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15 θαμά κε, τώδε μέλει κλιθείς,

25 ύμνον κελάδησε καλλίνικος ποικ. κιθ. with έθάλπετο, after which the verb was qualified in some way. editors have put the comma, disre- I have thought of παιδαγκελάgarding the position of ke.

once. Some substantive denoting 15. Tøde uéllel.] For the dat. cf. the victor is, as Bergk saw, almost ΟΙ. Ι. 92, 'Αλφεου πόρω κλιθείς. needed to justify the change from Here perhaps Tøde is such,' cf. Ol. the second person to the third vv. IV. 24, Nem. ix. 42, Aesch. Ag. 942, 21, 23, in spite of Dissen's • transitu viknu Tývde. Render · devoting him- maxime Pindarico.' He defends self (Paley) to such a strain.' Mezger, the change by Nem. v. 43, 45, but ‘an dieses Lied sich anschliessend= that passage (q. v.) does not really mein Lied mit der Kithara beglei- give such a transitus. If réuyavtos tend.' If the father of Timâsarchos be read v. 18, įuvov may stand, or was a lyric poet,' as Don. and χάρμαγκελάδησε, also suggested by Dissen say, Pindar would probably the Schol., be proposed; but ‘of one not use language that would make having sent’is much harsher than him manifestly inferior to himself. .for having sent' (or brought') But Mezger more cautiously calls with υιόν...πέμψαντα or παιδαγκελ. . the father only a musician, which ...πέμψαντα. Beware of rendering is all that can be strictly inferred TTÉU Vavta 'which brings' or which from the passage.

Even so the brought,' that had brought,' with Daud and the aorist suggest that those who take it in agreement Tõhe should not be limited to the with ünvov. Apart from grammatical present ode, especially as three vic- considerations one hymn could hardtories are immediately mentioned. ly be mentioned as accompanying

16. öpvov.] Bergk (2nd ed.) reads two or three victories unless it were vióv, which suits vu infra v. 21 well. the ode in progress, in which case we Possibly, however, öpvov would just should expect the present or future stand if we take kallivikov as a participle. Those who like Prof. second accus. 'a noble victor' (cf. Paley do not stick at the transitus 01. xi. 78, Aristoph. Acharn. 1232, involved in viv had best, I venture αλλ' εψόμεσθα σην χάριν την ελλα to suggest, make the slight alteraκαλλίνικον άδοντες σε και τον ασκόν). tion réuyovta, 'to escort.' The upIf the ambiguity be objected to, the shot of the discussion is that the alternative is to regard ύμνον as retention of įuvov involves great corrupt, derived from Űuvov, v. 11. difficulties, and does not suit the The slight deviation of Bergk's viòv Schol., that the substitution of from the Ms. reading is no very spe- viòr does not suit the Schol., that cial recommendation, but it might πέμψαντα is incompatible with ύμνον, , be accepted were it not that the that the v. l. méuyavtos is of inSchol. seems to have had a different ferior Ms. authority, and though reading. The comment is ouvexws supported by the Schol. yet is αν τούτω τώ μέλει και ταύτη τη ώδη clearly taken wrongly, is a ery προσκλίνας εαυτόν και προσαγαγών obvious grammarian's alteration (cf. ανευφήμησε και ανεβάλετο την γε- μιχθέντι, Ρyth. IX. 13, for μιχθέντα γενημένην νίκην την από του Κλεω- wrongly altered to agree with Oew), ναίου αγώνος του πέμψαντος πλήθος and at best gives a very harsh conκαι όρμαθον στεφάνων. By com- struction, and that we should there. paring other Scholl. on kehadéw we fore decide in favour of πέμψαντα are led to the inference that here and against ύμνον. .

Στρ. γ'. Κλεωναίου τ' απαγώνος όρμον στεφάνων πέμψαντα και λιπαρών

ευωνύμων απ'Αθανάν, Θήβαις τ' εν επταπύλοις 30 20 oύνεκ' 'Αμφιτρύωνος αγλαόν παρά τύμβος

Καδμείοί νιν ουκ άέκοντες άνθεσι μίγνυον, 35 Αιγίνας έκατι. φίλοισι γαρ φίλος ελθών ξένιον άστυ κατέδραμεν

17. Κλεωναίου.] Cf. Nem. Χ. 42. The citizens of Κλεωναι near Nemea managed the Nemean games for a long time, including the dates of these two odes Nem. iv, and x. and going back at least a generation. Cf. Plutarch, Vit. Arat. c. XXVIII. One Schol, on the Nemeans says that first the Kleônaeoi and then the Korinthians presided.

όρμον στεφάνων.] The plur. of στέφανος is used in reference to a single victory, Pyth. 11. 6, 111. 73, Χ. 26, Isth. III. 11, Nem. IX. 53. The victors probably carried home crowns given to them in the φυλλοβολία (Pyth. IX. 123, πολλά μέν κείνοι δίκον ! φύλλ' επί και στεφάνους) as well as the prize chaplet. Hence the phrase 'a string (festoon) of crowns' might refer to one victory, or as here to two, and we need not charge the poet with having made εν Θήβαις dependent on στεφάνων, a very different construction from το δε κλέος | τηλόθεν δέδορκε ταν 'Ολυμπιάδων εν δρόμοις | Πέλοπος. It is possible that όρμον στεφάνων may refer to the crowns of the chorus, cf. Eur. Herc. Fur. 677, αεί δ' εν στεφάνοισιν είην. The skeleton of the sentence is κελάδησε 8. στ. πέμψαντά τε από Κλ. και απ'Αθ. (νικώντά) τε εν θ.-8 mild case of zeugma assisted by the previous καλλίνικον.

18. λιπαράν.] For the two adjectives, one descriptive, the other complimentary, cf. Pyth. ix.55, 106.

For λιπαρών cf. Frag. 54 [46], Isth. ΙΙ. 20.

20. Cf. Schol. on Ol. VΙΙ. 154 (84), τα Ηράκλεια και Ιολάεια ετελείτο εν ταϊς θήβαις, εδίδοτο δε τω νικήσαντι τρίπους χαλκους.

The Scholl. on Ol.ix. 148 tell us that the Hêrakleia (Iolaia) at Thebes were held by the common monument of Amphitryôn and Iolâos, see also Pausanias ix. 23. θηβαίοις δε προ των πυλών έστι των Προιτίδων (Ν.Ε.) και το Ιολάου καλούμενον γυμνάσιον και στάδιον...ενταύθα δείκνυται και ηρώον Ιολάου. Pindar speaks of Iολάου τύμβος in connection with these games, Ol. IX. 98. For the other Theban games held outside the Gate of Elektra (s. w.) cf. Isth. III. 79.

21. μίγνυον.] For this use of μίγνυμι cf. ΟΙ. Ι. 22. The φυλλοβολία is probably referred to. Cf. note on υ. 17, όρμον στεφάνων. Böckh quotes Pausanias, vi. 7. 1, Clem. Alex, Paedag. II. 8.

22. Αιγίνας.] Thebe and Aegina were sisters, daughters of Asôpos by Metôpê. Cf. Ol. vi. 84, Isth. VII. 15. The Thebans applied to Aegina for aid against Athens when told by the Delphic oracle (Β. C. 504) των άγκιστα δέεσθαι [Mezger], Herod. v. 79, 80.

φίλοισι φίλος.] An adverbial phrase='on terms of mutual friendship.'

23. ξένιον.] “Bound to welcome him,' rather than ‘strange,' as Paley

Ηρακλέος όλβίαν προς αυλάν.

Στρ. δ'. 25 συν και ποτε Τρωΐαν κραταιός Τελαμών

40 πόρθησε και Μέροπας και τον μέγαν πολεμιστάν έκπαγλον 'Αλκυονή, ου τετραορίας γε πριν δυώδεκα πέτρα

45

and Myers render. I take the Nem. 1. 67 (100), Isth. v. 33 (47) Homeric sense 'hospes' to be older (though Pindar may have placed the than the non-Homeric strange,' Gigantomachia in Campania); but and agree to connect geivos <čevios according to the Schol. a giant (original meaning — 'connected') whose kine Hêrakles was driving with ξυνός < ξυνιός, κοινός < σκονιός from Erytheia and who was killed from SKAM or SKVAM, whence čúv, at the Isthmus of Korinth. There oúv, Lat. cum, con-.

seems to be a confusion with the κατέδραμεν.] Old Mss. give κατέ- legend of Gêryones by the Schol. Opakev which Mommsen reads, ren. Cf. Apollodôros 1. 6. 1, 11. 7. 1. dering katé Op. 10. venit et con. The statement that Telamôn vanspexit,' adding após ex veniendo quished Alkyoneus may be in acsuspensum est.'

The better sense cordance with Aeginetan legend, and construction decide in favour but the language need not be pressed. of the text. The metaphor is from What Telamôn did with Herakles navigation, run ashore, into port;' may include what Herakles did 80 & Spanev of a ship, Theognis. Dis- himself. Still Telamôn as órlians gen’s κατέδραμεν = κατέδυ is not may have given the coup de grace right. Mezger renders .ran down after Hérakles as yilòs had brought through the city:' see next note. the giant down with his arrows.

24. 'Hpakléos ... aúláv.] Mezger Cf. Isth. v. 33. thinks that the Hêrakleion outside 28. γε πρίν.] Cf. πρίν γε οι... the Gate of Elektra (Pausan. ix. 11. χαλινόν | Παλλάς ήνεγκ', ol. XIII. 65. 2) is meant, where the Aeginetan Elsewhere in Pindar apiv as a conprobably sacrificed before the games junction takes the infinitive. held at the opposite side of the Tetpaopias.] The Homeric war city. Müller's view however seems chariots were bigae or trigae except preferable, namely that 'the house in the case of Hektor, II. viii. 185, of Amphitryon' is intended, the a suspected line, the Schol. Ven. lodgings of the competitors (kata- denying that Homer ever menλύσεις των αθλητών) being in the tions a quadriga. Amphiarâos has neighbourhood: comp.Böckh, Corp. TEOplovs Eur. Supplices, 925. In Inscr. Gr. 1. pp. 573 ff. (Don.). Smith's Dict. of Ant. Art. Currus,

25. Cf. Nem. 111. 37, Apollodôros the four-horse war chariots of postII. 6. 4, II. v. 638.

Homeric Greek literature are ig26. Mépotas.] Note the zeugma. nored. They were perhaps borrowed These were the inhabitants of the from the Persians. Cf. Xenoph. Isle of Kos. Cf. Isth. v. 31.

Cyropaed. vi. 1. 27, 28. Euripides 27. Cf. O. and P. P. xxxvi. gives four-horse war chariots to HylAlkvovñ.) A Giant slain by los and Eurystheus, Heracl. 802, Herakles at Phlegra, the Isthmus 860, to Thebans and Argives geneof Pallênê probably, cf. Schol. on rally Suppl. 667, 675, and mentions 50

ήρωάς τεπεμβεβαώτας ιπποδάμους έλεν 30 δις τόσους. άπειρομάχας εών κε φανείη

λόγον και μη συνιείς: επει ρέζοντά τι και παθείν έoικεν.

Στρ. ε'.

τα μακρά δ' εξενέπειν ερύκει με τεθμός

ωραί τεπειγόμεναι 35 ίύγγι δ' έλκομαι ήτορ νεομηνία θιγέμεν.

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such chariots for travelling (in Schol. who quotes from a tragedy fight) Ηel. 1039, Ion, 1241.

τον δρώντα που τι και παθείν οφεί29. επεμβεβαώτας.] This is a case λεται. of the strictly adjectival use of the 33. The due arrangement (of participle, in which case the presence my ode) and the time (occupied by or absence of the article makes very the procession and so allowed for little difference when the noun is the performance of the ode) pressing definite. Cf. Nem. VII. 65.

on prevent my telling at length 30. δις τόσους.] The ηνίοχος and the long tale.' Cf. Isth. Ι. 60, παραιβάτης of each of the twelve πάντα δ' εξειπείν, όσαγώνιος Ερμάς chariots.

Ηροδότο έπoρεν | ίπποις, αφαιρείται άπειρομάχας.] “Manifestly without βραχύ μέτρον έχων | ύμνος. experience of battle is whoso under- τεθμός.] “The usual structure standeth not the saying: for “when (Mezger), the prescribed limits. Cf. achieving aught it is likely that Isth. v. 20, τέθμιόν μοι φαμι σαφέone should suffer.” ' For this saying στατον | τάνδ' έπιστείχοντα νάσον cf. Aesch. Choph. 305, δράσαντι ραινέμεν ευλογίαις. παθείν, τριγέρων μύθος τάδε φωνεί, 35. ίϋγγι.] Cf. Pyth. IV. 214. where as Don. says the application "I feel my heart drawn on by a is different, as the different tense of charm to touch on the festival of the participle shows. With the pres. the new moon.' But ivyš may here the consequences of undertaking or

a yearning,' as in Aesch. beginning an action are considered, Persae, 968 (P.), Aristoph. Lysistr. with the aorist the consequences of 1110. having done an action. Pindar has έλκομαι.] Cf. Theokr. ΙΙ. 17, ίυγξ apparently adapted and extended έλκε τυ τηνον εμόν ποτέ δωμα τον the old formula which asserted that άνδρα. Τhe Schol. tells us that we must take the consequences of Iynx was daughter of Echô or our conduct. Paley says Aristotle Peithô, who having charmed Zeus (Eth. Nic. v. ch. 8. init.) gives this into his passion for Iô was changed Ας το Ραδαμάνθυος δίκαιον, Εί κε into a bird. πάθοι τα κ' έρεξε δίκη κ' ευθεία νεομηνία.] Cf. Nem. ΙΙΙ. 2, εν γένοιτο.' Don. says “Pindar refers ιερομηνία Νεμεάδι, explained by the to the trouble and loss sustained by Schol. as for lepovovunvią because Hercules and his followers before the beginning of the month is they could subdue the giant, hinting sacred to Apollo, and therefore the also that Timasarchos had suffered time of ή των επινίκων ευωχία. a good deal before he won his Hence the poet does not here refer Wrestling match.' So also the to the day of the victory in the

mean

έμπα, καίπερ έχει βαθεία ποντιάς άλμα

Nemean games, if G. F. Unger (quoted by Mezger) is right in placing the summer Nemean games on the 18th of the Attic month Hekatombaeôn. He certainly does not touch on ή των επινίκων ευωχία, and therefore there is small reason for saying that he desires to do so. A more comprehensible explanation is to be found, without even making the poet say the celebration of the victory when he means the victory. Probably the Theban Hêrakleia were celebrated at the beginning of the month, for the theme which he now dismisses is closely connected both in grammar and mythical association with the Theban victory mentioned, v. 17. As for the tense of ίυγγι έλκομαι, the feeling remains though its effect has just past. The dè then is disjunctive, introducing a sort of apology for the previous digression. Bergk conjectures veoxuia (from Hesych.; νεοχαίης κίνησις πρόσφατος), Hartung, véą uveią.

36. čuna.] This refers back (cf. Nem. VI. 4) to v. 32, the general statement, as well as to the following clause which gives a particular application ;--notwithstanding the fact that worthy achievement involves suffering, though a deep sea (of detraction) has hold of thee by the middle, strain against the evil designs of foes. We shall surely be seen returning from the struggle in full light superior to our foes, while our adversaries, of envious mien (or • blinded by envy') keep their ineffectual saws tossing in obscurity till they sink to the ground.'

If we understand the metaphor to be from

man up to his waist in the sea, we destroy the force of Baleia. Pindar likens him. self to a swimmer wrestling with a deep sea in foul weather. Though

he were immersed all but head and shoulders, the sea, if likened to a wrestler, would be said to hold him by the waist, that grip being apparently the strongest known to the palaestra. His adversaries' inventions are the ineffectual waves of the sea of hostile criticism which are vanquished by the wrestling swimmer, who then comes to the haven of success in the light of fame. Thuς χαμαιπετούσαν is a metaphor from wrestling as well as έχει μέσσον. .

Lit., év páel gives a condition of the swimmer's struggle, for if the shore were enveloped in gloom a swimmer would generally be unable to land. So Ulysses (Od. v. 439) Νήχε παρέξ, ές γαίαν ορώμενος εί που έφεύροι Ηιόνας τε παραπλήγας λιμένας τε θαλάσσης, cf. ib. 392. Metaph. èv páel='the bright season of success. The language also suits the return home of a victorious wrestler (cf. Pyth. VIII. 83—87). I do not do away with the half false antithesis of εν φάει and σκότω, which suggests the secret whisperings of malice as much if not more than the obscurity of the whisperers. Thus instead of the mixture of metaphor with which this passage has been charged, we have one compound metaphor worked out regularly except in one minor detail. Donaldson is in. accurate in saying that Pindar compares his enemies to the waves of the sea. He should have said the γνωμαι κενεαι of his enemies are likened to waves.

The consequent error of taking δαΐων υπέρτεροι in a physical sense would then afford a less · Dantesque image,' as Mr Postgate calls it, as datwr would stand for δαΐων επιβουλίας: but it seems right to explain the phrase, superior to (or victorious over ') foes.' The word útéptepos is almost

a

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