, Printed at Westparts of speech has afforded so fertile a source of discussion
mynstre in Caxton's house, by Wynkyn de Worde, Char. to bibliograpbers. Popular as this tract was, and useful
Goth. as it probably was found, it seems a reasonable conjec “ It is well known to the learned,” says Cotton, " that ture that in the infancy of typography this might exer
Strasburg (Argentina) is one of those towns which put cise the first labours of the earlier printers. We know in a claim to the honour of giving birth to the typothat this was the case with regard to Sweynheim and graphic art ; and it has been contended by Schapflin and Pannartz, whose first production it was at their press established at the Subiaco monastery” (in the Cam
others that John Gutenberg printed here between the
years 1440 and 1450." See Santander, vol. i. 81, sq.) pagna di Roma. “ They commenced their splendid typographical career by working off three hundred copies Donatus is supposed to have been the first proof a small book which they named Donatus pro puerulis
, duction of the Gutenberg press at Strasbourg of which it is supposed not a single fragment has survived between the years 1436 and 1440. See Fischer's to our days.”—Cotton's Typographical Gazetteer, p. 273. Typographischen Seltenheiter, pt. 1, p. 86 (referred Cf. Quirinus de Scriptor. Optim. Editionibus, edit. a Schelhornio, p. 233. " Those who are fond of biblio
to in the Bibliotheca Spenceriana, iii. 63.) There graphical researches respecting the early editions of the can be no doubt but that Donatus was also printed grammar of Ælius Donatus may in addition to what is at Mentz, and perhaps by more than one of the said of them in Warton's interesting note [Price's edit. ii. first printers at that place, Gutenberg, Fust, and 117) consult the facsimile plates of the ancient editions Schoiffer. See Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana ab printed abroad in Meerman's Orig. Typog. vol. ii., and the clear and erudite manner in which Daunon discourses Angelo Roccha, p. 411, and Santander, ii. 179. respecting the early editions by Sweynheim and Pannartz “Whoever is desirous of having a fair idea of what and others.” [The labours of Sweynheim and Pannartz may properly be called the evidence which we possess extended from 1467 to 1475.]
respecting the invention of typography must not too im“ Analyse des Opinions diverses sur l' Origine de l'Im- plicitly trust Santander ; as, to serve the present turn, primerie, p. 15 et seq. The following from Mr. George and bolster up his particular opinions, he seldom scruples Chalmers is well worth subjoining. The Donat which is to omit whatever would make against his system, or to mentioned in this record was a grammar ; from Donatus, exaggerate and give a forced interpretation to what he a celebrated grammarian, who was the preceptor of St. thinks in its favour. Thus in quoting the testimony of Jerome, and lived at Rome in the year of the Christian Ulric Zell, in the Cologne Chronicle, he is quite silent æra 354. (By an easy transition the Donat came to sig- upon what is said in it of the Donatuses of Holland; and nify the Elements of any art.") Ames and Herbert's in like manner, when in the few remaining pages of his Typ. Antiq. ed. by Dibdin, vol. ii. 306. “ Donatus non dissertation he has occasion to cite the very interesting Authoris sed libri cujusdam titulus, estque Institutio account of the invention and establishment of printing at Grammatices, Harlemi ligno foliatim incisa, ibidemque Mentz, inserted in the Annales Hirsaugienses (see chap. circa annum Christi 1410 edita, et sic conglutinata, teste iv.), and which was written by the respectable TritheP. Scriverio in Tract. de Arte Typographica. Vulgo mius upon the authority of Schaffer himself, he studiartis Typographicæ primum specimen habetur.—Beug- ously leaves out the beginning of the narrative Lad hern, Incurubula Typographia, s. v. Donatus; cf. Meer annum 1450] evidently because it states that the first man, i. p. 127. “Meerman's book is written with the
book printed by Gutenberg and Fust was printed from enview of demonstrating that Koster was the inventor of graved wooden blocks, and that the idea of separate characthe art of printing; and that Harlem, not Mentz, may ters did not occur to them till afterwards; and he thought claim the honour of priority. ..... Fanciful as his the circumstance likely to throw discredit upon the dehypothesis relating to Harlem and Koster may appear, positions of the Strasburg process; which he had before his book contains a great deal of curious and important introduced, in proof that Gutenberg had attempted to matter, in the greatest degree illustrative of the early print with moveable characters, at Strasburg, as early as history of typography. On the subject of the Donatus 1436 or 1438.” Ottley, p. 150. assigned by Meerman to Koster (antè an. 1441 ] see his “ The earlier productions of the presses of the illustriOrig. Typ. C. v. 16;" Beloe's Anecdotes of Literature, iv. ous firm of printers, Guttemberg, Fust, and Schoeffer, pp. 368, 395. cf. Chevillier, p. 283 ; Oudin's Dissert. de supposed to have been executed between the years 1450 primis artis typographicæ inventoribus, vol. iii. 2743, and and 1455, are The Mazarine Latin Bible in two large and Ottley's Inquiry concerning the Invention of Printing, magnificent volumes, of which seven copies are known: p. 166, who gives extracts from another work written to a Donatus (for which consult the catalogue of the Duke support the claims of Haerlem, Dissertation sur l'origine de la Vallière, tom, ii. p. 8, and Denis' Supplement to the de l'invention et le perfectionnement de l'Imprimerie, par Annales Typographici of Maittaire, p. 555), and a ConfesJacques Koning, Amsterdam, 1819, 8vo.
sio generalis, or Modus Confitendi, a small rudely-executed Meerman describes thirteen early printed editions of tract consisting of eight leaves in quarto.” Cotton, s. v. Donatus, inter alia: Donatas Minor. pag. 1, Icon Docentis. Moguntina. There is a specimen of this portion of Dona
tus in the Vallière Catalogue, and in Heincken's Idée among bibliographers, or given them more trouble.". Générale d'une collection complète d' Estampes, p. 257, &c. Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography. “More ample information and discussion on the invention Santander (vol. ii. 380) describes various fragments of of this noble art, and the claims of Guttenberg, may be the “Donatus," which have at different times been disfound in Obeiline's Essai sur les annales de la vie de Jean covered. See also Sotheby's Principia Typog., p. 129, sq. Gutenberg, 1801; Fischer's Essai sur les monumens Typo
In reference to the beautiful and interesting graphiques de Gutenberg, 1802, 4to: Danon's Analyse, ut suprà, 1803, 8vo; and the better known works of Schoep- volume entitled Diomedes, Radcliffe (Bibliotheca flin, Meerman, Fournier, Heinecken, and Lambinet.” | Chetham., vol. ii. No. 5564), remarks: Chalmers' Biographical Dictionary, Dibdin's Typographi
“ Editio Princeps et Perantiqua; cum illuminationibus, cal Antiquities. A large number of testimonies in favour
Per Nicolaum Jenson Gallicum. Sine anni et loci indicio. of Mentz is given in Oudin's Dissert. ut suprà, capp. ii, iii., and Palmer's General History of Printing, b. 1. chap. iii.
(Jenson Venetiis. Artem typographicam exercuisse ab anno
1461 ad 1481 memoravit Maittaire ap. Annal. Typog. pp. 9, 12. “The original instrument, which is dated Nov.
vol. i. p. 37, 899.)” The contents, which may be gathered 6th, 1455, is decisive in favour of Guttemberg; but the honour of single types, made of metal, is ascribed to
from the first leaf (the authors in this collection de re
grammatica, are Diomedes, Phocas, Caper, Agrætius, Faust, wherein he received great assistance from his ser
Donatus, Servius, and Sergius), are given by Beloe, vant and son-in-law, Peter Schoeffer," &c.—Luckombe's History and Art of Printing. “The general opinion
of iv. 375, and Dibdin's
Bibliotheca Spenceriana, iii. 62.
The former observes, .This book is by no means of comlate writers is that the art was first perfected at Mentz
mon occurrence.' I only know of one, which is in the by the famous trio, Fust, Gutenberg, and Schoeffer ; but that nevertheless the earliest use of moveable types must
collection of Lord Spencer.” “This impression is debe recognised in the rude specimens attributed to Lau- Magliabech. vol. i. col 615–16.” Dibdin. See also De
scribed with sufficient minuteness by Fossi in the Bibl. rence Coster of Haarlem."—Blades's Life and Typography Bure, Belles Lettres, i. 2259 ; and Brunet, who remarks of William Carton, i. p. 38. Dibdin, ut suprà, describes a Donatus without name of printer, place, or date, folio.
that it was intended as a sequel to Nonnius Marcellus “Whether Pfister (who had a press at Bamberg from printed by Jenson in 1476. 1461 to 1481, see Bibl. Spencer. i, 94] or Gutenberg be
“I gladly avail myself,” says Beloe, “ of this opportuthe printer of it, it is impossible to speak with decision, son) who has conferred such essential obligations upon
nity to pay my tribute of respect to an individual (Jenbut every page of the impression wears so rude an aspect literature. So sensible of this have the friends of literathat I know of few books which carry a stronger appearance of having been executed by means of wooden
ture been that, like Homer, it has been contended what blocks than the one under description. It has neither
place had the honour of his birth ; some having pretended signatures, numerals, nor catch words, and every page ex
that he was a German, and others a native of Denmark.
The truth is, that he was born in France, and was occucept the last contains 25 lines."
pied in some department of the mint at Tours, in NorNuremberg was amongst the first places to mandy.. As our Caxton was sent by Henry VI. at the admit the newly-discovered art of printing. Creus- instigation of Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury,
Jenson was sent to Mentz by Louis XI., a great friend ner printed there from 1473 to 1497. Brunet
of learning, to be initiated in the mysteries of the new art mentions an edition, "Impressum p. Fridericum of printing
.. Jenson established himself at Venice, Kreusner” (a Nuremberg, vers. 1472,) which is and produced a great number of books between the years deposited in the public library, as we are told by 1470 and 1482. . . It is probable that he died about Santander, vol. ii. pp. 380-1. See also Beloe, his name. Some writers have erroneously ascribed to
year 1481, as after that period no book appeared with
Jenson the honour of the invention of printing ; but this Augsburgh, Augusta Vindelicorum, was fur- has arisen from a misconception or from a too literal innished with the art of printing at a very early terpretation of certain passages concerning him, which period. Denis describes a Donatus, Augustæ Vin
were only intended to claim to him the improvement, delicorum, per Herman Kaestlin, 1481. In the
and not the contrivance of the art."-iv. pp. 403-6. Bodleian.
“A reimpression of this collection appeared in 1486, 4to,
Vicent. per Henr. de sancto Urso.-Ed. alt. fol. Ven. In the same year it was printed Venetiis per 1495.-Ed. alt. Jo. Riuius recensuit, fol. Ven. per Jo. Erhardum Ratdolt. Joannes de Spira established Rubeum et Bernardinum fratres Vercellenses, 1511.his press at Venice in 1469.
Grammatici varii, sc. Probus; Max Victorinus; Donatus ; Cologne, Colonia Agrippina, an imperial city of Seruius ; Sergius; Attilius Fortunatianus ; Donatianus ; Germany, was one of the first towns to receive Joh. Parrhasio, fol. Mediolani, Joh. Ang. Seinzenzeler, and adopt the art of printing after it had been 1504.-Grammatici illustres 12, fol. in ædibus Ascens. promulgated from Mayence. Donatus was there 1516.-Diomedes grammaticus aliique decem et novem printed in 1499 and 1500. Panzer describes no authores, &c. fol. Venet. 1522.-Diomedis grammatici less than forty-two editions of grammatical tracts
opus ab Joh. Cæsario emendatum ; item Donati de oraby this author, or commentaries on them, after
tionis partibus et barbarismo libellus ab eodem recognithis date.
tus, 8vo. Haganoæ, per Joh. Secerium, 1526.-Rei gram
matice [Scriptores ], scil. Palæmon, Scaurus, Donatus, “ The popularity of the Ars Grammatica, especially of &c. 8vo. Basil. per Adamum Petrum, 1527.-Grammathe second part, De octo partibus Orationis, is sufficiently ticæ Latinæ auctores Latini per Heliam Putschium editi. evinced by the prodigious number of editions which ap- 4to. Hanov. 1605. Donatus is one of the thirty grampeared during the infancy of printing, most of them in marians in this collection. See De Bure, 2250; Fabricii Gothic characters, without date or name of place or of prin- Bibl. Latina, pp. 256–64; ejusdem Suppl. 781-97; Bibl. ter, and the typographical history of no work, with the Regiæ Catalogus in Brit. Museo.-Corpus Grammaticorum exception of the Scriptures, has excited more interest Latinorum veterum collegit, auxit, recensuit, ac potiorem
lectionis varietatem adjecit Frid. Lindemannus. 3 vols. in another (fol. 154), by mistake, Cara Cowz in 4to, Lips. These are all in the Bodleian library. Gres-Clowze, rendering both the hoare rock in the wood; well, in his Annals of Parisian Typography, mentions Diomedis de arte grammatica opus utilissimum, per
and as we know that Camden saw Carew's MS., Joan. Petit. Sequuntur Phocas, Caper, Agrætius, Dona what can be plainer than that he took the name tus, Servius et Sergius. Char. Rom. 4to, T. Kerver, and its rendering from him, the latter part of both 1494.
being somehow or other omitted ? The work of Donatus has usually been pub That the place had the name of St. Michael's lished in the form of two or more distinct and Mount before its connection with Mont Sant Miseparate tracts-1, "Ars sive Editio prima, de chel (Normandy) is plain from the way it is named literis, syllabis, pedibus et tonis.” This tract was in Domesday, and in the Charter of Edward the printed in Bedæ Opp. vol. i. as well as in the col- Confessor given in Oliver's Monasticon, Davies lections of Putschius and Lindemannus. “Editio Gilbert, &c. By the bye, the Rev. Rice Rees, in Secunda, de octo partibus Orationis,” as above, his Essay on Welsh Saints
, published 1836, says also in Bede's Opp. ; but Dr. Giles, in his new that the old story of St. Keyna meeting her edition, rejects these, as they can no longer be re- nephew, St. Cadoc, at Mount St. Michael, has notained among Bede's works. To these are com- | thing to do with Cornwall
, the hill in question monly, annexed, “ De barbarismo,” “De soloe- being one so called near Abergavenny, which still cismo,”. “De ceteris vitiis,”. “De metaplasmo," maintains its sacred character. " De schematibus,” “ De tropis.”
If I am wrong in the illustration I used of BIBLIOTHECAR, CHETHAM. Penny come quick, I err in good company --Pro
fessor Max Müller, in his paper on “The Jews in
Cornwall” (Macmillan, April, p. 486), using it in a CORNISH NAME OF ST. MICHAEL'S MOUNT.
way. It is true an, not y, is the Cornish (3rd S. xi. 357, 522.)
article. Yis Welsh; but, as the Welsh and CorI by no means stated in my communication nish were formerly but one language, y may re(3rd S. xi. 357) that St. Michael's Mount could main as an article in some old names, and it is. not bave had two designations. I know well, from recognised as the article by Lhuyd, Borlase, long study of Cornish names, that most of these Pryce, &c.
'JOHN BANNISTER. are significant appellatives, and that these appella Parsonage, St. Day, Cornwall. tions are taken from some one of many noticeable features, and that as different persons would
Having very recently visited the British Muchoose different characteristics to distinguish the same place or object by, it would have several the earliest authority for the old Cornish name of
seum library, I am able to state that Carew is not names, until one, by common usage and consent, the Mount, for it is mentioned by Camden, came to be considered as a, in fact, the proper though less fully than by Carew, in the four name.
editions of his Britannia (1586, 1587, 1594, and Nor did I deny that com, “old," was Cornish. It 1600) published before the date of the first edition is given as such” by Borlase, but I am inclined to of the Survey (1602). In each he gives the think he borrowed it from the Armoric. It is not found in Williams's invaluable Lexicon Cornu Bri- den, who is said to have made his survey in 1584,
name thus: “ Careg Cowse, i. e. rupis cana.” Nortannicum, but is given in Le Gonidec's Dictionnaire gives the name in the same form. Breton-Française. As an Armoric word, bowever,
WM. PENGELLY. as Le Gonidec says, “ dans la bouche de plusieurs
Torquay. Bretons," z would be sounded th, which would make it the same as the Cornish coth, " old," of the Lexicon; but further, as t, th; d, dh in old
CARA Cowz in CLOWZE. — Though somewhat Cornish, became in later times s, z, Camden's
new to this branch of criticism, I may perhaps be Careg Cowse might be old rock. But this is not able, from my knowledge of the Celtic tongue the term used by either of Camden's translators.
the source of the error (fol. 154). Further confirmation Gough has Grey; Bishop Gibson, Hoary rock.
is found (fol. 6), where Carew gives Caraclouse as the comOf course, what is old may be grey or hoary. mon name of a peculiar stone, now called Catacleuse or
Now, though in this remote corner of England Catacleu. I cannot have access to Camden's original Latin
• I should feel obliged to the Editor to give the oritext, yet I am pretty sure he did not intend, ginal Latin of “ Careg Cowse, i. e. a boary rock.” This
is given by Bishop Gibson as part of the text. So also whatever word he uses, to mean simply old. Philemon Holland, p. 188 (ed. 1610) “ Careg Cowse, that William of Worcester gives us “le Hore rok in is, the hoary crag or rock." The author of the Life of the Wodd;" Carew gives as the Cornish of this Carew, prefixed to the edition of his works, 1769, says, in one place (fol. 3) Cara Clowse in Cowse ; * and “Mr. Camden, in the sixth edition of his Britannia,
printed in 1607, acknowledges, at the end of his account of * I overlooked this in my former communication. This Cornwall, that our author had been his chief guide through reading fully confirms the conjecture I threw out as to it."
in its various dialects, to throw a little light on sale dated Nov. 25, 1755. It was closed by the the British name of St. Michael's Mount, as above last favourite, Madame du Barri, in 1771 : her quoted. If I am not mistaken it is Carrig glas na influence over her royal lover having become cloiehé. As the name appears to have been taken paramount. It passed into private hands, and down phonetically by Carew, Camden, Gilbert, still exists as a private residence. It appears from and the other authorities alluded to in your note, the memoirs of Madame du Hausset, the waitingthe words given by them correspond pretty closely woman of Madame de Pompadour, that there with the Celtic pronunciation of the name, as I were never more than two women, and very often suppose it to be. The meaning of my version, only one at the same time in the house, which however, is not “the grey rock in the wood," but was frequently vacant for several months. Lebel, “the grey rock of the stone," or seat or chair. the king's valet de chambre, was at the head of the This derivation includes both “Myghel's Mount small establishment under an assumed name, and and Chaire."
the king himself passed as a nobleman of the Your readers have all heard of the stone (or court. When the favour of the fair prisoner coronation chair) of Scone, on which the Scot- began to wane, she was married in the provinces tish kings were crowned ; and the term applies with a dowry of 100,000 livres. If she became a equally to the seat on which the great Cornish mother there, she was seldom allowed to retain saint was supposed to be “enthroned." There is her child, which received an annuity of 10,000 or no such word as Clowze or Kuz in the Cornish 12,000 livres. As years passed on, the recipients language; nor is there any expression that sounds of this bounty became numerous, and when any like either of them which denotes "a wood,” so died the others inherited the portion that had far as I know. The name for it in Gaelic is thus lapsed. It would be impossible to say what Coillé; and although I have not a Cornish dic- may have been the entire outlay on the Parc aux tionary beside
I am inclined to think that the Cerfs; but the assertion of the historian Lacreterm used there is not very dissimilar in sound or telle, who carries the sum up to a hundred milspelling from that which I have given. Whereas lions, is evidently a gross exaggeration--as well cloiche (the genitive of claeh, or stone,) comes as that of Soulavie, in the Memoirs of the Duke de tolerably near the phonetic Clowze, while it brings Richelieu, who states that Louis XV. had porout precisely the ancient British name of St. tioned off as many as 1800 damsels, who resided Michael's Mount-Carrig glas na cloiché, or the in various elegant little retreats dispersed up and Grey Rock and Chair.
W. M. S. down the Parc. M. le Roi has reduced all these Aberdeen,
wild reports to the dull level of fact; and if the
hoary voluptuary is not exonerated, at all events PARC AUX CERFS.
the measure of his iniquity is much lightened. .(3rd S. xii. 8.)
In connection with this subject, I may be allowed The Parc aux Cerfs of Louis XV. had a real to state that M. le Roi's book contains some very existence, although it has been the subject of curious particulars concerning the two personages much exaggeration, especially by writers of the who established and brought to a close an instirevolutionary period. The recent researches of tution of so peculiar a character. The learned M. le Roi, the conservateur de la Bibliothèque de librarian has brought to light the contemporaVersaille, have thrown much light on what has neous manuscript reports of the actual cost to hitherto been an historical mystery. They are to
France of the reign of these two sultanas. The be found in his interesting work entitled Curio
sums distributed by Madame de Pompadour, dursités historiques sur Louis XIII, XIV, et xv, ing the nineteen years of her favour, amount to Mesdames de Maintenon, de Pompadour, et Du- 36,327,268 livres 16 sous and 5 deniers; and barri, copy of which is in the library of the those expended by Madame du Barri, from the British Museum.
commencement of her influence in 1769 to the The original Parc aux Cerfs was founded by time of her death on the scaffold in 1793, reach Louis XIII. for the rearing of animals for the the amount of 12,429,559 livres. M. le Roi gives chase, and existed until 1094, when Louis XIV. the details of these enormous sums, and very took the land for building. The notorious sera
curious they are; but it would lead too far to glio of his successor took its name from being enter into further particulars, and I can only refer situated in a street built on the ground. It con
to his interesting volume. J. B. DITCHFIELD. sisted of one small house, containing only four rooms and a few closets, and was situated in the present Of the detestable grossness of Louis XV. there Rue St. Médéric at Versailles. It was established can be no shadow of a doubt. On the authority of by Madame de Pompadour as a means of retain- Lacretelle, Fantin, and Voltaire, The Penny Cycloing her influence over the king, when her own padia says, charms had ceased to captivate him. The house “ After the death of his mistress, the Marchioness of was bought for him, as appears by the deed of Pompadour, an ambitious intriguing woman, but who had
still some elevation of mind, he became attached to a fact, not an unexampled one ; for there is no animal so more vulgar woman, Du Barry, and at last formed a re strange as man." gular harem after the fashion of the Eastern sultans, but more odious from its contrast with European manners,
This was the Devil turning monk with a vengewhich was called the Parc aux Cerfs ” (xiv. 168). “ The ance! Carlyle quotes as his authorities for this court of France, which, from the time of the Merovingian singular fact Dulaure and Besenval. Those who founders of the monarchy, had been, with the exception are well read in French memoirs of the eighteenth of a very few reigns, remarkable for its licentiousness, be-century will doubtless remember numerous allucame, during the regency and the subsequent reign of sions to this royal pigsty. When we read of such Louis XV., the abode of the most barefaced profligacy.
The accounts of those scenes which have been practices carried on by a monarch of one of the transmitted to us in the memoirs of several of the actors, greatest nations of the earth, how can we avoid a and women too, seem almost incredible." -- (Madame feeling of regret at the failure of the dagger of Necker, Nouveaux Melange Historiques, ii. 39; Penny Damiens? Those good folks who believe in “ roseCyc., iii. 511.)*
water surgery," and who are thrilled with horror Capefigue (Louis XV et la Société du 18e siècle, when they read of the guillotine massacres, should , ch. xlix. an. 1774) says,
remember that, bad as the guillotine was, the Parc * On entrait dans cette société dont le mariage de Figaro aux Cerfs and the Lettre de cachet system were inderint ensuite l'expression
l'école encyclopédique finitely worse. For these and other diseases, le avait ravagé les idées et les meurs; le sensualisme de rasoir national was a severe but an effectual cure. Diderot, les petits contes libertins de Crébillon, de Mar
JONATHAN BOUCHIER. montel, avaient achevé de déhonter le monde; c'était de l'ivresse ; le pouvoir se laissait briser comme la famille ;
5, Selwood Place, Brompton, S.W. on ne s'expliquait même pas comment une telle démoralisation pouvait durer."
T. J. BUCKTON.
BATTLE OF BAUGÉ AND THE CARMICHAELS Streatham Place, S.
OF THAT ILK.
(3rd S. xi. 120, 483.) This is not a particularly pleasant subject to write about; still, as the mission of “N. & Q." is I should have replied sooner to the remarks of to elicit truth and to clear up doubts, unpleasant J. R. C. on this subject, but I was in hopes of subjects must occasionally be introduced into its having a thorough search in the Lee charter chest pages. There can be no doubt that Louis XV., for any documents bearing on the question; as I who I suppose was one of the most wicked kings
find, however, that some time must elapse before that ever disgraced a throne, maintained this this can be carried out, I think it better not to establishment. Sir Archibald Alison (History
delay any longer. of Europe, ed. 1853, vol. i. p. 181), quoting La
1.' J. R. C. assumes that a William de Carcretelle as his authority, says,
michael, mentioned in a deed of 1410, is the same "It was no wonder the Parisians were tired of Louis person who attests the two documents to which XV. The Parc aux Cerfs alone cost the nation, while it ħe refers, dated 1423 and 1434 respectively. was kept up, no less than 100,000,000 francs, or 4,000,0001. This is extremely improbable, looking to the sterling."
average duration of life at the period, and the Again, at p. 182,
fact that the attestor of the later deed is men“What is very remarkable, her (Madame du Barri's] tioned in 1437, and must have survived that date lasting ascendency was founded, in a great degree, on the for a number of years. The explanation is, that skill with which she sought out, and the taste with which
they were a grandfather and grandson, and that she arrayed other rivals to herself; and the numerous beauties of the establishment called the Parc aux Cerfs,
Sir John of Baugé was the son of the one and
the father of the other. who were successively led to the royal couch, never diminished her lasting influence.”
What has misled J. R. C. is supposing that, Carlyle, who is an incontrovertible authority on
because the latter is described as William Carall matters connected with the Revolution and the
michael of that ilk in 1423, and Dominus ejusdem times immediately preceding it, alludes to this in
in 1434, it is impossible that at these dates there famous establishment in his French Revolution,
could have been a Sir John in existence, and in vol. i. p. 14:
possession of the family estates. The error arises
from inattention to the rules which regulate the "Was he (Louis XV.) not wont to catechise his very girls in the Parc aux Cerfs, and pray with and for them, tenure and transmission of lands in Scotland, and that they might preserve their-orthodoxy? A strange
the principles of the feudal system of holdings.
Through the kindness of my friend Mr. Fal• Of one of these girls-for I will not call them ladies coner, of Usk, I have before me the proof sheets Mademoiselle Clairon, it was said :
of a pamphlet he is about to publish upon the “Son triumphe le plus certain
pedigree of the Dalmahoys of that ilk: one entry Est d'avoir en débauche égale Messaline.” in which illustrates most forcibly the point in
Capefigue, xlvii. 384 n. question. It is as follows: