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“A Description of Hagley, Envil, and the Leasowes, QUALIFICATIONS FOR VOTING (3rd S. xii. 130.) wherein all the Latin Inscriptions are Translated and every The information which ANTIQUARY requires as to particular Beauty described. Interspersed with Critical the qualifications of voting under the old system Observations. Birmingham : Printed by M. Swinney will be found in the Parliamentary Return, No. 82, for the Author," &c. There is neither date nor author's name. The

of 1867: "A List in alphabetical order of the first pages are taken up by a dissertation on gar- Reform Bill of 1832, and stating the nature of

Boroughs in England and Wales previous to the in the disposition of objects

in parks and
pleasure the suffrage existing in each borough.”

PHILIP S. King. grounds. Is this book also by Mr. White ?

ROTTEN Row (3rd S. xii. 423.)–

The only places

that I know of in Yorkshire where this name ACTION OF HORSES (3rd S. xii. 328, 448.) – exists or did exist are Holbeck and Morley, near R. B.'s observations are very correct as to the Leeds; Halifax, Otley, and Wakefield, where the natural action of horses, but there is an artificial old · Ratten Row” has become Bread Street. I one I have often seen practised among the Spaniards find it said that a writer in the Archæologia, x. of Manilla, as also among the Arabs of Algeria, 61, states that the name was to be met with at which consists in fastening the legs of young three places in this county—York, Sedburgh, and horses so as to accustom them—without preventing Darlington. There is no Ratten Row at York, their gait—to put both legs of the same side forward, and if there is at either of the remaining places instead of alternately, to walk amble. This mode,

a directory does not show. There is the bare if less agreeable to the eye, is much easier to the

legend of the name at another place or two in seat. Napoleon I., especially in the latter years this county. The fact is, that owing to the word of his marvellous imperial career, when his body “Ratten or “Rattan" identifying itself with had become more unwieldy, used to ride in that Rat in the Yorkshire vernacular everywhere, the way during his long weary marches in the campaign popular disposition is to get rid of the obnoxious of 1814, so admirably depicted by Meissonier, name, and where this has not been done a “ Ratwith his all-observing eye, in one of those gems ten Row” with us has a degenerated deplorable of his we lately saw at the Universal Exhibition

aspect indeed.

C. C. R. in Paris.

P. A. L.

CURIOUS TENURE (3rd S. xii. 207.)-The grant The answer to MR. RAMAGE's query would

was to the Earl of Abergavenny in tail male. depend upon the pace. Lawrence on the Structure

Similar grants, eren of peerages, have been made. and Economy of the Horse, 8vo, has diagrams to illustrate the different paces, which, if I remem

The earldom of Devon was one, and I think

there were five others—one of which is before ber right, are cleverly done, but it must be twenty

the House of Peers now. But such grants of years since I had the book in my hands. P. P.

land or peerages were most unusual. FRAYT (3rd S. xii . 434.)- This is an abbrevia

J. WILKINS, B.C.L. tion of fraytoure, fratery, the brethren's chamber, the refectory or hall of a monastic establishment. I apprehend the origin of the saying to which

DORCHESTER, Co. Oxford (3rd S. xii. 346.) In the Glossary of Architecture, under “Frater- Mr. Beisly refers is about as truthful as the dehouse,” the following passages are quoted:

rivation of the name of the Isle of Thanet given • Freytoure, refectorium.”Prompt. Paro. "Thanne ferd I in to fraytoure.”—P. Ploughman's by Isidore of Seville (Originum lib. ix. c. 2): Crede, 403.

Oávatos, a morte serpentum, because it inflicted “William Lord Latimer in his will, 1381, bequeaths death on every serpent that came within its sundry pieces of plate to the Convent at Gisburn


J. WILKINS, B.C.L. ** qu'ils soient en le freytoure pour servir le dit Priour et Covent perpetuelment.”—Test. Ebor. p. 114.

Saxon SPADES (3rd S. xii. 414.)- I think that " In the south alley of the Cloysters is a large hall | M. D. is entirely mistaken in his idea of the form called the Frater-house. In this Frater-house the prior of the Saxon spades. Although the representaand the whole convent held the great feast of St. Cuth- tion of an object may be only in outline, we must bert in Lent."- Antient Rites of Durham, p. 128.

not infer that the middle is all hollow. Perhaps Sympree.--I have not found another instance M. D. has concluded that they were made " so as of the use of this word. It seems to be a corrup- to represent a two-pronged fork, with a sharption of saint pré, the holy ground, campo santo, edged bar between the points,” from the fact that which is sometimes styled the cloister-garth—" the the drawing which he has seen may have been body of Saint Cuthbert was again translated out devoid of shading in the centre. I wish I had of the cloister-garth.(Antient Rites of Durham, the opportunity at the present moment of examinp. 114, quoted in Parker's Glossary). It might ing the Bayeux Tapestry, as I did with much thus mean a churchyard or cemetery.

interest some time ago. Several spades in the W. E. BARKLEY. hands of Saxons are given there. They occur


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also in many old illuminations. My own feeling others alluded to, and is confined to the shores of on this point (which is not new to me) has been, the United Kingdom. The loss on existing copies, and is, that the handle and blade, together about even by wear and tear, will increase in proportion a yard long, were made of wood-apparently one to the length of time since they were largely piece of wood; that the handle was set in one issued. How many copies now in existence will side of the blade, and not in the middle like the be found at the end of 1100 years? Why, they inodern spade; that the cutting edge was not will be more valuable than an uncut Fifteener is square, but round ; and that this cutting edge was defended with a piece of thin iron, or other metal, Since the above was written, a friend, more conof the shape of a horseshoe, or half a letter 0. versant with statistics than I presume to be, ba A reference to any good drawing of the tapestry, given me the following calculations : -The average or any illumination where Saxon rural subjects existence of a Bible, or other book of the cheaply occur, but especially the tapestry, will illustrate printed class, looking to wear and tear alone, canwhat I mean.

P. HUTCHINSON. not be put higher than 150 years, and is in fact

much less. Consequently, before the expiration WRITING KNOWN TO PINDAR (3rd S. xii. 397.) of 1100 years, every copy already issued will reGranted that Dr. Donaldson has satisfactorily quire to have been replaced about eight times, proved that λέγειν and γράφειν never mean to read” or “ write,” in Pindar: that no more proves divided by 860,000 issued annually during the

making a tidy total of 421,000,000 copies; which that Pindar could not read or write, than the last sixty years, would require, at the present non-occurrence of the word "telegram” in the

rate of issue, a period of 408} years to replaceWellington despatches prores that the duke never sent or received a telegraphic message.


to say nothing of the loss which must occur in

the earlier issues of the 1100 years referred to. dotus was born B.C. 484. He wrote (quoting

RUSTICUS. from Rawlinson's translation) –

PHILOBIBLUS is all abroad in his statistics. He Paper rolls also were called from of old parchments makes a clerical error where, assuming that each by the Ionians, because formerly, when paper was scarce, they used instead the skins of sheep and goats, on which of the 53,000,000 of Bibles already distributed has materials many of the barbarians are even now wont to reached one reader, and one only, he gives the write."-Book v. chap. Iviii.

" remainder requiring Bibles " as 999,947,000 inHerodotus is not prophesying, but speaking of stead of 947,000,000 : but to proceed on such an things within his own actual knowledge. I ap- assumption at all, and to carry it out by so exprehend that the words, “ from of old," refer to traordinary a process of multiplication into equitimes antecedent to Pindar

, or 490 B.C.; and pre- valents of time and money as that he employs, fer the words of a contemporary historian to the are wonderful feats of logic and arithmetic. conjectures of a modern critic. Homer certainly

JOB J. B. WORKARD. (Iliad, i. 168) shows that in his time the Greeks “ALBUMAZAR”: THE TOMKINS FAVILY (3rd S. wrote on folding wooden tablets.

ix. 178, 259.) – MR. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT, in a

J. WILKINS, B.C.L. note which I fancy fully settles the Shakespearian BIBLE STATISTICS (3rd S. xii. 412.) - If ever

authorship of Albumazar, speaking of Tomkins one had to point to an instance of statistics run

says “Tomkis is a mere clerical error," which it mad, no better example could be found than this probably is; but in a Latin letter I possess, adarticle of PAILOBIBLUS.

dressed by Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, to 1. He appears to assume that no Bibles were

Justell of_Paris, he says that he sends it by ever printed except by the Bible Society.

Dominus Tomkisonus Cantabrigiensis, a man of 2. That a Bible once issued must last for ever. great learning. I should like to know whether He makes no allowance for wear and tear, and a in writing Latin it was customary to suppress the well-used but often-thumbed Bible will not last 12? or are both to be considered as clerical errors a lifetime. He makes no allowance for the fact, is it one of the musical and poetical family of

This name, I imagine, stands for Tomkinson ; or that many persons have more, and frequently more, than one copy. Wilful and careless destruc

Tomkins ?

P. A. L. tion he takes no note of : far less that of the loss LUNAR INFLUENCE (3rd S. xi. 8;xii. 444.)-I bare by various accidents, by fires, hurricanes, ship- lately met with a singular superstition respecting wrecks, &c. Take the latter cause alone, our lunar influence, which is perhaps worth noting. wreck charts give on a yearly average 1100 of During the last harvest two or three young girls these disasters. Take on an average only three were retiring to rest, and one of them was admirBibles lost in each, and extend it over sixty years, ing the moon, which was near the full and shining and you have from that cause alone a loss of brightly in at the window. On seeing this the about 200,000 copies; and this is but one of eldest cried out, “Pull down the blind, and shut the smallest causes of loss, compared with the it close, or else the moon will drive us) mad.

Don't you see how round and bright it is ? it will “ VENICE IN 1848-9” (3rd S. xii. 414.)— The take our senses away.

This harvest moon is fullest account of this history is in the Life of strong." The blind was down instantly, for the Daniel Manin, the President of the Provisional moon's influence was accepted without question. Government, written in French by Henri Martin,

T. T. W. and translated and published in English in 2 vols. JENNER QUERIES (3rd S. xii. 423.)—Sir Thomas account of the same from an opposite point of

about ten years ago. There is also an interesting Jenner's wife was Anne, the daughter and beir of view in the Quarterly Review for December, 1849, James Poe, the son of Dr. Leonard Poe, physician containing among other things, a much fuller and to Queen Elizabeth and her two successors ; and fairer account of the very liberal offer made by by her he had two daughters and eleven sons, the Austrian Government in May, 1848, offering from one of whom descended Sir Herbert Jenner- to both Lombardy and Venetia ali but merely Fust, the late Dean of the Arches. See Foss's

nominal independence (more than is now enjoyed Judges of England, vii. 243.

D. S.

by Hungary !), and insanely rejected by the proMusical HISTORY (3rd S. xii. 376.)-A score

visional governments of both, under the delusion of Stradella's oratorio, San Gioranni Battista, is that, by tighting it out, they would be able to gain amongst the manuscripts in the library of the what they have at last now, independence in Sacred Harmonic Society. Should H. E. W. de

name as well as reality. Yet so determined were sire to see it, he may do so by placing himself in the Italians in this view, that even the mild and communication with me.


estimable Count Saffi, in a long conversation with

me in 1860, justified this course. RICHARDSONS OF Rich HILL (3rd S. xii. 286.) For those who can read German, there is a full In answer to an inquiry in a recent “N. & Q.," and probably more impartial account of the state I am able to state that John Richardson (the of Venice in the Conversations-Lexicon, article second son of Edward, who married Miss Sache- “ Venedig." yerel, and thereby acquired the Rich Hill estate, There is also a very able and conciliatory " Adin the co. of Armagh) married Anne Beckett; dress to the German Nation," entitled also “Gerwho she was it seems impossible to ascertain, as many, Austria, and Italy,” in defence of the Italian no marriage settlements or other documents to Revolution, and calling on Germany to take part establish her family connections now exist.

with, instead of against Italy, by H. Stieglitz, a

C. M. E. German poet who, like Byron, had fixed his resiYANKEES (3rd S. xii. 469, 492.)—ILIADES is en

dence in Venice, and died there the very day the

Austrians entered it, August 24, 1849. It is dated tirely mistaken in supposing that I used this word in a sense as wide as the American nation. I hope May, 1848, and is in the British Museum in GerI know better. The fact is that I picked up many

man and Italian.

W. D. years ago the phrase I used, "powerfully, as the « LORD SINCLAIR AND THE MEN OF GULDYankees say," from an esteemed friend who was BRAND DALE” (3rd S. xii. 475.) – An English born and bred in Virginia. Whether it properly version of this song was printed about fifty years belongs to the southern or north-eastern States is ago, with its noble tune, in a Collection (or Seleca question as to which ILIADES and my friend are tion) of Danish and Norwegian Melodies, folio, evidently at variance; and it is not for me, who the pianoforte accompaniment by Stokes. Quotnerer crossed the Atlantic, talem componere litem. ing the first stanza from memory, it ran thus: I am extremely sorry if my use of a phrase which “ Across the sea came the Sinclair brave, has long been familiar should have given offence

And he steer'd for the Norway border; to any one; but I can assure ILIADES that I only

In Guldebrand valley he found his grave, used it proverbially, and without any immediate

And his merry men fell in disorder.”

WM. CHAPPELL. reference to any portion of the American nation. GEORGE VERE IRVING. “ GAB” (3rd S. xi. 337.)-MR. SKEAT says

that [In the year 1828 there appeared at Portland in Ame- the origin of this term is lost in the dimness of rica, The Yankee and Boston Literary Gazette, edited by antiquity. It is doubtlessly Norman French, and J. Neale and J. W. Miller. -Ed.]

is to be found in the same sense, namely, gaber, to In reference to the note of ILIADES, I venture

talk much and idly, in the “Chanson de Roland," to ask by what name in America the national air supposed to have been written a little before Wii

HOWDEN. is called, which in this country is known as

liam's descent on England. " Yankee Doodle" ? Is it “ Brother Jonathan

QUOTATION WANTED (3rd S. xi. 470.) – There Doodle”? Or if a correspondent of “N. & Q.are two slight inaccuracies in this answer. The speaks of “Yankee Doodle," does he run the risk lines are not in a canzonet by Lope de Vega, but of giving offence to ILIADES and other sensitive | in his play of El Marques de las Navas. This Americans ?

H. P. D. metre and distribution of rhyme is in Spanish

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called redondilla, and is constantly used by the old as Earl of Cornwall, which presents only an armed dramatists to conclude a scene or an act. It was figure, may be seen in Dugdale's Monasticon, Foli the father of the late Lord Holland, not the late pp. 583-4. A small illuminated portrait of Herr Lord Holland, who translated these verses in his d'Almayne, the eldest son of Richard, is pretired Life of Lope de Vega. HOWDEN. to his Memoir in Capgrave's Illustrious Hearing


Cott. MS., Tib. A. viii. This saying is certainly not confined to Dublin. SILVER PLATE ON THE DOOR OF A Pew (3rd &. I recollect when I was studying in Paris as a boy, xii. 393.) – I do not remember ever having si that it was a common remark, passed into a pro a silver plate on the door of a pew, but I saw severb among the students of the "Pays Latin,” that veral brass ones in the parish church of Darling is. you could not pass the Pont Neuf without meeting before its recent restoration. That which pointed a white or grey horse.

HOWDEN. out the pew connected with an hotel in the to BISHOP OF MADURA (3rd S. xi. 510.)—Surely

was as large and conspicuous as an ordinary docthis is a mistake. Madura is at the extreme south plate, and, to alter Hood a little, of the Indian Peninsula, where Catholicism was

“Door plates were not more brazen." early established, and where the Jesuits had a It is some years since I have been in Newark college.

HOWDEN. church, but I believe my memory is not playing DryDEN REFERENCES (3rd S. xii. 413.)-The those who appropriated sittings after the restora

me false when it prompts me to say that many of reference is to Pliny, Nat. Hist. 1. iii

. c. 9. Pliny tion of that noble edifice caused their crest or mois enumerating different cities of Latium, and continues thus :

nogram to be painted below the poppyhead der which they sat.

ST. SWITEIX. “ Superque Roma ipsa cujus alterum nomen dicere arcanis cæremoniarum nefas habebatur: optimaque et

Eighteen years ago I saw such plates, engraved salutari fide abolitum enuntiavit Valerius Soranus, luit with the proprietor's name, in St. Nicholas's que mos pænas."

church, Durham.

CUTHBERT BEDE The real name, according to Macrobius, was CELTIC OR ROMAN ORNAMENTS (3rd S. xii. 374 kept secret from the notion that no city could be Does MR. Dixon appeal to me for a reply? Then taken till its tutelar gods had first been called he pays me too great a compliment. Setting this from it, and in this evocation the real name of aside, however, it must be obvious that the risk the city had to be used. As long, therefore, as

would be great in any one who would venture to this name was kept secret, the entry was safe. Pliny speaks to much the same effect, Nat. Hist.

pronounce upon the nice distinctions in Celtic a

Roman ornamentation, on objects which he has xxviii. 4. :

not seen. In the remote periods of all ancient “Verrius Flaccus auctores ponit, quibus credat in op- nations the devices were for the most part simple: pugnationibus ante omnia solituin a Romanis sacerdotibus evocari Deum cujus in tutela id oppidum esset : promit

and in many instances those of different nations tique illi eundem, aut ampliorem apud Romanos cultum. not very dissimilar from each other when placed Et durat in pontificum disciplina id sacrum : constatque

side by side. That is to say, the devices may not ideo occultatum, in cujus Dei tutela Roma esset ne qui have been very unlike, but the style and arrangehostium simili modo agerent.”

ment were so much so, that any casual obserre From these passages it appears that not only would see the difference, and would readily assiz the name of the city was kept secret, but also the one object bearing them to one nation, and another name of the tutelar god, for a similar reason. to another. The parts may be much alike, bu:

The secret Latin name was said to be Valentia. the whole in each case very different. Dots, zig

The form of evocation is given by Macrobius, zags, spirals, circles, these simple figures are knowa and one of Plutarch's Questiones Romanæ is — to have been used by the people of many ancient

“ Cur tutelarem Romæ Deum masne sit an femina, nations, cut on rocks, or marked on their shields, dicere nefas est : cum Valerium Soranum male periisse weapons, trinkets, utensils, or the skin of their narrent qui illud edidissct.” (Vid. Harduin in Plin. od own bodies. But the difference between Celtic loc.)

or Roman work (or that of any other people D. J. K.

would be manifest in the style and arrangement RICHARD, KING OF THE ROMANS (3rd S. xii. of the ornamentation, as well as in the object of 434.) — The only portrait of Richard of any de- which they are found. The articles produced at scription which I have hitherto seen, is that the meeting of the Swisse Romande Society are afforded by his seal, of which a very fine impres- | very interesting, and from MR. Dixon's lucid desion is in the Manuscript Room at the British scription I incline to the feeling that they are not Museum, and engravings of it (not very like) may Roman; but without seeing the objects it would be found in Speed's Chronicle, and Sandford's be hazardous to give a decided opinion as to their Genealogical History. An engraving of his seal nationality.


PETER AND PATRICK (3rd S. xii. 107.)– The HALTON (3rd S. xii. 373.)-There is also an Editor says that in Scotland Peter is continually Halton in Craven.

S. J. used as a nom d'amitie for Patrick, but the reverse

BISHOP GEDDES (3rd S. xii. 383.)-I have a never occurs. Such was my own opinion when I read the statement. I have since made inquiry witíkie was comin' frae the fair” is ascribed to

" It was a wee bit

song-book in which the song on the subject, and have been assured that sometimes Patrick is used for Peter. The friend from I think this is a mistake ; and that Geddes who

“ Geddes, who was a Roman Catholic bishop.” whom I had my information knows a gentleman wrote that humorous effusion was a Scotch Cathwhose name iš Peter, who is as often called olic priest of the same name, perhaps family, but Patrick as he is called Peter. D. MACPHAIL.

not the bishop.

S. J. Johnstone.

6 THE SABBATH" NOT MERELY A PURITAN RICHARD BRINSLEY SHERIDAN (3rd S. xii. 434.) TERM (3rd S. xi. 50, 220.)-I have recently met By a fortuitous circumstance I am enabled to

with a still earlier instance of the use of Sabbath afford your correspondent !. A. the information for Sunday in an inventory of church plate and he requires. In my collection I have the portrait vestments of the year 1552, which is printed in of Sheridan, in his twenty-fifth year, painted in the Ritual Blue Book, p. 149: 1775 by Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A., and to it is attached the original contract, dated the 3rd Floweres' de luces, and other Floweres theruppon for

“ Item, a Coope of purpull velvett with aungells, July, 1780, entered into between Sheridan as

Saboth dayes." Director of the King's Opera House, of the one

E. S. D. part, and Auguste Vestris (the celebrated dancer) of the other part, duly signed by both, stamped, the word Griffin, used to designate a Welshman,

GRIFFIN (3rd S. xi. 501.)--MR. SKEAT says that and attested. In it Sheridan is described in Italian as “ Impresario del Teatro dell'Opera de that a much more simple and obvious derivation

is apparently a corruption of Griffith. I conceive sua Maestà Britannica in Londra," and below in is the Griffin (Griffin to the vulgar eye, though French as “ Directeur de l'Opéra de Londres.".

The Opera House in question is the one alluded Cockatrice in the Heralds' Office), which was emto by J. A., and an engraving of its exterior as it blazoned on the ancient shield of the Principality.

HOWDEN. existed immediately before its destruction in June, 1789 (made from an original drawing by the late

HawK BELLS (3rd S. xii. 433.) - Hawking was Wm. Capon), may be seen in Smith's tistorical known in England in the eighth century; for and Literary Curiosities (Bohn, 1840), wherein it Winifred or Boniface, Archbishop of Mons, who is mentioned that Ridant's Feucing Academy was

was himself a native of England, presented to over the entrance hall, and that the front was Ethelbert, King of Kent, one hawk and two falbuilt of red brick rusticated with good gauged cons; and a king of the Mercians requested the work.

same Winifred to send him two falcons that had It was always reported that Signor Carnivalli been trained to kill cranes (Warton's Hist. Eng. set fire to the theatre, and he is said to bare con Poet. vol. ii. p. 221). We have no positive infessed the act when at the point of death.

formation of the exact date of the introduction of

HENRY F. HOLT. hawk bells; but being such a simple contrivance, King's Road, Clapham Park.

they were probably in use at a very early period.

The Boke of S. Albans says: In Sheridaniana, 1826, p. 144, the following pas

“ There is great choice of sparrow-hawk bells, and they sage occurs, ushering in some anecdotes of Sheridan's connection with the Italian Opera. The

are cheap enough; but for gos-bawk bells, those made at

Milan are called the best ; and indeed, they are excellent: chapter is headed “1793,” showing that the house

for they are commonly sounded with silver, and charged referred to is not the one which was burnt down for accordingly. But we have good bells brought from in 1789:

Dordreght (Dort) which are well paired, and produce a “Mr. Sheridan,' savs Kelly,' appointed Stephen Storace

very shrill but pleasant sound." and myself joint directors of the Italian Opera, with a

If silver was really mixed with the metal, it carte blanche; but he was proprietor, and of course consulted on all important points.'

certainly would not have improved their tone; H. P. D. though it has been a popular error that silver,

mixed with the metal when bells are cast, adds BAIRN (3rd S. xii. 177.) - J. C. J. asks if baimn much to the sweetness of the tone. The same is used in Scotland to signify a female child. I book says that the bells should not be too heavy, believe the word was originally applied to boys to impede the flight of the bird ; and that they only, but now it is applied to both boys and girls. should be of equal weight, sonorous, shrill, and Bairns is synonymous with reans, i. e. children. musical ; not both of one sound, but the one a

D. MACPHAIL. semitone below the other. In a flight of hawks Johnstone.

it was arranged that the different bells varied in

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