History of Europe: from the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the accession of Louis Napoleon, in 1852, Volume 8

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W. Blackwood and sons, 1859 - Europe
 

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Contents

Form of government
10
Practical checks on the Government
11
Religion of the Chinese
12
State of education among the Chinese
13
IS Cautious management of their trade by the East India Company
14
Chango when the China trade was thrown open
16
Pacific state of affairs in 1835 and 1836 ib 22 Vast increase of the smuggling trade in 1836 and 1837
17
Vigorous measures of tho Viceroy Lin
18
Further violent proceedings of tho Chinese
19
Commencement of hostilities
20
Further hostilities with a larger squadron
21
Ineffectual negotiations Capture of the forts of Canton
22
The treaty is disavowed on both sides though partially executed
23
Storming of the forts
24
Further hostilities a fresh armistice and renewed war
25
Plan for storming of the forts of Canton
26
Storming of the forts
27
Terms of accommodation with the Canton government
28
Storming of Amoy
29
Second capture of Chusan
30
Storming of Chinghae 81
31
And of Ningpo 82
32
VOL VIII
33
Operations against the YangtzeKiang river Its importance
34
Forcing of the entrance of the YangtzeKiang and Woosung rivers
35
Failure of negotiations and advance of the British fleet to ChinKiangfoo
36
Arrival of the British before Nankin and preparations to storm it 87
38
Reflections on this treaty 89
40
Character of General Pollock
41
Character of General Nott
42
Different opinions in Government as to the course to be pursued regard ing Affghanistan
43
Extreme and general despondence over India
44
Agitation and incipient confederacy among the native powers
45
Depressed state of the troops at Peshawur ib 55 Failuro of the attempt to force the pass
46
Bad state of the troops when Pollock arrived
47
Courage and fortitude of the garrison of Jellalabad
48
Earthquake at Jellalabad
49
Efforts of the garrison to repair the disaster
50
Continuance of the blockade and arrival of reinforcements at Peshawur ib 61 Plan of attack on the Khyber
51
Storming of tho Pass
52
Great effect of this victory and advance to Jellalabad
53
Glorious defence of Jellalabad
54
Total defeat of the Affghans ib 66 Lord Ellenboroughs Proclamation to the garrison of Jellalabad
55
Character of Lord Ellenborough
56
What led to Mb early recall
57
Lord Ellenboroughs preference of the military authorities to the civil ib 70 Lord Ellenboroughs views regarding Affghanistan
60
Battle of the Urghundaub
61
Great difficulties of Notts situation ib 75 Able plans of the Affghans
62
Glorious defence of Candahar by Rawlmson and Lane
63
Reinforcements prepared in Scinde
64
Defeat of General England
65
Fall of Ghuznee ib 80 Heroic defence of KhelatiGhilzye
66
Lord Ellenborough abandons the idea of an advance to Cabul
67
Murder of Shah Soojah
69
Circumstances which rendered the advance more feasible
72
Improved condition of both Pollocks and Notts armies
73
Successful expedition into the Shinwarree Valley
74
Advance of Pollock towards Cabul
75
Victory of Pollock at Jugdulluck
76
Description of the Pass beyond Jugdulluck
77
Position chosen by Akbar Khan ti 91 Glorious victory of Pollock
78
Spectacle of the bones of the former army
79
Operations of Notts troops against Ghuzuee and Cabul
80
Cheek of Notts advanced guard
81
Notts victory at Ghoaine ib 96 Removal of the gates of Somnauth
82
Triumphant march of Nott to Cabul
83
Cavaignacs preparations and plans of action
84
Destruction of tho Bazaar of Cabul ti 99 MCaskills expedition to Istaliff
85
General submission of Affghanistan ib 101 Steps for the recovery of the captives
86
Treaty for their deliverance
87
Storming of the Pantheon
88
Shakespear passes Alexanders column
89
Deliveranco of Lady Salo and the captives ti 105 Meeting of Lady Sale and her husband
90
Final retirement of the British from Affghanistan ti 107 Universal joy in India on these successes
91
10S Liberation of Dost Mahommed and conclusion of tho war
92
Restoration of the gates of Somnauth audits object
93
Reflections on this step of Lord Ellcnborough
94
Moral lessons from tho Affghanistan war
95
Deeds of heroism on the part of the troops
96
CHAPTER XLIX
97
The Ameers of Scinde
98
British intercourse with Scinde
99
Farther treatieswith the Ameers in 1834 and 1838
100
Treaty of 1838 forced upon the Ameers
101
Lord Ellenboroughs views as to Scinde
102
New treaty proposed 193
103
Which is forced on the Ameers
104
Expedition against EmaunGhur
105
Capture and destruction of it
106
Napier returns to the Indus and fresh negotiations
107
Attack on Outram in the Residency
109
Preparations for the battle of Meanee
111
Battle of Meanee
112
Victory of Napier
113
Results of the battle
114
Fall of Hyderabad
115
Position of Napier after the battle
116
Shere Mahommeds summons to Napier to surrender
117
Battle of Hyderabad
119
Napiers victory
120
Results of the victory
121
Capture of Mecrpoor and Omorcoto 28 Final defeat of Shere Mahommed
122
Honours to the victors and Lord Ellcnboroughs Proclamation
124
Reflections on tho conquest of Scindc
125
Napiers civil administration
126
Distracted state of the Punjaub after Runjeet Singhs death
127
i Murder of the Maharajah and his sons
128
Affairs of Gwalior
130
Dismissal of Mama Sahib and rupture with Britain
131
Invasion of Gwalior
132
Battle of Maharajpore
133
Victory of the British 13 4
135
General Greys victory to 42 Treaty with the Gwalior Government
136
Brilliant results of Lord Ellenboroughs administration
137
Credit duo to Lord Ellenborough himself
138
Real causes of the recall
139
Appointment of Sir H Hardingo as GovernorGeneral Ill 47 Poljcy recommended to Sir H Hardingo by the Court of Directors
142
Hardinges arrival in India and early pacific measures
143
Importance of railways in India in a military as well as a civil point of View
144
Origin of the Sikhs
145
Description of the Sikhs and their power
146
Geographical description of the country
147
Character of Runjeet Singh
148
Character of Lord Hardingo
149
Of Lord Gough
150
Of Sir C Napier
151
Position of the British troops before the Sikh war
152
Position of affairs in Lahore
153
Hardiuge resists tho concentration of the army to 60 Hostile movements of the Sikhs and of the British
155
Desperate nature of the fight and victory of the British
160
March of the British army to Ferozeshah
161
Immense advantages on the side of the SikhB
162
Battle of Ferozeshah December 21
163
Terrible night which ensued
164
Gloomy feelings of tho armyand heroic conduct of Hardinge arid Gough
165
Renewed action on the 22d
166
Fresh dangers of the British
167
Results of the battle
169
Preparations on both Bides to renew the conflict
170
Subsequent operations on both sides
171
Movements which led to the battle
172
Battle of Aliwal
173
Great results of the victory
174
Relative position of the two armies id
175
Battle of Sobraon
176
Desperate strife which ensued
177
The victory is at last gained ib 85 Dreadful slaughter of the Sikhs in crossing the bridge
178
Results of the battle
179
The British army approaches Lahore and the Sikhs sue for peace
180
Terms of the treaty
181
General joy at these victories and honours bestowed on the Generals
182
Hostile appearances after these successes
183
Renewed disturbances in tho Punjaub and fresh treaty with the Sikh Government
184
his character
185
Page 299
186
Disturbances in the Punjaub
187
First operation of Edwardesand Colonel Cortlandt against the insurgents
188
Position of the Sikhs at Ramnuggur
189
Bloody repulse of the British
190
Operations of Lord Gough and Shere Singh
191
Preparations on both sides for tho battle
192
Battle of Chillianwallah ib 102 Loud clamours in England and appointment of Sir C Napier Com manderinChief
194
Battle of Goojerat
195
Glorious victory of the British
196
Great results of the victory and surrender of the Sikhs ib 107 The Affghans are driven oif and Attock taken
197
Siege of Mooltan renewed
198
Its capture by storm
199
Incorporation of the Punjaub with the British empire
200
Peace in India for some years
201
Great works undertaken by Lord Dalhousie
202
Second Burmese war and capture of Martaban
203
Storming of Rangoon
204
Storming of Bassein
205
Capture of Prome and Pegu
206
IIS Peace with Burmah
207
Annexation of Oude
208
120 Grounds assigned for it
209
Reflections on these events
211
VThat of the incorporation of Oude f
212
Picture of the Indian empire at this period
213
12 Absence of direct Parliamentary government the cause of this
215
Contemporary reflections on the fall of the East India Company
216
Danger of direct government of India by Britain
218
CHAPTER L
220
Discontent which the rule of the middle class had excited in France
221
First acts of the Provisional Government
222
Disorders around Paris
223
Confusion and pressure at the Hdtel de Ville
224
Cares of the Government
225
Extreme disorders in Paris
226
Noble conduct of Lamartine in regard to the Drapeau Rouge
227
Institution of the Garde Mobile and Volunteers
228
Decrees against the exMinisters and other measures 229 11 Reopening of the clubs liberation of prisoners planting of trees of liberty and fete of Marc...
230
Prostration of credit and formation of the Ateliers Nationaux
231
Formation of the Ateliers Nationaux
232
Who was responsible for them
233
Share which Louis Blanc had in them ib 16 Real principles of the Socialists
234
Louis Blancs real fault
235
Decisive answer to the Socialist doctrines
236
Absence of religious jealousy in this Revolution
238
Socialist demands of the working classes
239
Acts against free trade and expulsion of English workmen from Fiance
240
Monetary and commercial crisis and resignation of M Goudchoux as Finance Minister
242
Gamier Pages minister Financial state of the Bank 242 24 Suspension of cash payments
243
Great effects of this change and its wisdom 26 Effects of this measure and its extension to the provincial banks
244
cent additional on the direct taxes
247
Universal indignation at the increase of the direct taxes
249
Decree convoking the National Assembly
250
Assembly postponed to May 4 and elections to March 26
251
Circular of LedruRollin to the electors ib 34 Circular of M Carnot Minister of Public Instruction
253
Fresh measures of intimidation of the Central Government
254
Abolition of the punishment of death in political cases
256
Lamartines pacific circular to foreign states
257
Lamartines answer to the Irish deputation
259
Lamartines secret views at this period
260
Frightful disorders in Lyons and on the Upper Rhine
261
Reception of the Revolution in Algeria ib 42 LedruRollins underhand attempt to revolutionise Belgium
262
Counterdeclarations of Lamartine to the Poles
264
Military preparations of the Provisional Government ib 45 Suspension of cash payments by the savingB banks
265
Recognition of the French Rcpviblic by America and Great Britain
266
Renewed violent circular of the Minister of the Interior
267
Its terms
268
Immense efforts made to control the elections
269
Decree dissolving the flank companies of the National Guard
270
Demonstration on March 16 and its failure
271
Counterdemonstration of March 17
272
Appearance of the column which approached the Hdtel de Ville
273
Interview of the Clubs and the Government
274
Repulse of the requisitionists
275
Elections in Paris and the Departments
276
Preparations for the revolt
277
Fresh conspiracy against LedruRollin i6 59 Measures of Lamartine and LedruRollin to meet the danger
278
Preparations of defence at the Hotel de Ville
279
Defeat of the insurrection
280
Disorders at Rouen and other provincial towns
281
Grand review in Paris
282
The elections
283
First meeting of the new Assembly
285
Lamartines speech on foreign affairs
286
Appointment of the Executive Commission
288
Division between the Assembly and the Socialists
289
Preparations for the insurrection of May 15
290
Dispersion of the Assembly by the insurgents
291
Scene in the Assembly
292
New Provisional Government appointed
293
Measures which followed the suppression of the insurrection
295
Subsequent proceedings of the Assembly ib 76 Commencement of an agitation in favour of Louis Napoleon
296
Increasing conservatism of the electors and weakness of the Government
298
301
301
3i 12
303
SOS
310
311
311
316
316
CHAPTER LI
321
Inquiry on the revolts of May and June
322
Violence of M Proudhon the next Socialist leader
324
Repressive legislative measures
325
Goudchouxs plan for asssessing income as well as land
326
Discussion on the Constitution
328
910 Answer of Odillon Barrot 330
330
Result of the debate
331
Argument in favour of an election of the President by the Chamber
332
Reply of Lamartine
334
Adoption and proclamation of the Constitution
335
Summary of it
336
Renewed but abortive club agitation
337
Return of Louis Napoleon and his entry into the Assembly
338
Renewed banquet agitation
339
Contest of Cavaignac and Louis Napoleon for the Presidency
340
Position and views of General Cavaignac
341
Address of Cavaignac to the electors
343
Embarrassment from the events at Rome
344
Results of the election on public men
348
Appointment of a Ministry
349
Deplorable state of the finances 32 Failure of the indirect taxes and of imports
350
The Revolution had been buried in tho grave of universal suffrage
351
Which would not be the case in Great Britain
352
CHAPTER LII
354
Proximate causes of tho Revolution in Italy
355
Effect of the Revolution of Paris at Rome and Venice
356
Forces of the Austrians in Italy
358
His character
359
General Hess his chief of the staff
360
Feeling in Lombardy on the war and Austrian rule ib 9 Insurrection at Milan and retreat of the Austrians from thence
361
Final victory of the insurgents
362
Immense effects of this victory to the insurgents
363
Spread of the insurrection and retreat of Radetsky to the Mincio
364
Forces and movements of Charles Albert
365
Biography and character of Charles Albert
366
Bombardment of the city and concession of the Government
367
Which leads to increased demands from the insurgents
368
The King of Naples agrees to give a constitution
369
Spread of the Revolution in Sicily
370
Defeat of the insurgents iu Naples by the Swiss ib 21 Dethronement of the King of Naples and election of the Duke of Genoa as King of Sicily
372
Change of ministry in Rome
373
The Pope is at last obliged to declare war against Austria
374
Forces at the disposal of Charles Albert
375
Other forces of the Italian League
376
Radetskys forces and position
377
Its weak side in consequence of the insurrection in its rear
378
Measures to recover and secure the Tyrol
379
Measures of the Provisional Government at Milan
381
First operations on the Mincio
382
Invasion of the Tyrol by the free corps
384
Battle of Santa Lucia
390
Important effect of the counterrevolution at Naples
396
Movements of the Austrians
402
Reinforcements obtained
408
Battle of Custoza
415
Armistice and desperate measures of the Radicals
422
Revolution at Rome and flight of the Pope
428
Designs of the Italian Revolutionists after RoBsis death
429
Proclamation of a Republic in Rome and defection of the Swiss Guards
431
Renewal of the war between Piedmont and Austria
432
Forces of the Piedmoutese on the renewal of the war 434 86 Forces of the Austrians
435
Different feelings of the two armies on the renewal of the war
436
Description of the theatre of war ib 89 Advance of the two armies who mutually cross each other
438
Concentration of the army at Pavia
439
Effect of these movements and combat of Mostara
440
Position of Novara and of the two armies
442
Battle of Novara
443
Victory of the Austrians
444
Results of the battle
445
Abdication and escape of Charles Albert
446
Proceedings in the Chamber of Deputies at Turin
447
Conclusion of an armistice and its conditions 448 99 The Chamber rejects the armistice and is dissolved
449
Revolt at Brescia which is suppressed ib 101 Insurrection in Genoa and defeat of General Azarba
450
Vigorous conduct of the Piedmontese who reduce the city
451
Intrepid conduct of Lord Hardwicke
452
Counterrevolution at Florence
453
Renewal of the siege of Rome
463
Forces on both sides and progress of the siege
464
Siege and capture of Rome
465
Flight and dispersion of Garibaldis band
467
Blockade of Vouice
468
Siege and capture of Fort Malghera surrender of Venice ib 120 Restoration of the Grand Duke of Tuscany and peace between Austria and Piedmont
470
The Austrians had previously acceded to a separation of Lombardy from Austria
471
Reflections on the conduct of Great Britain on this crisis
472
Conduct of the military commanders on both sides
473
To what the defeat of the Italians was owing
474
Their divisions occasioned it ib 126 Total want of military organisation in Southern Italy
476
The Italian mind was inconsistent with the exercise of freedom
477
Page 1 Agitated state of Central Europe at this poriod
478
Passions of religion and race
479
Different races in Austria ib 4 State of Prussia
482
Great and general prosperity of Germany during the peace
483
Great extent of education in Germany
485
Great effect of the military system in Germany
486
Different military organisation of Austria
487
Division of parties on the principle of representation in Germany
488
Constitution of Hungary
489
Great extent of the exclusive privileges in Hungary
490
Demand for unity in the Empire
491
its objects
492
Effects of the Zollverein on the material resources of the country
493
Vague and imaginary ideas afloat in society in Germany
494
General yielding of the established Governments to the French opinions
495
Belgium survives the shock ib 18 Monetary and commercial crisis in Belgium
497
Changes in the Constitution of Holland
498
Progress of the Revolution in Germany
500
All the lesser German Sovereigns yield 601
502
Important Proclamation by the King of Prussia
503
Tumult in Berlin
504
Bloody conflict and submission of the King
505
Revolution in Bavaria and resignation of the King
506
Divisions in Prussia on the recent changes
507
New Prussian Constitution
509
Its provisions ib 30 Dispute of the Prussian with the General Diet
510
Great meeting at Heidelberg
511
Elections for the General Diet
512
Composition of the General Diet
513
German encroachments on SchleswigHolstein
514
Great importance of this question in a social point of view The Schleswig Holstein question
516
Claims of the Duchies of Holstein and Schleswig
517
Invasion of the Duchies by the Prussian troops
518
First victory of the Danes
519
Renewed invasion of Schleswig and victories of the Prussians
520
Sweden intervenes and Russia is in observation
522
Battle of Duppeln ib 42 Negotiations for an armistice which is concluded
523
Suppression of a revolt in the south
525
The new Constitution and Archduke John elected Regent
526
Mortification of the Cabinet of Berlin at this result
527
Riots in Berlin and change of Ministry ib 52 Ministry again changed Measures of the King
534
Address of General Von Wrangel to his troops ib 54 Disorders in Berlin and pusillanimity of the Burgher Guard
535
Riot at the Assembly Hall and change of Ministry
537
Dramatic scene in the Assembly
538
The Assembly resolve to resist
539
The Assembly is dissolved by force 641
542
Completion of the victory of the Crown
543
Completion of the Kings victory and dissolution of the Assembly
544
Kings Constitution
545
Address of the King to troops of the line and londwehr
547
Proceedings of the Diet at Frankfort and the Regent
548
Violent outbreak at Fraukfort 649
551
Debate in the Frankfort Assembly on the prosecution of the members
553
Increasing jealousy of Austria at the Central Government
554
Prince of Leiningeus speech on the requisites of a united German Empire ib 71 Capture and execution of Blum at Vienna
556
Extreme incompetence of the Frankfort Assembly and breach with Austria
557
Pernicious influence of the Clubs over the Assembly
558
The Imperial Crown is offered to the King of Prussia
559
Which is refused by the King and his reasons for it
560
Views of Austria on the Bubject and on the German Constitution
561
It is received and accepted by the lesser states 5G2 78 New German Constitution
562
Breach between the Frankfort Assembly and Prussia
564
Violent proceedings of the Assembly at Stuttgardt and its dissolution
565
Insurrection in Saxony and Hanover which is at first successful and finally quelled
567
Insurrection in Baden and the Palatinate
568
And its suppression by the armies of Prussia and Bavaria
569
Constitution agreed to by Prussia Hanover and Saxony
570
Its provisions
571
Proceedings of the New Chamber in Prussia
572
New electoral law in Prussia 678
574
Final arrangement of the German Diet and Constitution
575
Affairs of Wurtemberg and Prussia in 1850
576
Dissension between Austria and Prussia regarding HesseCasscl
577
CHAPTER LIV
596
Reception of the news from Paris in Vienna 59 fi 2 Serious excitement in Vienna
597
Tumult of March 13
598
Sacking of Prince Metternich3 hotel and tumult in the palace
599
Speech and resignation of Metternich 601 6 His final conversation with the Emperor and formation of a new Ministry
603
Commencement of trouble in Hungary and Bohemia
604
Demands of Kossuth and the Hungarians
605
Liberal Constitution for Bohemia
606
Outbreak at Prague and murder of the Princess Windischgratz
608
Desperate and bloody fight in Prague id
610
Arrangement of a constitution for Hungary
611
Constitution of the whole Austrian Empire
613
Animosity of races which broke out in the Austrian Empire
614
The hostility of the Hungarians to the Austrians ib 20 Conciliatory measures adopted by the Cabinet of Vienna
615
Fidelity of the Croatians
616
Increased disturbances in Vienna
617
Flight of the Emperor
618
Fresh revolutionary movements in Vienna
619
Page 31 Return of the Emperor to Vienna
620
Emperors proclamation from Innspruck and measures there
621
Austria was saved by the fidelity of the army ib 27 Commencement of a rupture between the Magyars and the Croats
622
The Ban is disavowed by the Emperor but continues his preparations
623
First acts of the Hungarian Parliament
624
Commencement of differences between Austria and Hungary
628
Memorable conference between Jellachich and Count Bathiany
629
State of parties in Hungary at this time
630
Democratic or republican party
631
Character of Georgey 632
632
Character of Kossuth
634
Of Jellachich
635
Of Windischgratz
636
Of Prince Schwartzenberg
638
Revolt of the Razen
639
Preparations for war on both sides
640
Plan of the Austrians
641
Plan of the campaign on the part of the Hungarians
642
Immense efforts of the Hungarians
643
Appointment of Count Lamberg and counterproclamation of the Hunga rian Diet
644
Murder of Count Lamberg ib 49 Execution of Count Zichy GIG 50 Dissolution of the Diet of Hungary which is declared in a state of siege
647
Commencement of the insurrection in Vienna
648
Strange sceno at a meeting of the conspirators
649
Plans of the conspirators and commencement of the insurrection
650
Commencement of the combat and successes of the insurgents
651
Capture of the office of the warminister and murder of Count Latour
653
Storming of the arsenal
655
Retirement of the Emperor to Olmutz
656
The military are stationed in the Belvidero Gardens
657
March of Jellachich on Vienna
658
His approach ib 62 Great agitation in Vienna and vain attempts to gain the Ban
659
Approach of Windischgratz from Prague
660
64 Character of Bern
661
the bombardment commences
662
Preparations for the assault on both sides
663
Storming of the barricade of the Prater ib 68 Night which followed the attack
664
Commencement of conference for a surrender
665
Approach of the Hungarians as seen from the steeples of Vienna
666
Battle of Schwechat and defeat of the Hungarians
667
Total defeat of the Hungarians
668
Execution of Blum
670
Formation of a new Ministry by Schwartzenberg
672
CHAPTER LV
674
New Constitution of Austria
675
Cold reception of the Constitution in Hungary and Austria
677
Description of Hungary in a military point of view
678
Forces of the AustriaDs and their plan of operations
679
Advance of the Austrians C80 7 Advance of the Austrians to Komorn and Pesth
681
Brilliant retreat and movements of Georgey
682
War of Bern in Transylvania
683
Able movements of Georgey in the north of Hungary
684
Extreme difficulties of his march to Kaschau
685
Efforts of Kossuth and the Government to reorganise the army behind the Theiss
687
Arrest and execution of Count Bathiany 6S8 14 Inactivity of Windischgratz at Pesth
689
Advance of Windischgratz towards Debrcczin C90 16 Battle of Kapolna
692
Discord in tho Magyar rauks and Derobinski displaced
693
Successes of Bern in Transylvania and first intervention of the Russians
694
Successes and disasters of Piiekner
695
Renewed advance of the Magyars towards Pesth
697
It is resolved to fight for Pesth 098
699
Battle of Isaszeg
701
Great results of the battle
702
Able movement of Georgey round the Austrian left
703
Storming of Waitzen td 31 Consternation in Vienna and appointment of Baron Weldeu to the com mand of tho army
704
Speech of Kossuth against Georgey on tho future of Hungary 705
705
Georgeys reply 706
706
Declaration of Hungarian Independence
708
Vast preparations of tho Hungarians and the government declared revolu tionary
709
Deplorable condition of Austria which resolves to invoke the aid of Russia
710
Raising of the siege of Komorn and continued disasters of the Austrians
711
Evacuation of Pesth by tho Austrians
712
Divided opinions on what course Bhould be pursued after Pesth was taken
713
Siege and storm of Buda
714
Successes of tho Hungarians on their right on the Danube
716
Forces and chances of the Magyars
718
Biography and character of Haynau
719
Biography and character of Paskewitch
720
Forces of the Austrians and Russians ij 51 Forces of the Hungarians
722
Battle of Pered
724
Farther operations on the Waag
725
Advance of the Austrians towards Waitzen and battle of Acz
726
Battle of Komorn ib 58 Issue of the conflict
727
Results of the battle and advance of the Austrians to Pesth
728
Battle of Waitzen
729
Desperate cavalry action at Tzombor ti 62 Desperate state of Hungarian affairs and proposals of capitulation
730
Georgey is dismissed and restored to the command
731
Results of the first part of the campaign
732
Ability and consequences of Georgeys mountain march and combat at Poroszlo
733
Combat in front of Debreczin
734
Defeat of the Hungarians
735
Disasters of the insurgents in Transylvania
736
Defeat of Bern at Segesvar
737
Final defeat of Bern at Hermanstadt
738
Advance of the Austrians to Szegedin
739
Battle of Szegedin
740
The advance to Tomesvor
741
Defeat of the Austrians before Komorn 7J4 77 Eccentric retreat of Dembinski and Bern to the Bouth
745
Resignation of Kossuth and Georgey declared Dictator
746
Interview of Georgey and Bern
747
Georgeys letter to Rudiger offering surrender
748
The Hungarians lay down their arms
749
Mournful ceremony which then occurred
750
Surrender of the remaining corps and fortresses and termination of the war
751
Powerful intervention of Russia 679
752
Resignation of the Emperor and accession of the new Emperor Francis Joseph 673
753
Mutual jealousy of Austrians and Russians after the war
754
everything
758
Great political importance of the period from 1848 to 1852
759
Increased loyal and docile temper of the people
761
Real suffering of the country during this period
762
Prices of grain during the period and effects of the fall
763
Outcry for repeal of the Navigation Laws
764
Deep interest of the Hungarian war
765
The Hungarian insurrection was unjustifiable ib 89 And disastrous to freedom if successful
766
1114 Answer of the Protectionists 769771
769
The bill is passed in both Houses
772
Its results
773
584
775
Change of circumstances which weakened the Protectionists cause
776
Rise in the price of foreign grain from the repeal of the Corn Laws
777
Great improvements in agriculture especially draining
778
588
779
Great effect on agriculture of the completion of the railway system
780
Effect of the railway system on the balance of political parties in the State
781
Violent outcry among the agricultural classes ib 25 Attitude of the Freetraders on the question
783
VOL VIII
785
Answer of the Protectionists 786787
788
Reflections on this decision
789
Finances of the Empire from 1849 to 1852
790
Population census of 1851
791
Mortality of town and country districts
793
Remarkable increase in crimes of violence in Great Britain during the last forty years
795
Relinquishment of the transportation system and its injurious effects
796
Causes which led to this
798
What Government should have done ib 40 Course pursued and its ruinous effects and abandonment of transportation
799
Ruinous consequences of the change
800
594
801
Concession of right of selfgovernment to the colonics
802
Difficulties of a direct representation of the colonies in Parliament
803
Colonial discontent produced by the Reform Bill and its results
804
Now and true colonial system
806
Affairs of the Cape discontent there and its causes ib 48 Caffre war its early disasters
807
Progress of the war
809
Progress and termination of the war
810
Subsequent transactions
811
Renewed predial outrages in Ireland
812
Sir Robert Peels Encumbered Estates Bill
813
Working of the plan and its great effects
814
Its beneficial effects in the end
815
Difference with Russia in regard to the Hungarian refugees
816
Origin of the quarrel with tho Greek Government
818
France is on the verge of war with England in consequence
819
Proceedings in Parliament on this subject
820
Military and naval armaments of the empire at this period
821
Death of Sir R Peel ib 62 Bill lowering the franchise in Ireland
822
Circumstances which led to Lord Palmerstons removal from office
823
Dofoat of the Ministry on the Militia Bill
824
Lord Derby as an orator
826
Hia Cabinet
827
Embodying of the militia and increase of tho military force of tho country ib 68 Lord Hardinges measures to increase tho artillery
828
Dissolution of the House of Commons
829
The Budget upon which Lord Derby is dofeated and he resigns and the Whigs return to office
830
Loss of the Amazon and Birkenhead Bteamers 881
833
Their vast effects
834
Especially in the British empire 16
836
Preparations for the ceremony of the interment ift 77 The procession
837
Chief persons who attended in it
838
Ceremony in St Pauls
839
CHAPTER LVII
841
Formation of the Army of the Alps under Bugeaud
842
Early divisions and changes in the Cabinet
843
Appointment of a VicePresident
844
Disastrous state of the finances debate on tho salt duties
845
Increased duty on accessions
846
Comparative financial state of Franco in 1848 and 1849
847
Deplorable state of the public finances 246
848
Measures on tho question of primary education and the Council of State
849
General reaction against the Revolution and the Assembly
850
Proposition of M Rateau
851
Preparations for a conspiracy
852
Conspiracy of January 29
853
The general election of May 1849
854
Meeting of the Legislative Assembly
856
Preparations for the insurrection of June 13 ib 17 Insurrection and its defeat
858
Flight of LedruRollin and the Mountain measures of repression in Paris
859
Revolt in Lyons
860
Entire change of Ministers
861
Impression made by this step in Paris and the provinces
862
First measures of Louis Napoleon as an independent magistrate
863
Election of March 10 1850 in Paris
864
Effects of this election on public opinion
865
Meeting of Louis Napoleon with the electors 26 Law of the 31st May on the electoral rights
867
Effect of this law on public opinion and the President
868
Hostile spirit evinced in the Assembly in the vote on the Mayors on the civil list and on the permanent commission
869
Presidents tour in the provinces
870
Rupture between the President and General Changarnier
872
Opening of the new session of the Assembly
873
Commencement of the rupture with the Assembly
874
Violent proceedings in the Assembly
875
Hostile vote of the Assembly against the President
876
Change of Ministry and exhaustion of parties
877
New Ministry
878
Revision of the Constitution
879
Napoleon and Cavaignac on the revision of the Constitution
880
Vote against the revision of the Constitution prorogation of the Assembly
881
State of parties during the recess preparations of the President and change of Ministry to 42 Opening of the session
882
Motion of the Quastors
883
Rejection of the proposal of the Qusestors
884
Views of the leaders of parties at this time
885
Military meeting at General Magnans
886
Conspiracy in the Assembly ib 48 Preparations for the coupdetat
887
The Presidents proclamation to the people
889
Dispersion of the National Assembly 51 Combat in Paris
890
Great majority over France for Louis Napoleon
892
Conclusion of the authors work jft 54 Results of the Btrife so far as the cause of freedom is concerned
893
What have been the additions made to the cause of freedom
894
Effects of the European revolutions on the civilisation of the world
895
What is necessary to make an ancient nation emigrate
896
The love of power does this
897
Which ends in stoppage of increase of the people and great emigration
898
Effect of the growth of wealth in raising prices
899
Which induces the cry for Free Trade ib 62 Influence of monetary measures and manufactures for the export sale in arresting population
901
Growth in old societies of the causes which retard and stop their increase
902
Which was the change going on in Europe during the period embraced in this History
903
Democracy is a means not an end and it has answered its purpose
905
This arises from an overestimate of the average capacity of human nature
906
Corresponding error in the estimate of the capacity of nations for Free dom or true Religion
907

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