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étalvov] Had the construction been a regular one, the genitive étalvou would have been represented by é mawvov, the cognate accusative after ćTALVÉDELEV. As it is, it is attracted into the case of the relative oi. The majority of the mss, with the exception of the two best, read åv after étrawŁO ELEV, which Kühner is no doubt right in omitting, as the addition of är would increase the probability of the result and thus weaken the force of the question,

SS 34-end. Resolutions are passed to authorise the punishment of future disobedience, and a court of inquiry is appointed to consider the conduct of the generals since the death of Cyrus.

$ 34. TOÙ Òè ROLTTOû] ‘at no time in the future. For the force of the genitive see note on Tévte nuepwv (IV. 7. 20).

$ 35. kalapués] A lustration, to purify the army from the guilt caused by the murder of the three ambassadors.

CHAPTER VIII. SS 1, 2. The generals are brought to trial. Philesius and Xanthicles are fined twenty mine, and Sophænetus ten, while Xenophon himself is charged with having struck a soldier.

§ 1. oldovtwr] 'when the generals were put on their trial.' The Mss vary in their readings, the majority giving didovres and the best oldórtwr. I have explained at length the distinctive force of the genitive absolute in a note on οικισθέντος (ν. 3. 7).

tñs pulakņs] 'for their negligent custody of the transport goods were fined twenty minæ, the amount of the loss.' For tîs pulakîs in the sense of 'non-protection compare in particular the following phrases: (i) + čupavwv kataOtáoews, 'for non-production of available documents' (Dem. pds Nekog. 1251), and (ii) de missione litterarum (Cic. ad Att. I. 5. 2), where missione is equivalent in sense to intermissione.

The words tw yavackwv xpnuátwv refer to the transport goods mentioned as dycyqua in v. 1. 16.

$$ 3-end. His defence and acquittal.

$ 3. allà unu] well indeed! The phrase implies astonishment, like the corresponding expression at vero.

trapov] 'if it was not possible even to get a scent of wine.' The expression was a proverbial one to judge from Athen. IV. p. 134, drar. τες ορχούντευθύς, ήν οίνου μόνον όσμην ίδωσιν. Kühner is no doubt right in reading mapdv for trapovtos with the best mss, if only on the ground that any alteration would no doubt have been made in the opposite direction.

drayopevórtwr] This use of the verb occurs again in 1. 5. 3.

Twv Ovwv ußplotór epos] A proverbial expression, which appears in Luc. Pseudolog. 2 and Piscat. 34. Compare too Herod. iv. 129, where we have an apt illustration of this particular use of the proverb.

§ 4. ÉK Tivos] A most unusual substitute for the ordinary phrase Old Tl, which takes its place in the corresponding passage of $ 12.

8 %. Tolaútn] It has been remarked above that Xenophon is not always careful to observe the cognised distinction in his use of the words τοιαύτη, τοιάδε and the like.

From the account which follows we gather that the man in question had acted as baggage-carrier for a portion of the troops, and that Xenophon had relieved him of this duty for the time being that he might be free to carry a wounded comrade.

§ 8. Katelelteto] A strong imperfect 'was on the point of being left behind.'

§ 10. nóoa ye Bouletal] The editors are generally agreed in accepting the reading and interpretation of Muretus: vivat sane quantum vult; nam ego quidem eum hinc non aveham, while Zeune retains où d'Eltes ónóg a ye #Boúlov, which he understands as follows: 'your words were in accordance with your wishes.'

§ 11. kai ydp] 'why yes, we shall all of us die.' An ellipse must be understood to complete the construction: 'well said, for in truth we must all of us die.'

§ 12. Xiyas] sub. alnyás. The word is emphatic by position, • fewer than he deserved.'

§ 13. owserBac ñ pkel] 'were content to save their lives by our efforts, who had to march and fight at our posts.' There is no need to understand ñpkel with Macmichael as equivalent to ňpkel av. Indeed he strangely misinterprets the entire passage when he refers the participles ιόντων και μαχομένων, which are really explanatory of ημάς, to the same subject as όσοις. With the words αυτοι δε λιπόντες the sentence becomes irregular, as a nominative takes the place of the dative, which would have been the regular sequence in consideration of the construction ools... ñ prel above. The author, however, by the commonest of idioms closes the sentence as though he had commenced it with the usual nominative and verb.

§ 14. kattuabov dvaotàs] ‘I found that I rose and stretched my legs with difficulty.'

§ 15. ÖTOTE toolu] The optative is of course frequentative.

8 16. παίoιντο] Kühner is probably right in reading παίoιντο for maloto with the two chief mss, the plural being often found after ällos and ris when they are used in a collective or indefinite sense.

§ 17. kal gap oủv] He proceeds to justify his conduct by the results : ‘in fact now that they are safe out of danger they have full power, you see, to get satisfaction for any wrong.'

μέγα αν ούτως έπαθον] Equivalent to ούτω μέγα αν έπαθον, except that additional emphasis is given to the statement by the position of ούτως. .

§ 18. ÚnéXELV dikny] Ironical : 'I am content to give such satisfaction as sons may claim from parents and schoolboys from their masters.'

§ 19. Ovv Tols Deois] 'thanks to the favour of Heaven.' The expression occurs repeatedly in Xenophon (e. g. in III. 1. 23, and again

2. 8). For the omission of the participle in the phrase év eúdia (ővras), Kühner compares Cyrop. III. 3. 67, and Dem. de Cor. p. 298, 211. § 21.

katedikáoate] 'you gave sentence against them. By this translation we retain the legitimate force of the compound which is lost in the rendering proposed by Kühner and Hutchinson : vestro

in III.

judicio declarastis. The argument used by Xenophon is something as follows: "Your taking no part with them was, so far, a verdict in my favour : on the other hand their confidence was increased by your simply being passive in the matter.'

§ 23. árodédukev] The use of this perfect in a transitive sense should be noticed as unusual.

8 24. τούτον ταναντία ποιήσετε] A very good MS gives τούτων for Toûtov, a reading which, as Kühner remarks, would have required å in place of 7

διδέασι] In place of διδέασι all the MSs, with the exception of the two best, give dequeúovol, which is condemned by Kühner as apertum glossema. The verb δίδωμι is Ηomeric and occurs in II. λ. 105, and its introduction here is strictly characteristic of the author's style in which a rare or poetical word is so often used to set off a commonplace sentence.

8 25. χειμώνα επεκούρησα] This use of επικουρείν with an accusative of the object in place of the usual dative may be illustrated from Milton's Comus (line 845),

Helping all urchin blásts and ill-luck signs. συνεξευπόρησα] συνεξεπόρισα Pors., but the reading of the text is certainly suggested in the four leading mss, and is admirably defended by Kühner, who quotes the following examples of an active use of eŭropeîv, (i) Plat. Legg: XI. 133 étlkovplav rais xpelais égevTropeîv, and (ii) Dem. contr. Phorm. 962, xpua' quîv T PODEUTOPNKÁs.

§ 26. dveuluvno kov] 'recounted them at length.'

TT Epleyéveto] 'and so it turned out that all went well,' though in the passage of Thuc. (11. 39) from which Kühner illustrates this use of trepiylyveolar the force of the compound is rather as follows : 'we have this balance in our favour, that we are not troubled by the anticipation of coming disasters.'





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Accusative, anticipatory, v. II

cognate, I. 2 ; IV. 32; VII. II Ambiguity in the order of words,

III. 9; IV. 14; VI. 3 Aorist and Imperfect, III. 7 Article, force of, vir. 27

omission of, v. 10

position of, vir. 1 Attraction, forms of, iv. 27; IV.29;

VI. 25; VII. 33
Augment, omission of, 11. 15

Collocation, unusual, v. 18; VII.

10; VIII. 7 Constructions, combination of, iv. 9; VI. 20; VII. 13; VII. 19

κατά σύνεσιν, ΙΙ. 2; III. 12; VI. 2

Iambic lines, II. 23
Iliad, allusions to, l. 2
Indicative in oblique narration, II.

9; VI. 34
Infinitive, epexegetical, iv. 9

for optative, vii. 18 Inscriptions, verb omitted in, ii.


N. Nominative absolute, Il. 21

participle with gen. abs., VI. 32

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