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came the metaphor? and is it the child or the parent of the prejudice? This question they never think of answering; or should they attempt the solution of the difficulty, they would doubtless maintain that they had poured upon it all needed light, by resolving it, as they do all causality, into some unaccountable sequence of the human mind, or some inexplicable occasion through which, without any conceivable necessity therefor, it is ever running into falsehood and absurdity.

A science of psychology, says Morell, is still a desideratum. We will however hazard the assertion that in this book of Dr. Hickok such desideratum is supplied. Whatever may be thought of its completeness, it is the science of psychology-the science itself, instead of that mere writing about it, or those rambling semi-historical, semiphilosophical discussions of certain topics connected with it which form the substance of most of the treatises used in our schools and colleges. Abstract indeed the author is, but there is an intellectual beauty in the mathematical straight-forwardness with which he carries us on from section to section through every part of his condensed and well-arranged system. Independent of the truths presented, there is awakened a scientific interest allied to the aesthetic emotion called out by contemplating an exquisite work of art. It is as though some splendid and harmonious structure were rising before the eye, as we observe him, preparing for his after-work by the most exact definition, commencing next with consciousness in order to make a pure and perfect abstraction of all its content except the indestructible intuitions which, by remaining, show themselves to have been à priori conditions for all experience, then, after thus going down to the foundation, returning step by step, and building up through the aid of these shaping intuitions an à priori science, every part of which has been as rigidly demonstrated as any theorem in geometry, and lastly, going back to experience, not now for the purpose of emptying it in order to get at the underlying cognitions, but to show how its whole content is actually filled up by a law in exact correspondence with the before constructed à priori idea.

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Nothing diverts the attention from that rigid method the writer has marked out for himself. He suffers himself to be led away by none of that fondness for illustrative discussion, or still more idle philosophical story-telling which characterizes such writers as Brown and Abercrombie. In proof of this it may be observed, as a striking fact, that in this large volume, there is not a single note from beginning to end. Whatever came not directly within the field of scien

1851.] Popular Objection that it does not deal with Facts.


tific demonstration is not allowed to divert the attention even to a passing marginal remark. Could the book be introduced into the higher classes in our colleges, it would, no doubt, possess a value, even as a means of mental training, or a course of intellectual gymnastics, equal to, if not surpassing any that is afforded by the most accurate instruction in mathematics or philology.

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We can, however, very readily anticipate an objection arising from its very title page. A Rational Psychology- The Subjective Idea and the Objective Law. These, and the very common use of the words à priori, to the shame of our philosophy be it said, are sufficient to frighten many readers, and to give others a ground for condemning the work at once. It must be all transcendental moonshine, or German idealism, or Hegelianism, or something worse. Factsgive us facts. This is the law of philosophizing since the time of the great Bacon whom every body quotes. Facts says Dugald Stewart, facts says Brown,-facts says Sidney Smith,- - facts Macausays lay,facts say the Edinburgh and Westminster reviews, facts, say all the popular lecturers this is now the demand of science, of philosophy, of theology. "With facts," says the writer of a late most valuable essay, "philosophy begins, proceeds, and ends; ideas and ideal systems however profound must give way to realities." There are so many rich trains of thought in the treatise to which we now refer, that its author, we hope, will pardon our slight criticism on the passage, should it meet his eye. We should not have chosen it, had it not come in so appositely to the view we are taking. We introduce it to show that although one who thinks, and thinks profoundly, may fall into this style, he must very soon be led by the à priori necessities of his own mind, to qualify, in some way, the barrenness of such a statement. We read on- "These the mind seeks in the realm both of matter and spirit, and as thus fact after fact, and principle after principle, discovers itself in beautiful harmony, the soul rejoices, etc." But where is the scale which is to guide the ear in resolving noise into tune and proper music? In other words, what is it which converts a "fact" into a "principle," and whence the "harmony" that shapes these facts, the spirit that hovers over them, and without which they would ever remain in chaos? How are they ever to arise from the tohu and bohu which becomes darker and deeper with their accumulation, unless there is an ideal light in the soul that shines down upon them, and which is à priori to the facts themselves. We must somehow have the harmony, or who shall tell, or how shall we tell, whether they truly "rise in harmony" or not,

On the other hand, nothing can be more opposed, than the method of this book, to a smoky and mystical idealism. As the result of the most diligent study we are prepared to pronounce the author one of the most common sense writers we ever read-in other words, most in accordance with the xoai evroia, the semper ubique et ab omnibus of the universal human soul. The whole design of his book is to give a substantial ground for all our knowledge; and the result of our own individual experience in this very feeling of substantiality as opposed to all that is dreamy and sceptical. We rise from its perusal with the thought that we are on solid ground,-with a clearer conviction of a one substantial nature, a true human soul and a true human body, a dread Absolute Personality, and a moral accountability tremendously real.

It is on these accounts we feel warranted in describing this work by an epithet which is seldom applied to similar productions. It is a very serious book. Although so purely speculative there is, at times, something almost fearful in the views it presents, of the superiority of the ethical to the aesthetical and the philosophical, of our ethical relations to the Absolute Right, and the awful doom and degradation which must await the related finite personality when it irrecoverably sinks the spiritual and the supernatural into the sentient and the natural.

Should we make any objection to this part of the work, it would be to point out what seems to us an omission rather than an error. The author, we think, is led by the peculiar course of his argument to find sin too exclusively in the sentiency, or the region which connects our spirituality with nature. Certainly he would not deny a soul-sin, or a pure sin of the spirit, having its seat in the supernatural will above all temptibility from nature, and deriving an immensely enhanced malignancy from this very fact. By such sin fell the angels. By such a sin of the spirit must our first parents have first fallen, or Satan never could have tempted them through that poor sentiency on which some, theologians as well as philosophers, are so much disposed to throw the blame of all our depravity. The author's mind was too exclusively drawn to the relation of the natural to the supernatural. We regret that he did not enter into the analysis of such soul-sin; as he might well have done in connection with what he says of the aesthetic and philosophic characteristics. Such an analysis might have made the subject of one of his richest chapters.

But our space will not permit us to dwell on these important themes. Instead of giving even a summary of them we must content


Concluding Remarks.


ourselves with calling attention to a few of the admirable positions the volume furnishes for assailing some of the worst errors of the day. It is in its later chapters a complete armory of weapons against the scientific naturalism of such books as the Vestiges of Creation, and that still worse thing, the spurious ethical naturalism which sinks all ethics into physics, making the great end of human existence obedience to physical laws, and that too, through a continual exchanging of one physical good for another, as Socrates says, teaching men to be temperate through intemperance and to be brave through fear, or which has no idea of self-denial except as a means of avoiding a greater pain or securing a greater pleasure. So, also, its strong maintaining of the inherent merit of righteousness, and of course, the inherent demerit of sin irrespective of all physical consequences, leads directly to the inherent desert of punishment, and presents one of the best grounds of argument against all such theories (now so rife) that would resolve it into cure, or prevention, or a police contrivance for the preservation of order in God's political universe. For the same reason, we may say, its whole spirit is in point blank opposition to that monstrous system of theological Benthamism which makes the universe a grand sentient democracy in a state of nature, where all law and all morality are nothing more than a summed expression for the majority, or balance, of "pleasing sensations" (as a late writer defines happiness), and God is to be had in respect and deferred to, mainly as being a greater sentiency, or as having a greater capacity for happiness than all lower natures in existence.

But we must bring our long review to a close. Deeply impressed with a conviction of the value of the book, we have attempted, as well as we could, to convey that conviction, and the grounds of it, to others. In doing so we have endeavored also to discharge a debt of gratitude for the rich instruction received from its perusal. After weeks of intense study, we laid it down with the impression that it must be henceforth one of our few books, to be kept as a settled standard for future thinking. We believe the same feeling of substantiality will be left upon the mind of every intelligent man who will give it that close study which is the only worthy tribute to its intrinsic excellence.



THIS brief but lucid and, to us, satisfactory exposition of an Apostolical Church, is designed for such Greeks as are more or less convinced that the religion of their church is not the religion of the Bible, the source, and the only source, of all true religion. lowing summary will give the reader a good idea of its contents.

The fol

The true Disciples of Jesus Christ - Their Religious Guide― Nature of the Christian Church- Its Government - Bond of Union- The PastorHis Support-His Principal Duties - His Titles - His Dress - Equality of Pastors Deacons - The Lord's Supper-Nature of the Bread and Wine - Baptism - Sponsors - Mode of Baptism - Church Discipline — Anathemas, Curses, Excommunication - Prayer- Fasts-Divorce- Recreations The Lord's Day - Worship of Saints and Angels - Offerings -Pictures and Images - Theatrical Representations of the Sufferings and Death of Christ Holy Relics-Crosses Amulets-Prayers for the Dead

The Seven Sacraments - - Confession of Faith Of God - The Fall of Man and his Moral Corruption - The Incarnation of Christ- Salvation through Him-Faith and Works - Regeneration - Mediation of Christ — The Holy Scriptures State of the Soul after Death-The Resurrection and Judgment of the Dead - Everlasting Life and Punishment — Canonical Books of the Bible.

It is now more than twenty years since Dr. Jonas King settled as a missionary at Athens, the capital of that small and unhappy portion of Greece, usually known as Greece Independent. Like a servant faithful to his Master, he has labored hard for the spiritual welfare of the people among whom he lives, and his rewards have been, constant disappointment, anathemas, and curses fulminated against him by the heads of the church, insults, persecution, and many other vexations which bigotry, superstition, unprincipledness, envy and malice could devise. A Protestant missionary in Greece is, by the bigoted, hated and shunned as an accursed heretic, the enemy of the Mother of God; by the infidels, that is, by the majority of those who are

1Εκθεσις ̓Αποστολικής Εκκλησίας. Υπὸ ̓Ιωνᾶ Κίγγ. Εν Κανταβριγίᾳ τῆς Nias'Ayyhias, AQMA. [An Exposition of an Apostolical Church. By Jonas King Cambridge, New England, 1851.]

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