Stream ecology: structure and function of running waters
Running waters are enormously diverse, ranging from torrential mountain brooks, to large lowland rivers, to great river systems whose basins occupy subcontinents. While this diversity makes river ecosystems seem overwhelmingly complex, a central theme of this volume is that the processes acting in running waters are general, although the settings are often unique. The past two decades have seen major advances in our knowledge of the ecology of streams and rivers. New paradigms have emerged, such as the river continuum and nutrient spiraling. Community ecologists have made impressive advances in documenting the occurrence of species interactions. The importance of physical processes in rivers has attracted increased attention, particularly the areas of hydrology and geomorphology, and the inter-relationships between physical and biological factors have become better understood. And as is true for every area of ecology during the closing years of the twentieth century it has become apparent that the study of streams and rivers cannot be carried out by excluding the role of human activities, nor can we ignore the urgency of the need for conservation. These developments are brought together in Stream Ecology: Structure and function of running waters, designed to serve as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and as a reference book for specialists in stream ecology and related fields.
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Physical factors of importance to the biota
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abiotic abundance acid activity algae algal appears assemblage autotrophs bacteria Baetis benthic benthos biological biomass biota biotic brown trout caddis larvae carbon changes chapter chemical Chironomidae chlorophyll colonization competition concentrations consumers CPOM cyanobacteria cycle dams densities detritivores detritus diatoms discharge dissolved diversity downstream drift ecosystems effects energy environmental estimated etal export factors fauna feeding Figure fish flood floodplain flow forest FPOM freshwater grazing greater growth habitat headwater herbivores heterotrophic Hynes important increase influence inputs interactions invertebrates lakes large rivers larvae leaf lotic macrophytes mayfly microbial Minshall nitrogen number of species nutrient occur organic matter oxygen particles periphyton phosphorus phytoplankton plants pools populations predation prey primary production rates reduced regions relative result running waters seasonal sediments simuliids small streams stoneflies studies substantial substrate surface taxa temperature tion transport Trichoptera trophic trout upstream uptake variable vary velocity water column watersheds zooplankton