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(m) The trial of Captain Wharton and efforts for his release; his escape through the aid of Harvey Birch (chapters XXVI-XXX).
(n) Marriage of Frances and Dunwoodie; the fortunes of Harvey Birch; the death of Captain Lawton (chapters XXXI-XXXIII).
(o) Harvey Birch is rewarded by “Mr. Harper" (chapter XXXIV).
(p) Thirty-three years later (chapter XXXV).
Theme Topics. 1. Comparison of this story of Revolutionary times with “The Copperhead” by Augustus Thomas, played on the stage and for the screen by Lionel Barrymore. 2. Sympathizers of America, during the Revolution, living in England. 3. Sympathizers of England, living in America. 4. Character sketches of Harvey Birch; of Captain Lawton; and of Caesar.
LEGEND AND HISTORY
I am a part of all that I have met;
translation of a book written in Greek by Up to this point you have been reading a scholar in Rome in the first century. prose fiction, chiefly short stories; now This sixteenth century drama, based on you are to begin the reading of several other history and legend, you may have the types of literature, most of them in poetry opportunity of seeing in a twentieth cenform. You will thus have an oppor- tury theater in a country the very existtunity to observe that the same or similar ence of which was unknown to Plutarch material may
be handled in a variety of or to Caesar, a country that the Englishways. This material does not differ widely men of Shakespeare's day were just beginfrom that which was used by the stories ning to explore as a field for colonization. of Part I. For the most part, it is either No better illustration can be given of legend or history or the raw material out the universality of literature and its power of which history is made. That is, it is to link together races widely scattered on story. It is concrete, not abstract. It is the earth's surface, speaking widely difmainly about men and women and what ferent languages, living in times separated they do. Some of the selections are heroic. by thousands of years. Others deal with crime. Some deal real- Moreover, you will find several of the istically with life as it was actually lived great types of literature illustrated in this in the time when the selection was written, section. You will be helped to understand while in others you get far from the actual what the word “type” means if you conworld into the realm of romance, or even sider the various ways in which you might cross the borderland into a shadowy world write about some incident or series of inciinhabited by supernatural beings. But al- dents. Suppose, for example, your grandways the chief interest is in men and women father tells you about an adventure that and how life has treated them. Thus the happened when he was a boy. Perhaps he subjects are such as are of the keenest in- was one of a party of men, women, and terest to us.
children that moved "out West” to find You will notice, as you look over the gold or a better ranch. Something hapselections that are here grouped under the pened. Perhaps they made a song about head of legend and history, that they deal it, telling the story in song. That was a with widely separated times. You begin ballad. Now your grandfather tells you with an episode taken from one of the old- about the adventure, making it as thrilling est poems in the world. You go on to and interesting as he can. That is a short some ballads, songs of the people, known story. Perhaps he tells you about many in England and Scotland generations be- other incidents of the trip, one section fore the time of Shakespeare; later, you every night. That is a novel, or a romance. will come upon some ballads that sprang If
select some of these stories that are out of the World War. There is a drama by closely related, and make your grandfather, Shakespeare, the story of which he got as a young man, the hero, and write out from a sixteenth century translation that the whole series of events in such a way was itself a translation from a French that people could act it out on a stage, you would have a drama. Or these incidents, ses, perhaps in ballad form, were thus put and others like them, might be the basis together by one or more poets. Similarly, of an investigation into the colonization the early English epic of Beowulf is made of Montana or Nevada or California. You up of several very ancient legends, partly would have a history as the result. If the historical and partly legendary in the story were limited to the life and achieve- strict sense. There have come down to us ments of one of the great pioneers, the a number of ballads about Robin Hood result would be a biography. Finally, a and his life in the greenwood. These were great poet might read these and other never woven together into an epic, but stories and legends and histories about the they show very well the material out of Conquest of the Great Divide, the push which epics were made. of civilization westward across the moun- Ballads are more simple in structure tains, and then might write, in stately and than the epic. The folk ballads, which measured verse, this story of a civilization. have only recently been written down after The result would be an epic.
centuries of oral tradition, are always of Thus you see that there are many ways unknown authorship. Folk epic, by which of handling the material out of which is meant the epic that is the result of literature is made. Men have used these generations of tradition before coming to ways for so long that a certain amount of written form, is also as a rule anonymous. method has been developed, marking the But the epic is more highly developed than difference between one type, or way of tell- the ballad; it belongs to a cultivated sociing a story, and another. Ballad and epic, ety. The ballad aims only to tell a story short story and novel, drama and history, briefly and dramatically. It is not conhave certain characteristics that you may cerned with reflections on social matters observe. By observing them, your story or the origin of a people. becomes more than a story.
In the heroic romance, such as Scott's
Lady of the Lake, many ballad and epic II
elements are present. The characteristics of several of these commonly written in a relatively adtypes of literature will be set forth in vanced state of civilization, by an educated special introductions. At this time it is man for an educated audience. Many such only necessary to point out certain broad
romances were written in the later Middle resemblances and differences. The epic, Ages, chiefly in France, Germany, and which many people for many centuries England. The romances about Arthur have regarded as the highest form of and his knights are examples. In them poetry, is of ancient origin. In the strict heroic deeds, the efforts of the hero to sense, it is itself a summary of a whole win personal distinction, to realize his civilization. Its hero is regarded as the ambitions for himself, form the basis. They founder of the nation. The plot of the may deal with authentic history, and they poem is the life story of this hero, told often tell us a great deal, indirectly, about in such a way that his great services to his the social ideals of the time. They may people are commemorated. His life is also include purely legendary matter. The shown to have been directed by super- heroic romance may be prose, such as natural forces. Woven into the story are Malory's Morte d'Arthur, written in Engpictures of the civilization of which the epic land in the fifteenth century, or such as is the outgrowth, and the whole story is Scott's Ivanhoe, written in the nineteenth told in an elevated and stately manner. century, but seeking to resurrect the days Frequently the episodes of which the poem of chivalry. is composed are heroic legends, perhaps Finally we have the dramas that deal ballads, that arose among the people and with legend and history. In a time when were handed down through generations. English history was little more than a Thus the ballad, in a sense, is the raw chronicle, without much story and with material out of which the epic developed. no organization or interpretation, ShakeVarious legends about Odysseus, or Ulys- speare began to tell, in dramatic form, the
Such poems are