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Andrews's Edition of Freund's Lexicon.


In short, the lexicon is a great advance on all which have been hitherto used in our country, and will make an era in the study of Latin. The hearty thanks of all classical scholars are due to the editor and his assistants, for the fruits of their long and patient toils.

The American student is now supplied with admirable helps in the study of the three learned languages of antiquity. For the best and almost the only good grammars and lexicons of the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, we are indebted principally to the labors of German scholars. What would be the state of sacred and classical philology among us, if these often calumniated German scholars had not lived?

We subjoin a reference to a few slight errors and oversights, as minute accuracy in a work of this nature, is a matter of importance.


P. 1177, col. 2, l. 1, s. v., " praedico," "praebico," for praedico-right in the original; p. 1253, c. 2, 1. 22, s. v., "que," " Virg. E. 9, 13," for E. 7, 18– wrong in the original; p. 1304, c. 3, l. 6, s. v., “repercutio," "Virg. A. 3, 23," for A. 8, 23 wrong in the original; p. 1843, c. 1, l. 22, s. v., sacrarium," "dictis," for ditis"-wrong in the original; p. 1478, c. 1, l. 13, s. V., "subsisto," "armis," for arma-wrong in the original; p. 1636, c. 1, l. 21, B. V., "vir," "a husband for maritus, (so perhaps not in Cicero, but elsewhere very frequent)." Vir is used in this sense by Cic., in Orat. Philipp. II. 14, sententiam dixit in sororis suae virum. In the first part of the work, "gut classisch," denoting the character of words as depending on usage, is rendered "classic," as s. vv. "cachinnus,” “ambigo," "candor"; while in the rest of the volume it is translated "quite classic." The former is a competent translation, but the latter involves an ambiguity by the use of quite; the colloquial sense of which is very, but according to good usage, it means entirely. The want of uniformity in the version of this phrase, will give the student a false impression. There is some inconsistency in the mode of writing words; as s. v. litera, one t only is admitted into the word, so also s. vv. "accipio" and "do," but s. v. " interpres," it appears with two t's. Nothing is said about the origin of the difficult word interpres, for instance; and possideo is said to be made up of po and sedeo, but no account is given of the form po as a prefix; s. v. sustineo, it is stated that the word is compounded of "subs for sub and teneo," but by a euphonic change, b becomes s before t. Compare ὕστερος for ὕπτερος.


The works of which we give the titles below, are all of interest and importance to the student of Logic and Philosophy. The fact that so many works on Logic, are now published in Great Britain, is a decisive proof, that the interest in studies of this sort, and an estimate of their importance, are both advancing. The character of these works, also shows that Logical studies are pursued in a different spirit, and with greater thoroughness, than formerly. The contrast between the best English and German writers, has been, till recently, greatly to the advantage of the latter; and even now, with a single exception, no English writer with whom we are acquainted, is worthy to be compared with very many among the Germans, in respect to precision of language, and scientific perfection, while the relations of logical analysis to elements of thought, and the first truths of Philosophy, as well as their application to language and to grammar, seem hardly to be considered. We are confident, from signs that cannot fail, that this will not long be the case, but that the impulse given to logical studies by Sir William Hamilton, is destined to produce a decisive and permanent influence on English Philosophy.

The work of Mr. Mansell, is a reprint from Aldrich, so long the text-book at Oxford. It is accompanied by a valuable Introduction, and a still more valuable Appendix, in which some of the most important subjects, which occasion many earnest questions, and much subtle speculation, to the student, are briefly but very intelligently discussed. The foot-notes to the text and appendix, give, however, the chief value to the work. They are very numerous and appropriate. They are drawn from a very great variety of sources, from Aristotle, his commentators, the earlier and later scholastics, and the living English and German authorities. They indicate a very com

1 Artis Logica Rudimenta, from the text of Aldrich, with notes and marginal references. By the Rev. H. L. Mansel, M. A., Fellow of St. John's College. 8vo. pp. xxiv. 137-169. Oxford, William Graham: Whittaker & Co., London, 1849.

An Outline of the Necessary Laws of Thought: a Treatise on pure and applied Logic. By William Thomson, M. A., Fellow and Tutor of Queen's College, Oxford. Second edition, much enlarged. 18mo. pp. xiv. 392. London: William Pickering. Oxford: W. Graham.

Logic, or The Art of Thinking: being The Port-Royal Logic. Translated from the French, with an Introduction. By Thomas Spencer Baynes. 12mo. pp. xlii. 362. Edinburgh: Sutherland & Knox, George street. London: Simp kin, Marshall & Co. 1850.

An Essay on the New Analytic of Logical Forms, being that which gained the prize proposed by Sir William Hamilton, in the year 1846, for the best exposition of the new doctrine propounded in his Lectures; with an historical appendix. By Thomas Spencer Baynes, Translator of the Port-Royal Logic. 8vo. pp x. 157. Edinburgh: Sutherland & Knox. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Cơ1850.


Recent Works upon Logic.


plete acquaintance with the subject matter, an extensive course of reading, in which the reader has mastered his books, and not been mastered by them. For all these reasons, it is a work which we can recommend as both scholarlike and philosophical.

Mr. Thomson's" Outline," etc. is a work of a different character. It approximates more closely to the form of the German Treatises, than any work in the English language which we have seen. It is clear and vigorous in thought, though somewhat diffusely written. It lacks that precise use of technical language, and the rigor almost mathematical, with which technical terms are used, which is preeminently appropriate in the treatment of such a science as Logic, and which constitutes its severe but real beauty. There are no signs, however, of a confused or feeble thinking, no tokens of indolent neglect, of shuffling evasion, or of limited reading. Mr. Thomson has also an elegant, as well as a scientific, mind, and his work is written in such a way as to please and allure the unscientific reader. The illustrations, too, are drawn from other sources than from the meagre and limited circles of stereotyped examples which seem to have served logicians for centuries, and which have contributed to leave the impression, that logic is not only worn thread-bare, but that the original texture was very slight and incapable of being employed to any useful purpose. Mr. Thomson's illustrations not only serve to explain the law under which they are adduced, but they also enrich the mind with real knowledge, and cause this knowledge to sparkle with light reflected from the law enounced. Mr. Thomson's work is enriched with an account of the most important methods of notation which have been adopted to exhibit the various forms of the Syllogism, and was the first to give to the world the very ingenious and peculiar method, of which Sir William Hamilton was the inventor.

The Port-Royal Logic is not introduced to the English reader for the first time, by the translation of Mr. Baynes. It has been translated twice before, and as is well known, was very highly appreciated in those days in which the study of logic was prosecuted by English scholars. Its merits are very great; for though it is not a work of pure logic, and its authors either seem not to be aware what these limits are, or in fact often overstep them, yet their digressive discussions are never impertinent to the wants of the student of philosophy, and the interests of truth. Indeed, we may say with safety, there are few works in existence, which convey more information, and are fitted to discipline the mind more wisely and severely, on some of the most important subjects in logic, language, and philosophy, than the Port-Royal Logic. One of the most important contributions to the distinction and nomenclature of logic, the clear distinction between the extension and comprehension of the conception, we owe to the Port-Royalists. It was a sagacious thought which directed Mr. B. to the preparation of a new translation of a work so important; and the reasons why a new translation was needed, as stated by him, show conclusively that a new translation was required. He has accompanied his work with an introduction, which, though brief, contains some valuable matter on the history of the science.

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The "Essay on the New Analytic," will be sought for with eagerness, by all who are curious to acquaint themselves with the peculiarities of Sir William Hamilton's discovery, or rather, invention, by which his ardent pupils and admirers, claim for him a merit second only to that of Aristotle. The system is certainly very ingenious, and the scheme of notation complete and beautiful. It accomplishes entirely the object proposed: that the logical forms should exactly represent what is conceived in the thought. The basis of this discovery is what is termed "the quantification of the predicate,” i. e. the expression in the predicate of the extent in which it is actually used. In the ordinary mode of stating certain propositions, this is left to be inferred by the subject matter, or is entirely undetermined. The various forms of the regular syllogism appropriate to each figure, are designed to meet this difficulty, and to guard against the mistakes into which we are liable to fall, from a want of regard to the undetermined extent of the predicate. The new method of enouncing the proposition, leads to an entirely new method of exhibiting the various forms of valid reasoning. Instead of the old lines, "Barbara Celarent," etc., we have a scheme addressed to the eye.

It is not our design to describe at length, nor to remark upon, this scheme of notation, as exhibited in this essay. As a system of accurate and beautiful symbolization, it deserves all the praise which it has received. For all the purposes of formal logic, it is doubtless of great value. It may admit of a question, whether its adoption would not remove the forms of logic too far from the ordinary language of life and science, to admit of their ready ap plication to the detection of unsound reasoning, and to the explanation of the syntactical relations. But into this question, we do not enter. We are sure that all who are aware of the very eminent merit and erudition of Sir William Hamilton, will be desirous to read the essay of Mr. Baynes. We ought to add, that besides the elucidation of the professed theme of the essay, it contains not a little of interesting and erudite matter.


After struggling through several years of precarious existence, this association is now able to command the respect of the most distinguished oriental scholars abroad. Its meetings, and the principal articles in its Journal, are regularly noticed in the Journal of the German Oriental Society. A few of the Articles have been reprinted in London. Some of its members have been elected members of foreign Societies. Its library, amounting to between 500 and 600 volumes, deposited in the building of the Boston Athenæum, is quite valuable. It possesses some rare works in relation to China. Besides the volumes which are obtained by donation and exchange, a small sum is regularly expended in purchasing books. An Oriental Society in America, though laboring under obvious disadvantages, enjoys some eminent

1 Journal of the American Oriental Society, Second Volume, New York, George P. Putnam, 1851. pp. 384, 8vo.


Journal of the American Oriental Society.


facilities. The commerce of the United States is second only to that of England. The distance between us and the whole of eastern Asia is shortening every year. Beirût can now be reached from Boston in thirty or forty days. Some of our merchants, in a spirit of enlarged liberality, are ready to lend their cooperation. Again, our foreign missionaries are a select body of well educated men, and are providentially laboring in the regions which are most interesting to the orientalist-Palestine, Asia Minor, Assyria, India and China. Their great work is missionary and spiritual; but they are able to accomplish very much for oriental studies mediately and collaterally. In the second volume of the Journal, now before us, one hundred and seventythree pages are from the pens of American missionaries. Some of these communications will add to the positive stock of knowledge. There is every reason to hope that there will be in the course of a few years a large accession of missionary laborers, so that more exact researches may be undertaken. We may add, also, that the number of our scholars who are devoting themselves to the study of Arabic, Sanskrit, and other oriental languages is gradually increasing. Four or five individuals have already made distinguished progress. We must also add that the Society is highly favored in its learned and accomplished Secretary, who has leisure, zeal and knowledge to devote to this interesting field.

The volume, now before us, is brought out in excellent style, as regards paper, type, correctness of typography, etc. Forty-two pages are occupied in detailing the proceedings of the Society, etc. Art. I. is a translation from the Turkish by Mr. Schauffler of Constantinople of an account of a Jewish sect, the followers of Shabbathai Zevi, the fragments of which sect still exist on the continent of Europe. The second article is an account of a Japanese Novel, from the German of Dr. August Pfizmaier of Vienna, by Mr. W. W. Turner of New York. Dr. P's book contains a reprint of the original Japanese (printed with movable types, the first ever made for this language in Europe) and a German translation. Appended is a note on Japanese Syllabaries, by S. Wells Williams of Canton. Article III. is a contribution to the geography of Kûrdistan, with a map, by Dr. Azariah Smith of Aintab in Turkey. In Article IV., Rev. Dr. J. Perkins of Persia gives an interesting Journal of a tour from Oroomiah to Mosul through the Kûrdish mountains. In Article V., Prof. Gibbs describes some of the characteristics of the Peshito Version of the New Testament. In Article VI., Rev. H. R. Hoisington, late principal of a Seminary in Ceylon, furnishes a syllabus of one of the sacred books of the Hindûs, entitled Siva-Gnána-Pótham. Rev. N. Brown, missionary in Asam, gives, in the following Article, some specimens of the Naga language of Asam. Then follow Remarks on Chinese Culture, or on the causes of the Peculiarities of the Chinese, by Rev. S. R. Brown, late principal of the Morrison School at Hong-Kong. Article IX. is a continuation of Et Tabary's Conquest of Persia by the Arabs, translated from the Turkish by John P. Brown, of Constantinople. In Articles X., XI. and XII., we have Notes of a Tour in Mt. Lebanon and to the eastern side of Lake Hûleh (Merom) by Dr. De Forest, of 'Abeih on Mt. Lebanon; the

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