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is largely circulated and read in England, in the form of tracts. It may soon be found that the elaborate work of Dr. Davidson on the New Testament, in which he has refuted (as some suggest unnecessarily) so many errors of the Strauss and Tübingen schools was published none too early.

Another answer would be that in discussing and overthrowing an error, valuable truths are elicited. The collision casts new light on some important doctrine. Fresh and interesting aspects of a subject are presented, which might have remained, in the ordinary and peaceful study, forever unknown. The strength of a beam is not known till it is tested by a heavy weight. Truth is not seen to be invincible till it has come out of a sharp encounter. Amid the storms of the last thirty years, it has struck its roots deeper than ever. Till it felt the tempest, it was not known how sound its heart was. The im pregnable position in which the Gospels stand was not apprehended, till Strauss and his followers had exhausted their quivers. reasons, and others that might be named, we think that no apology is needed for the frequent discussions in our pages of topics in biblical criticism, and for meeting, so far as we are able, the attacks which are made on the volume of inspiration, whatever form they may assume. In so doing, we are consulting the best interests of the church and of the country, by providing weapons by which the truth may be successfully defended.

For these

It is for the reasons above stated, in part, that we have translated and condensed the article which follows. It is the substance of the Introduction to the Commentary on the Epistles of Paul to Timothy and Titus, published in Göttingen in 1850, by Dr. J. E. Huther of Schwerin. It is well known that the genuineness of these epistles has been doubted or strenuously denied by De Wette and others, on several grounds, which will be specified. Dr. Huther has, as we think, satisfactorily refuted these objections, and vindicated the Pauline authorship. Great value has been given to the discussion, also by the manner in which the author has discussed the question of a second imprisonment of Paul at Rome. It is well known, that this has long been a subject of great interest, and involved in no little difficulty. It appears to us that Dr. Huther, if he has not completely established the theory of a second imprisonment, has at least rendered it much more probable than that of a single imprisonment, on which Wieseler has lately expended so much pains and so many acute remarks. Dr. Huther's commentary is the latest which has appeared on the Pastoral Epistles, and is a continuation of that of Dr. Meyer. VOL. VIII, No. 30.

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BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES OF TIMOTHY AND TITUS.

son,"

Timothy was the son of a Christian Jewess, whose name was Eunice; his father was a Greek. His birth-place cannot be definitely determined, for that Aegßaios, Acts 20: 4, is to be connected with xai Tipó eos, is at least very improbable, since the position of the xai is rather against this connection than in favor of it. That exɛi, Acts 16: 1, refers to "Lystra," is in the highest degree probable, but it does not follow that Timothy was born in Lystra. Timothy had received a pious education from his mother and grandmother, whose name was Lois; he was also conversant from a child with the sacred Scriptures of the Jews, 2 Tim. 1: 5. 3: 14, 15. Paul became acquainted with him first at Lystra, on his missionary journey. He was already a disciple, parris, and was well reported of among the believers in Lystra and Iconium. That Paul calls him his “ 1 Tim. 1: 1. 2 Tim. 1: 1. 1 Cor. 4: 17, arises from the fact that he had received his first knowledge of the Gospel through the Apostle, either immediately, or through his mother and his grandmother, 2 Tim. 3: 14. Paul took him as a helper in his work; yet he previously circumcised him, as his father was known in that region to be a heathen. As an assistant Timothy accompanied the Apostle on his journey to Philippi. When Paul and Silas left this city, Acts 16: 40, Timothy, with some others of Paul's companions, seems to have remained there some time. In Berea, they were again together. When Paul journeyed to Athens, Timothy and Silas continued in Berea; still, Paul left word for him to come to him immediately, Acts 17: 14, 15; this probably he did. Not long after, Paul sent him to Thessalonica, to ascertain the condition of the church there and to strengthen it, 1 Thess. 3: 1-5. When Timothy had performed this duty, he again met Paul at Corinth. Timothy's name is inscribed in the two epistles to the Thessalonians, which Paul wrote from this place, 1 Thess. 1: 1. 2 Thess. 1: 1. When Paul, on his third missionary tour, tarried a long time at Ephesus, Timothy was with him; where he had been in the intermediate time is not known. Still, before the uproar caused by Demetrius, Paul sent him from Ephesus to Macedonia, Acts 19:22. Immediately Paul wrote the so-called first Epistle to the Corinthians, from which it appears that Timothy had been directed to go to Corinth, but that Paul did not suppose that he would reach the city, till after the reception of the epistle, 1 Cor. 4: 17. 16: 10, 11. When Paul wrote from Macedonia the second epistle to the

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Corinthians, Timothy was again with him, for his name appears in the superscription; this would be inserted the more readily, as Timothy had just left Corinth. Then he went with Paul to Corinth, for that he was with him there is shown by the salutation which Paul conveys from him to the church in Rome, Rom. 16: 21. When Paul, after three months' abode, left Greece, Timothy, with other helpers, accompanied him. He journeyed with him axons Acías, i. e. to Philippi, whence was the route over to Asia Minor. Thence Timothy and some others preceded Paul to Troas, where they remained till the Apostle arrived, Acts 20: 3-6. Here there is a large gap in Timothy's history, as he is not again named till Paul's imprisonment at Rome. That he was with the Apostle, is clear from the fact that his name is in the inscription to Paul's epistles to the Colossians, Philemon and the Philippians; another reason for the supposition is, that none of Paul's companions stood in so close relations to him as Timothy. When Paul wrote to the Philippians he designed to send Timothy as soon as possible to them, so as to learn more exactly the circumstances of the church, Phil. 2: 19, seq. From the two epistles to Timothy, we learn the following facts in regard to his life. On a journey to Macedonia, Paul sent him back to Ephesus, that he might there oppose the false doctrines that were constantly extending, 1 Tim. 1: 3. Probably, when entering on this service, if not earlier, Timothy was solemnly consecrated to his office by the laying on of hands by the Apostle and the "presbytery," where the fairest hopes were expressed concerning him, by prophetic words, comp. 1 Tim. 1: 18. 4: 14, 2 Tim. 1:6; he had already witnessed a good confession, 1 Tim. 6: 12. Still, Paul then hoped immediately to come to him. At a later time, Paul found himself a prisoner at Rome. When he anticipated his death as drawing near, he wrote to Timothy that he should come to him immediately, before winter, that he should bring Mark with him, and also certain articles which he had left at Troas, 2 Tim. 4: 9, 13, 21.

There is no mention of Timothy elsewhere in the New Testament, except in Heb. 13: 23; that the Timothy here named might be another Timothy, is certainly possible, but it is not probable. From this passage, it appears that Timothy, when the Epistle to the Hebrews was written, was a second time set at liberty, and that the author of the epistle intended, in company with Timothy, if he came soon, to see those to whom the epistle was sent. According to church tradition, Timothy was the first bishop of Ephesus. From the First Epistle

1 Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. III. 4, says : Τιμόθεος τῆς ἐν ̓ Εφέσῳ παροικίας ἱστορεῖ ται πρῶτος τὴν ἐπισκοπὴν εἰληφέναι. Comp. also Const. Apost. 1, 7, c. 46, Photii Bibl 254, Chrysost. Homil. 15 in 1 Tim.

to Timothy, we merely learn that the oversight of the church at Ephesus was committed to Timothy by the Apostle, a similar office to that exercised by the apostles over the Christian churches; it was a station in which the later special episcopal office might have taken root, yet it is by no means to be regarded as identical with it.

We have still less knowledge of the life of Titus than of that of Timothy. He also was a helper of Paul, and as such is first named, Gal. 2: 1, Paul mentioning, that on a journey to Jerusalem, undertaken fourteen years after his conversion, he took Titus with him. Though he was of heathen descent, Paul did not permit him to be circumcised, as he would not "give place" to his adversaries. When Paul had written the First Epistle to the Corinthians, he sent Titus to Corinth, so as to obtain information of the state of the church. After Paul had hoped in vain to find him at Troas, 2 Cor. 2: 12, he met him in Macedonia, 2 Cor. 7: 6. The notices which Titus brought, occasioned the writing of the Second Epistle to the Corinthians. With this epistle he sent Titus the second time to Corinth, where he was to complete the collections for the poor saints at Jerusalem, which had been before commenced, 2 Cor. 8: 6. 16: 23. When Paul was imprisoned at Rome, Titus had gone to Dalmatia, 2 Tim. 4: 10.

From the epistle itself, we learn, that Titus had aided the apostle in his missionary labors in Crete, and was left there by him, in order to finish what was further needed for the church, Tit. 1:5. In ch. 3: 12, Paul directs him to come to him at Nicopolis, where he expected "to winter." As the apostle calls him his "genuine son, according to the common faith," it would appear that he was converted by Paul.

Ecclesiastical tradition makes Titus the first bishop of Crete. Eusebius, after stating in regard to Timothy, what we have already quoted, goes on to say, "As Titus, who was over the churches in Crete." Titus is said to have died in Crete, in his 94th year, and to have been buried there.

TIME OF WRITING THE PASTORAL EPISTLES.

First Epistle to Timothy. In respect to the time of the authorship of this epistle, different views have prevailed from an early period, as it is difficult to bring it, in accordance with the internal indications, within the sphere of Paul's life known to us. According to the notices in the epistle, Paul and Timothy were together for a long time

1 Hist. Eccl. III. 4. Comp. Hieron. Catal. Script. Eccl., Theodoret in 1 Tim. III. Theophylact, Prooem. ad Tit., Const. Apos. VII. 46.

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in Ephesus; then Paul journeyed to Macedonia, and left Timothy in Ephesus, to oppose the false doctrines taught there. Probably Paul wrote to him this epistle from Macedonia, in which he reminds him of his service in Ephesus, and gives him the instructions already mentioned; for if he hoped immediately to return to Ephesus, still he might think that delay was possible. According to the Acts, Paul was twice in Ephesus, the first time on his second missionary tour from Antioch, as he returned from Corinth to Antioch, Acts 18: 19. In the first instance, he stopped there but a short time, as he wished to be at Jerusalem at the approaching feast. During this period, we cannot at all place the authorship. Paul was at Ephesus the second time, on his third missionary tour. He remained there between two and three years, and, after the commotion caused by Demetrius, travelled to Macedonia and Greece. Theodoret, and many other interpreters after him, suppose that Paul wrote the First Epistle to Timothy, on this journey to Macedonia, or in Macedonia, Acts 20: 1, 2. Still, the following circumstances are adverse to this view: 1. According to Acts 19: 20, Paul had already sent Timothy to Macedonia, before his own departure from Ephesus. That Timothy, who had a commission to go to Corinth, 1 Cor. 4: 17, returned to Ephesus before the apostle left that city, as the latter certainly may have expected, 1 Cor. 16: 11, is not stated. 2. When Paul undertook the journey to Macedonia, he seems by no means to have designed to return immediately to Ephesus, as he decidedly hoped to do, when he wrote the epistle, 1 Tim. 3: 14, for, on his return from Greece, he passed from Troas without stopping at Ephesus, Acts 20: 16. We must, therefore, if this theory is correct, conclude that Paul afterwards altered the determination which he still cherished in Macedonia; yet, of such alteration there is not the smallest trace, but, according to 1 Cor. 16: 3, 4 and Rom. 15: 23-5, he had already designed, on his travels through Macedonia to Corinth, and then in Corinth itself, to travel thence as rapidly as possible to Jerusalem. 3. According to 2 Cor. 1: 1, Timothy was with Paul when the latter wrote his second epistle to the Corinthians, from Macedonia, and according to Acts 20: 4, he accompanied the apostle in his journey from Corinth to Philippi. Consequently Timothy, after Paul's departure from Ephesus, must likewise have left that city, though the apostle had directed him to remain there till his return, which still can with difficulty be supposed. All these reasons show that the journey of the apostle from Ephesus to Macedonia, mentioned Acts 20: 1, cannot be the same of which he speaks 1 Tim. 1: 3.

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