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Zuingli at the University of Vienna.


they had learned of the excellent endowments of Zuingli, they laid their snare for him, and prevailed upon him to go and reside in their convent, until he had arrived at the age requisite for entering upon the novitiate not doubting that they should be able, in the mean time, to so attach him to themselves, that he would join their order. But, they were frustrated in their designs. His father disapproved of this step of his son. His good sense gave him such an aversion to irrevocable engagements in early life, that he felt it necessary, in order to break entirely the connection of the youth with the Dominicans, to remove him from the circle of their influence.1

Zuingli at the University.

Zuingli had been about two years at Berne, when his uncle and father decided, in consequence of occurrences before-mentioned, that he should be sent to Vienna, whose university had become somewhat distinguished. It is not strange that the study of philosophy, as taught in the schools of that day, was somewhat irksome at first to the student, whose taste had been formed and his pleasures derived from the perusal of classical authors. Philosophy, as then pursued, was "nothing but a mass of definitions of things indefinable; of subtleties, the more admired, the less they were understood." "So barren a study," Hess continues, "would have no charms for the mind of Zuingli, which had been nourishing itself on the works of the ancients." It is, doubtless, fortunate that the young scholar was not entangled in the mazes of scholasticism, at the beginning of his course. It would perhaps have given him a distaste for study, and sent him back to follow the plough, or to watch his father's flocks. But as it was, its intricacies and barrenness only incited him to greater exertions, not only to overcome its difficulties, but his own distaste for it. And this discipline not only gave him strength and acuteness of mind for comprehending truth, but also enabled him to foil his opposers with the weapons which they used. Neither did he confine his attention to philosophy, while at Vienna, but also, as it should seem by his subsequent writings, devoted much time to astronomy and general physics, as then pursued.3

The two years of Zuingli's abode at Vienna, were long remembered by him. The reminiscences of a happy school life at the college or

1 See Hess, p. 4, Schuler, S. 13, and Bullinger's Schweitz, Chron. Ms. T. III. 2 Life of Zuingli, p. 5.

In illustration of this, see his work, De Providentia., and Hess p. 15.

university, are as enduring as existence itself. And in the struggles and turmoil of subsequent days, they come fraught with balmy odors, and gilded with bright colors. The axioms of mathematics, the principles of philosophy, and the facts of science, may fade from the memory, but the friendly guidance, the sweet soul-communion of kindred spirits, only brighten as life wears away. But, Zuingli had good reason to remember many of those with whom he was associated at Vienna. The numerous and warm-hearted letters of Joachim von Watt of St. Gall,' and Henry Loriti of Mollis, as preserved in the collection of the works of Zuingli, show an attachment equally honorable to both parties. With Eck and Faber, he was also pleasantly associated in study and amusement, but was none the less backward to battle against them, at the bidding of truth and principle. Although the latter long remained his friend, yet the noble hearted Zuingli was so outraged by his subsequent conduct, that he visits his indignation and contempt upon him with great severity.

Zuingli, as Teacher at Basle and Student in Theology.

Zuingli was not long contented to remain at home, where he had returned from Vienna. He was neither satisfied with present attainments, nor willing to hide the little light he had received. He soon went back to Basle where he had first studied, and as a situation of teacher of languages was vacant, he, a youth of scarcely eighteen years and a stranger, was offered it. His father had, although not rich, hitherto kindly and ungrudgingly afforded him the means of pursuing his studies, but he now was enabled to defray his own expenses. "He labored," says one of his biographers, "with success to facilitate and encourage the study of the ancient languages, that study which prepared the revival of letters in the fifteenth century and which will at all times afford the best basis for a liberal education." But "the duties of his situation by no means absorbed the whole active mind of Zuingli; he continued to learn as well as to teach. Among the authors which now engaged his attention we shall content ourselves with enumerating Horace, Sallust, Pliny, and [subsequently when he had become more familiar with Greek] Aristotle, Plato and Demosthenes. This labor gave him vigor to break the bands in which scholastic philosophy had, to a certain degree, fettered his understanding; it elevated him above his age, and preserved him from the narrowness of most of his contemporaries; it diffused a noble

1 Generally called Vadianus.


Love for Music-Theology.


freedom through all his opinions, taught him to make use of his reason, and kindled in his soul a love of truth, and an ardent desire to promote its triumph over error." It is probable, however, that he did not now entirely relinquish his scholastic pursuits. Too sensible had he become, that the battle of the true scholar was to be fought on this arena. Music too, in which he was so much skilled, was a solace of his lonely hours, when wearied with more laborious pursuits, as well as a means of pleasant companionship. D'Aubigne says: "Often the joyous student of the mountains of the Sentis was seen suddenly to shake off the dust of the schools, and exchanging his philosophic toils for amusement, take the lute, harp, violin, flute, dulcimer or hunting horn, and pour forth gladsome strains as in the meadows of Lisighaus, making his apartment, or the houses of his friends echo with the airs of his beloved country, and accompanying them with his own songs. In his love of music he was a true son of Tockenburg, a master among many. He played the instruments we have named, and others beside. Enthusiastically attached to the art, he diffused a taste for it through the university, not that he relished dissipation, but because he loved relaxation from the fatigue of graver studies, and its power of restoring him with fresh strength for close application." Yet he had no need of this art to draw friends and companions around him and bind them to him with indissoluble bonds. His comely person, good nature, sportiveness and wit,* his gentleness and simplicity of manner and frank generosity, scholarly habits and attainments, were stronger than all the charms of necromancy and magic.

In the meantime, Zuingli was not forgetful that his father had destined him to the study of theology. He was not a stranger to the barbarous terminology, the useless disquisitions upon more useless themes, the almost profane speculations which, at that day, were current under the name of theology. The unmeaning propositions of Duns Scotus, Occam or Albertus Magnus, who were preferred to Paul and John, had often sounded in his ears, or been presented to

1 Hess, p. 7.

2 It should be noticed here, that this art formed at that time an important part of the education of ecclesiastics. "Zuingli,” says Hess, “regarded it as an amusement calculated to refresh the mind after fatiguing exertion, and thus to give it new strength, while it softened a too great austerity of disposition; he therefore frequently recommended it to men devoted to a laborious and sedentary life."Ib. p. 13. See Schuler, S. 19.

Hist. Reformation, p. 324.

his eye. But they had little to do with the heart, and offered few attractions to the young student.1 His good sense as well as liberal training, prevented him from being carried away by the general current. Still it is difficult to say what the exact result might have been but for one fortunate circumstance.

Near the end of the year 1505, Thomas Wittenbach came to Basle from Tübingen, as teacher of theology and the higher branches of learning in the school there. He had previously lectured at the university of Tübingen, and had been associated with such men as Reuchlin, Pellican and Gabriel Biel. From Reuchlin he had imbibed a glowing enthusiasm for classical and biblical study. He had also listened to Pellican's elucidations of Scripture, and Biel's defence and exposition of the schoolmen. He was indeed learned in all the arts and sciences and literature of the day. From Wittenbach, Zuingli obtained almost his first correct ideas of Scripture doctrine and interpretation, and the primary principles of true reform. Wittenbach had already begun to speak publicly against the sale of indulgences, as a mere device of the Pope, of the corruption of the church in morals and doctrine, and of the death of Christ as the only price of man's redemption. Indeed Zuingli ever after, says Schuler, felt that Wittenbach was his first teacher and guide in true Christian Theology, and in the right knowledge of Scripture which finally led him out of the mazes of Scholastic theology, into the clear light of Christian truth as exhibited in the Gospel. Wittenbach was accustomed to say to his pupils in private, that the time was near, when the scholastic theology must be abolished and the simple teachings of the primitive church revived. He also first led Zuingli to a more accurate study of Greek, and awakened in him a zeal for it which he never lost. The friendship now begun between these men, did not end with their short abode together at Basle. Zuingli ever retained the most lively regard and friendship for this teacher, and highly valued the correspondence that was kept up between them in after years; and in hours of struggle and conflict was sustained and strengthened by his sympathy and counsel. And Zuingli in turn, when Wittenbach in 1523 expressed regret that he had wasted so many valuable hours in scholastic trifling, consoled him by the suggestion that it was not so much

1 Hess says, p. 11: "The knowledge of classical authors acquired in his early youth, had so far opened his understanding that he would no longer suffer it to be brought into blind subjection."

2 See Schroeckh, Christliche Kirchengeschichte seit der Reformation, Zweit. Th. I. Buch, V. Absch., S. 108. * Geschichte, 22.


Pastor at Glaris.

573 his fault as that of the age, and that his example would hereafter afford a warning to noble minds to free themselves sooner from such shackles.

Next to Wittenbach, perhaps Leo Juda was the most valuable of the acquaintances1 made at this time, and the most influential in respect to Zuingli's subsequent life. He combined consummate spirit, zeal and power with gentleness and kindness. Small in stature,2 weak and diseased in body, he was the most efficient aid of Zuingli in later years, and a most unfailing support of the cause of truth, after the reformer's death. He excelled in his knowledge of classical authors, was acquainted with medicine, and had great taste for and skill in music, especially vocal music. Zuingli also had many other warm friends among the younger and educated portion of the inhabitants of Basle. Thus, says Schuler, the alliance of the noble and free was constantly extended. Indeed, every youth of promise in Basle who paid homage to the rising light of human culture, was a friend of Zuingli.

Zuingli is appointed Pastor of Glaris and enters upon his duties.

When Zuingli had been four years at Basle, in 1506, he received an invitation to go to Glaris, and take the place of the village pastor who had just died. The fame of his ability and acquisitions had spread somewhat widely; but it is not probable that he would have been sufficiently known to the people of this parish, as he had not yet taken priest's orders, although he had received a master's degree at Basle, but for their acquaintance with his paternal uncle, who was pastor at Wesen, the market town of the Glarians. His friend, Henry Loriti of Mollis, who was already becoming celebrated for his learning, had also, doubtless, sounded abroad his praise among his fellow citizens. The place was contested by Henry Goeldli, from Zurich, who claimed from the pope the privilege of disposing of this

1 Schroeckh, Kirchengeschich. Bd. 37, S. 108.

2 Zuingli eut pour Vicaire dans ce bien-la Léon de Juda, originaire d'Alsace, petit homme mais savant et plein de zéle. Ruchat, p. 11.

* Schuler, S. 24.

* Better known as Glarianus. He was pendant quelques années admirateur et ami de Zuingle. Il était savant, et bon poete; il apprit à Paris la langue Grecques de Lascaris, et la langue Hébraique d'un Eveque. Il parut d'abord avoir de bons sentiments; mais la persécution, etant survenuë, il abandonna la Parti Réformé, ayant, comme Demas, aimé le présent siécle. Ruchat, Hist. Reform. Suisse, Liv. I. p. 9.

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