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NEMEA VIII.

ON THE VICTORY OF DEINIS OF AEGINA IN THE SHORT

FOOT-RACE.

INTRODUCTION.

DEINIS, the son of Megas, of the family of the Chariadae (v. 46), of Aegina, had, like his father, been twice victor in the stadium at Nemea. From the allusion to Sparta in vv. 9—12, I think that this second victory was won during the troubles of Sparta with the Messênians and Helots which began B.C. 464, and before the war between Athens and Aegina, B.C. 458. From v. 20 I infer that this ode was composed just before the Seventh Nemean, and hence I regard it as probable that this victory falls in Ol. 79, either B.C. 463 or 461. The victor's father was dead (v. 44) at this time. From the opening lines addressed to the goddess of youthful bloom and young desire, though to be sure they lead up naturally to the birth of Aeakos, and from the prominence given to unfair preference and misrepresentation, it may be gathered with some slight probability that Deinis had recently been an unsuccessful suitor, and that his rival's friends had brought unfair influence to bear in the matter. However Prof. Jebb's remarks in his introduction to his edition of Aiax, p. viii., are very much to the point. “For a special reason not difficult to conjecture, Ajax was rather a favourite with Pindar. Not a few of the great men whose praises Pindar sang must have had skeletons in their closets. The chariot-race, the foot-race, the boxing and wrestling matches might have gone well, on the whole, for them and for their forefathers. But every family which had furnished a long series of competitors at the great festivals would be likely to have its grievances; its tradition of the ancestor who was beaten by a doubtful neck; its opinion about that recent award in which the judges had shown such scandalous partiality for their fellow-townsman. In such cases it would be consoling to remember that a hero second only to Achilles had been defrauded by a corrupt tribunal of the prize which was his due. The complimentary poet might flatter his patron's self-complacency by comparing him to great and successful heroes; but he might also chance to soothe feelings of a less agreeable kind by the mention of Ajax, so unsuccessful and yet so great. The ode was sung on the occasion of the dedication of Deinis' crown at the temple of Aeakos (v. 13).—The harmony is Lydian (v. 15), the measures chiefly Dorian. The apparent cretic after the first double trochee of the last strophic line is equivalent, most probably, to an epitrite, the last long syllable being long by nature or by a nasal, and being produced a double time. This syllable in no case ends a word in this ode. There is more break than usual between the metrical divisions of this ode.

ANALYSIS.

VV.

1—3. The goddess of young desire is sometimes kind, some

times cruel. 4, 5. One must be content to be moderate and attain one's

nobler desires. 6–8. The marriage and offspring of Zeus and Aegina was

blest. 812. Aeakos was much courted by heroes. 13—16. Dedication of ode and crown to Aeakos. 17, 18. Prosperity granted by the gods is comparatively lasting,

such, for instance, as that of Kinyras of Cyprus. 19. I

pause like a runner preparing to start. 20, 21. For anything new provokes envious criticism. 22—32. For envy attacks the noble as in the case of Aias and

the arms of Achilles. 32–34. Detraction existed of old. 35—39. Far be this from the poet, who hopes to win fame and

popularity by straightforward plain speaking. 40—44. Excellence and the joy of victory are enhanced by song. 44–50. The poet cannot restore Megas to life, but he can rear a

monument to father and son and assuage pain. 50, 51. The antidote of song is as old as the poison of detraction.

Στρ. α'. "Ώρα πότνια, κάρυξ 'Αφροδίτας αμβροσιάν φιλοτάτων, άτε παρθενηίοις παίδων τ' εφίζοισα γλεφάροις, τον μεν αμέρους ανάγκας χερσί βαστάζεις, έτερον δ' ετέραις.

5 αγαπατά δε καιρού μή πλαναθέντα προς έργον έκαστον 5 των αρειόνων ερώτων επικρατείν δύνασθαι.

'Αντ. α'. ολοι και Διός Αίγινας τε λέκτρον ποιμένες αμφε

πόλησαν Κυπρίας δώρων" έβλαστεν δ' υιός Οινώνας βασιλεύς χειρί και βουλαϊς άριστος. πολλά νιν πολλοί λιτά

νευον ιδείν. αβοατί γαρ ηρώων άωτοι περιναιεταόντων 15

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1. "Ώρα.] Goddess of puberty. Cf. καιρού.] Without having transAesch. Suppl. 973 (P), quoted Nem, gressed the bounds of moderation.' v. 6. For the double genitive cf. Ol. 5. επικρατείν.] «To get secure 1. 94, των Ολυμπιάδων εν δρόμους ! possession of his nobler objects of Πέλοπος. Pyth. IX. 39, κρυπται desire.' κλαΐδες έντι σοφάς πειθούς ιεράν 6. ολοι.] Ι.e. αρείονες. φιλοτάτων.

ποιμένες, κ.τ.λ.] Ι.e. έρωτες. 2. Cf. Soph. Αnt. 795, νικά δ' 7. vibs.] Aeakos. εναργής βλεφάρων ίμερος ευλέκτρου Οινώνας.] Old name of the island νύμφας.

before the nymph Aegina gave her 3. ανάγκας χερσί.] Cf. Ρyth. IV. name to it. 234, ανάγκας εντεσιν, Ρyth. ΧΙ. 34, 8. πολλά.] Cf. Nem. ν. 31, and δόμους αβρότατος.

the Homeric πολλά λίσσεσθαι. Disετέραις.] Euphemistic for αγρίαις. Sen interprets πολλάκις, but Don. Cf. Ρyth. III. 34, Εur. Herc. F.1238, rightly observes that 'the secondary also the similar use of άλλος. The idea of frequency' is contained in poet means violent or thwarted λιτώνευον. passion.

ιδείν.] That they might behold There is a zeugma in the con- him.' Do not take viv as primarily struction of βαστάζεις, which first the object of ιδείν. means to carry in fondling fashion 9. άβοατί.] Generally rendered and then to enfold in a tight grip. ‘unbidden,' unsummoned, but We can render by bear along' in 'without fighting,'=auaxnti, seems both cases, but I do not think to be more in accordance with αγρίαις χερσί βαστάζεις would stand analogy and with the meanings of alone.

βοή. 4. αγαπατά.] For plur. cf. Ρyth. άωτοι.] The flower. Cf. ΟΙ. 11. 1. 34, Nem. IV. 71.

7.

το ήθελον κείνου γε πείθεσθ αναξίαις εκόντες,

'Επ. α'. οί τε κρανααϊς εν 'Αθάναυσιν άρμοζον στρατόν, 20 οί τ' άνα Σπάρταν Πελοπηϊάδαι. ικέτας Αιακού σεμνών γονάτων πόλιός θ' υπέρ φίλας

αστών θ' υπέρ τώνδ' άπτομαι φέρων 15 Λυδίαν μίτραν καναχηδά πεποικιλμέναν,

25 Δείνιος δισσών σταδίων και πατρός Μέγα Νεμεαίον

άγαλμα. συν Θεώ γάρ τοι φυτευθείς όλβος ανθρώποισι παρμονώτερος

Στρ. β'. όσπερ και Κινύραν έβρισε πλούτο ποντία έν ποτε Κύπρο.

30 ίσταμαι δή ποσσι κούφοις, αμπνέων τε πρίν τι φάμεν.

12. According to the myths the Pelopids of Sparta (Menelaos) were not contemporary with Aeakos, and it is therefore possible that Pindar refers to an unknown myth, but perhaps he was tempted into an anachronism by a wish to allude to recent overtures by Sparta for help against the Messênians, B.C. 364-362. 13–15. The crown

won by Deinis was being dedicated with the poet's crown of song at the temple of Aeakos.

15. καναχηδά.] Cf. Ρyth. Χ. 39, καναχαί αυλών, Soph. Trach. 641, αυλός ουκ αναρσίαν ιάχων καναχάν επανεισιν. Ηesiod uses this adverb. For the metaphor cf. Frag. 160 [170], υφαίνω δ' 'Αμυθαονίδαις ποικίλον άνδημα, quoted by the Schol. on Nem. VΙΙ. 78 (115). The μίτρα here and in OI. IX. 84 means the whole crown, but was properly the twisted woollen fillet (εύμαλλον μίτραν, Isth. IV. 62) by which the leaves or sprays of the wreath were kept together.

16. δισσών.] Refers both to Deinis and his father, as is proved by vv. 47, 48, ποδών ευωνύμων δις δη δυοϊν the feet illustrious on two occasions of two (Chariadae).'

Νεμεαίον άγαλμα.] “A celebration of Nemean victories in two footraces.'

17. συν θεώ.] By the aid of a god,' i.e. of Aeakos or of Zeus for Aeakos' sake. For φυτευθείς, cf. Pyth. IV. 69, φύτευθεν τιμαί. The comparative παρμoνώτερος implies the sentiment of Pyth. 111. 105, 106, όλβος ουκ ές μακρόν ανδρών έρχεται άπλετος εύτ' αν επιβρίσαις έπηται. VII. 20. For the idea cf. Frag. 111 [29], ευδαιμόνων | δραπέτας ουκ έστιν όλβος. Render παρμον. “maketh longer stays,' after Sir J. Suckling, Love with me hath made no stays [Mr Fanshawe].

18. 8σπερ.] "Όλβος is here personified, though not so in the preceding line. For Kinyras cf. Pyth. ΙΙ. 15-17.

19. ίσταμαι.] I stay on tip-toe;' i.e. poising myself and taking

20 πολλά γαρ πολλά λέλεκται: νεαρά δ' εξευρόντα δόμεν

βασάνω ές έλεγχος, άπας κίνδυνος" όψον δε λόγοι φθονεροίσιν

35 άπτεται δ' έσλών αεί, χειρόνεσσι δ' ουκ ερίζει.

'Αντ. β'. . κείνος και Τελαμώνος δάψεν υιόν, φασγάνω αμφικυλί

40 ή τιν' άγλωσσον μέν, ήτορ δ' άλκιμον, λάθα κατέχει

σαις. .

breath before the start, in the attitude of the cast of “A girl starting for a foot race' in the Fitzwilliam Museum. Thephrase koû pa BiBwyta,

with light tread,'tripping lightly,' 01. xiv. 15, is not quite the same. The body of the ode begins here, the first eighteen verses being dedicatory to Aeakos.

20. Many tales have several versions; but when one has discovered new points it is utterly hazardous to submit them to the touchstone for assay; for discussions are toothsome to the envious, and envy ever fastens on to the noble, but contends not against the mean. It did rend even the son of Telamon by forcing him on to his sword.'

It would appear that Pindar invented himself (or gave rency to an Aeginetan version of) the detail of the myth of the κρίσις όπλων which attributed the defeat of Aias to unfair means, which version is adopted by Sophokles, Aiax, 1135, where Teukros says to Menelaos Klettus gàp aútoll ψηφοποιός ευρέθης. In the earlier ode, Isth. 111., in which the fate of Aias is mentioned, Odysseus' Téxva defeats the better man, but no underhanded proceedings in connection with the decision are suggested. In Nem. vii. the unfair

character of the voting is in. sinuated, and I am therefore disposed to date Nem. VIII. before Nem. VII. See on v. 12.

21. lóyou.] ‘Discussion.' Dissen, Deliciae vero sunt verba quae dicant invitis quaerentibus quod reprehendant, Don., Cookesley, Paley, ‘praise.' Markland goes too far in regarding Xóyou here and in Eur. Suppl. 565 as = yoyou. It is rather

criticism'; the neutral term getting a colour from the preceding clause.

For the extraction of φθόνος from poovepoiou cf. Nem. VII. 9, 10, which however is a simple case of a plural subject got out of a singular noun of multitude. Not very unlike is Nem. iv. 3, móvwV KEKPLμένων...νιν (τον νικώντα). For the sentiment cf. Soph. Aiax, 157, apòs γάρ τον έχονθ' ο φθόνος έρπει, Ρyth. VII. 19, xi. 29, infra, v. 34.

23. αμφικυλίσαις.] Cf. Ηom. ΙΙ. VΙΙΙ. 86, κυλινδόμενος περί χαλκό, 'transfixed by the bronze,' Soph. Αίας, 828, (με) πεπτωτα τώδε περί νεορράντα ξίφει, 899, φασγάνω πεPLTT Tuxńs. The slang 'to get outside a glass of beer,' &c. is a similar idiomatic inversion.

24. Cf. ΙΙ. ΧΙΙΙ. 824, Αθαν αμαρτοεπές βουγάϊε, ποίον έειπες.

Katexel.] ‘Encompasses,' 'overwhelms.' Cf. Ol. vii. 10, Pyth. I. 96, Soph. Aiax, 415.

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