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if they for a time made an unfavorable impression, now avail nothing in alienating honest men from you. With God's help, I hope all things will go as we wish. The choice is to be made on the 10th instant. You have been much commended to the cardinal." The election was finally made on the 11th of December, 1518, and Zuingli was pastor of Zurich with the approbation and highest hopes of the best citizens of the place.

The separation from Einsiedeln soon followed. No one perhaps felt it so deeply as the baron of Geroldseck. The years of Zuingli's abode at the convent were fraught with interest and profit to him. As a friend, counsellor and teacher had Zuingli been to him. He had been able to slake his thirst for knowledge with him, and as the friends of Socrates, with whom he unfolded the wisdom of the ancient sages, he counted it all joy that their friendship had strengthened and increased day by day. Neither did it end with the separation from Einsiedeln. Afterwards, in 1523, Zuingli dedicated to him his Essay on the Canon of the Mass, and thus acknowledges his kindness and constancy: "Never since thou hast put thy hand to the plough hast thou looked back. Thou art indeed a friend of all learned men; but me thou hast for several years loved, cared for and protected, as a father his son. Thou hast not only made me thy friend, but hast admitted me with Zingk to the inmost secrets of thy heart. Go on as you have begun. Stand firm in your place. God will finally bring you to the goal. Only those who have fought the good fight, are crowned.” 8

A few words upon the subsequent history both of the abbot and administrator, as showing the influence of Zuingli's abode at Einsiedeln, cannot be out of place here. Conrad died in 1526, without employing any of the rites of the Romish church, and after having banished almost all superstitious observances from his abbey. Only two monks, indeed, remained there. A little before his death, hearing a disputation between Leo Juda, the successor of Zuingli, upon some abstruse point in theology, which he did not consider essential, he said with warmth: "What does all this signify? For my part, I wish with my last breath, to cry with David, 'Have mercy upon me,

1 Schuler, p. 301.

2 Memorabilia, B. I. Ch. VI. 14: Καὶ τοὺς θησαυροὺς τῶν πάλαι σοφῶν ανδρῶν, οὓς ἐκεῖνοι κατέλιπον ἐν βιβλίοις γράψαντες, ἀνελίττων, κοινῇ σὺν τοῖς φίλοις διέρχομαι, καὶ ἄν τι ὁρῶμεν ἀγαθόν, ἐκλεγόμεθα καὶ μέγα νομίζομεν κέρ δος, ἐὰν ἀλλήλοις φίλοι γιγνώμεθα.

8 Schuler, S. 237.


Leo Juda at Einsiedeln.


O God, according to thy loving kindness; enter not into judgment with thy servant, O Lord!' I concern myself about nothing else."

As soon as it was decided that Zuingli was to go to Zurich, Geroldseck, full of anguish at the prospect of separation, besought Zuingli to exert himself to procure for them a successor, who should be of a like mind and spirit with himself. To him he committed the whole responsibility of the selection. Leo Juda, then pastor at St. Pilt in Elsace, who had long been a dear friend, was suggested to Zuingli as a suitable person. He immediately communicated with him, and obtained his consent to come to Einsiedeln. He entered upon his duties there, in the summer of the following year, 1519. Leo soon endeared himself to Conrad and Geroldseck, and followed in the footsteps of his predecessor, by engaging in every good word and work, and even after Zuingli's death, was a pillar of the reformation. Geroldseck remained at Einsiedeln, until 1525, when he went to Zurich, to live in the neighborhood of his old friend, and died with him on the battle field at Cappel. Friends were they in life, and in death not divided.

Parts of the letter which Zuingli wrote to Leo Juda, inviting him to Einsiedeln, are too descriptive of the feelings of the man, to be withheld here: "I will not now enlarge further upon the intimacy of our former friendship, for I am persuaded that you, in accordance with your noble nature (humanitas), are as mindful of it as I am myself. As I am always mindful of you, so am I desirous for your welfare. Whenever I have heard that anything disagreeable had happened to you, I immediately applied myself to thinking how I could be of service to you. I know that you, although not born among the Switzers, have a prepossession in favor of them. I am sensible of your great learning and wisdom, that may be compared to that of Cato; and I would fain give you a proof of my care for you. The people of Zurich have lately invited me there. The baron of Geroldseck, administrator of the cloister, has shown his regard for me in this, as well as other things, that he has committed to me the business of communicating to you, his invitation to this place. Herewith is offered, first, the opportunity of being transferred in the most honorable manner, among the Switzers. Then, if you come, you will find the administrator obedient to your every wish. All things are now committed to your disposal. The adminis

trator has become so anxious for you, that he wishes before all others, to gain you to himself. Seize, therefore, upon this favorable circum

1 Calvin and the Swiss Reformation, p. 17.

stance, while it is in your power. The people over whom you will be placed, are a simple people, who will gladly, since I have broken the road, hear Christ preached. There is no want of the means of living here. The baron is only moderately learned, but is a lover of learning, and prizes literary men above all. Moreover, I shall not be over six hours distant from you, so that you can, if you wish, avail yourself of my society. Let this, which I have so hastily, but from the heart, written to you, move you. Make the journey hither, at the expense of the administrator. I know you will not regret it. Now, if you have well weighed the whole matter, farewell."

The following letter of Beatus Rhenanus, written from Basle, five days before Zuingli's call to Zurich, is interesting both as showing the spread of the sentiments which Zuingli had promulgated, and the confidence which was everywhere placed in him by his friends. Such expressions of sentiment and feeling must, too, have been a cordial to his spirit, amid the perplexities and troubles which everywhere beset the path of the true reformer. "Nothing," he says, "is so painful to me, as to see Christianity overloaded with so many useless ceremonies, yea, follies. The cause of this, I find in the priests, who themselves corrupted by scholastic and sophistical theologians, preach rather heathenish or Jewish doctrine; I speak of the majority of the priests. For I well know that you, and those of kindred spirit, propound the purest wisdom of Christ, out of its original sources, unfermented by the interpretations of a Scotus or Gabriel (Biel,) but according to the simple and true exposition of Augustin, Ambrose, Cyprian, and Jerome. They spout forth, from the places where the people receive all that is said, as undoubted truth, noisy words upon the power of the Pope, forgiveness of sin, purgatory, legends of the saints, restitutions, testaments, vows, punishment in hell, antichrist, etc. You, on the contrary, preach briefly, and, as it were, paint out before our eyes the whole doctrine of Christ, that he, sent by God, came into the world to teach us the will of his Father, and to persuade us to despise the world, i. e. its riches, honors, power, and allurements, and whatever pertains to these; and on the other hand, to seek with all our hearts, a heavenly country; to teach us peace, concord, and that beautiful community of all things, (for Christianity is nothing else,) as Plato, one of the greatest prophets, once represented it, although his Republic was regarded only as a beautiful dream; to remove from us a childish love of earthly things, native land, parents and kindred, health, and other good things; for his life is elevated above all human precepts. If, however, Switzerland had many men


Reception at Zurich.


like you, it would be easy to improve our countrymen by better morals. Surely indeed the people are easily moulded, if only those were not wanting who could and would teach of a risen Saviour, Jesus Christ."

Zuingli's Reception at Zurich.

Zuingli took up his residence at Zurich Dec. 28th, 1518. He had previously visited his beloved Glarians, and resigned his benefice there, and recommended his pupil and friend Valentine Tschudi as his successor, who was immediately instituted into the office of priest of Glaris. At his departure, he was honored with many tokens of respect and love from the people of his former flock. The same honor also awaited him at Zurich. The favor with which his appointment was received by the friends of liberal sentiments may be seen from a letter of Glarian, who however himself sympathized strongly with his native townsmen of Glaris in their loss: He says that "his young Swiss friends, especially those of Zurich, shouted for joy when his appointment was announced; I indeed foresee, also, that your learning will draw down upon you much envy. But be as you have hitherto been of good courage, even if, as Hercules, you are compelled to battle with monsters. Easily will you conquer with perseverance and wise management. Now I would gladly have a prebend at Zurich, so that I might live with you. By your influence will the Christian faith be diffused in Zurich. If I return again to Switzerland, I would wish to become a fellow-combatant with you."2 Zuingli himself was duly sensible of the importance of Zurich, and this was his principal motive for going there. He says: "It could scarcely be but that, if the grace of Christ were preached and received in so celebrated a city as Zurich, the rest of Switzerland should follow the example."3

We shall better understand the importance of this place if we look for a moment at its previous history and position, at the time of Zuingli's appointment. It owed its origin to a college of canons founded and endowed by Charlemagne in 810. "Forty years after, Louis the Germanis caused a convent for nuns to be built near by, and his daughters Hildebrand and Bertha were the first abbesses."4 A town gradually grew up around under the fostering care of the ecclesiastics. But the inhabitants soon became impatient of ecclesiastical domination, and by degrees, aided by imperial favor, became independent and enjoyed all the rights of sovereignty. Until the fifteenth century, 2 Schuler, p. 307.

1 See Schuler, S. 305-7.

3 Calvin and the Swiss Reformation, p. 18. VOL. VIII. No. 32.


* Hess, p. 73.

however, its power did not extend beyond its own walls, and even until the reformation the two monasteries preserved their particular jurisdiction and maintained their independence. These monastic establishments, as in other cases, did not answer the design of their original founder. Charlemagne, at least, intended his college as a nursery of learning, but it proved an asylum of idleness. Still, some preparation had been made during the quarter of a century which had just passed, for the work of Zuingli. Young men began to frequent foreign universities, a school had been established, over which Myconius presided, and the clergy, who had previously hardly been able to read and write, had received some small impulse, but still the preaching was mostly done by monks, whose main object was to minister to the temporal interests of their convents. Their bickerings among themselves, immoral lives, and puerilities in the pulpit, did not increase the respect due to religion among the lower orders. "It had," it is said, "become an object of derision to some, of indifference to others, and the vulgar were only acquainted with its outward practices." Corruption had crept in with foreign intercourse, and especially by means of foreign gold, which those intriguing for the alliance of Switzerland had proffered. The severer virtues of former days had long been unknown among them, and the venality of many of the magistrates threatened the destruction of the government. And notwithstanding a glimmering of light had here and there beamed upon them, yet it is not said without reason that "Letters wanted a restorer; both the governors and governed an intrepid censor, who should dare to recall them to their mutual duties; and fainting religion an orator capable of rekindling its ardor, and restoring its influence upon manners."1 How well Zuingli was fitted for this task our knowledge of his previous course will suggest, and how well he executed it the sequel may show.

There were many things to encourage our reformer in his work at Zurich. "Where," says Schuler, "could the reformation be so easily established and unfold itself in freedom as at Zurich? Not in Glaris or the canton of Schweitz, dependent upon the caprices of a people whose freedom was without limit, and who had no schools; not in a cloister as at Einsiedeln, which was too much subjected to the power of the church; not in Berne, ruled by the interests of certain families; not in Luzerne, where the people were too much devoted to warlike pursuits, and too far removed from Germany, and the free spirit there, which was constantly becoming more active and efficient, so that there

1 Hess, Life of Zuingli, 82-4.

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