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5 ύμνος ορμάται θέμεν

5 αινον αελλοπόδων μέγαν ίππων, Ζηνός Αίτναίου χάριν άρμα δ' οτρύνει Χρομίου Νεμέα θ' έργμασιν νικαφόροις εγκώμιον ζεύξαι μέλος.

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'Αντ. α'. αρχαι δε βέβληνται θεών

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It is really an adverb of motion from, as it is here used,

5. ορμάται.] Cf. ΟΙ. ΙΙΙ. 9, 10, Πίσα.. τάς άπο | Θεύμοροι νίσοντ' επ' ανθρώπους αοιδαί, where the song starts from the scene of the victory, here quite as naturally from the place where it is first recited.

Oéuev.] Not to describe' (Cookesley) but to establish.'

6. aivov, K.7.1.] Cf. Frag. 206 [242], 'Αελλοπόδων μέν τιν' ευφραίνοισιν ίππων | τίμια και στέφανοι.

xáp.v.] Is this to please' or by grace of'? [Mr Fanshawe). Mezger takes the latter interpretation and quotes Pyth. 11. 70, 111. 95.

7. For the appropriateness of the metaphor to the victory cf. 01. VI. 22–27, VIII. 25, Nem. iv. 93—end, Nem. vii. 70—72, viii. 19, Isth. 1. 6. Here the poet's verses are the winged horses which will bear over the world the car, Chromios' victory. For metaphor cf. Pyth. x. 65. For the conjunction άρμα Χρομίου Νεμέα θ', cf. Nem. IV. 9, Νεμέα Τιμασάρχου τε πάλα.

8. • Its (the ode's) foundations have been laid in mention of deities in conjunction with the heavensent excellences of yon man.' Cf. Pyth. VΙΙ. 4, κρηπίδ' αοιδάν.. βαλέσBai, Frag. 176 [206], for the metaphor, for the sentiment Nem. v. 25, Διός άρχομέναι, ΙΙ. 1-3. I take the genitive θεών as “ κατά σύνεσιν, αρχαι βέβληνται being regarded as equivalent to 'I have begun.' For such a licence with an accusative cf. Εur. Ion, 572, τούτο κάμ' έχει πόθος. .

Mr Wratislaw asks (in a paper read before the Camb. Philolog. Soc. Nov. 27, 1878), 'would not the most natural way of understanding this passage, considering that the human victory was won shortly after the foundation of Aetna, be: “And the commencements of the Gods, i.e. the foundations of their temples at Aetna, have been laid contemporaneously with the Divine exploits of Chromius”?' I do not any more than Mr Wratislaw 'accept Dissen's equation, “ initia Deorum posita sunt · initia Deis posita sunt.' But it is not easy to see how αρχαι θεών can mean αρχαι ναών, , which is what Mr Wratislaw's suggestion seems to amount to. Moreover, Ol. vi. 96, Zeus is Aitvaios in connection with Syrakuse quite independently of the city Aetna, so that there is nothing in the strophê to lead up to the supposed allusion. Yet again, as the chief temples would have their foundations laid at the time of the founding of the city, où has to cover more than two years. The intervention of the suggested mention of Aetna's temples is isolated itself and isolates vv.10-12. If ever convinced of the untenability of my construction I should read βεβληντεκ θεών with Mingarelli. . Dawes and Pauwe read deợ, or Tender αρχαι θεών a beginning with the gods,' Béßinutal has been made.' For åpxai cf. Terpander Frag. 1 (Bergk), Zeû gol otevow I ταύταν ύμων αρχών. .

Yet again does αρχαι θεών = =

κείνου συν ανδρος δαιμονίαις αρεταίς. το έστι δ' εν ευτυχία

πανδοξίας άκρον μεγάλων δ' αέθλων Μοϊσα μεμνάσθαι φιλεί.

15 σπείρέ νυν αγλαΐαν τινά νάσω, ταν 'Ολύμπου

δεσπότας Ζευς έδωκεν Φερσεφόνα, κατένευσέν τέ οι χαίταις,

αριστεύοισαν ευκάρπου χθονός

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ουλοχύται, and is βέβληνται to be explained by II. Ι. 458, αυταρ έπει δ' εύξαντο και ουλοχύτας προβάλοντο, and was the ode sung during a domestic sacrifice, in the peristyle, the first strophê answering to or accompanying the preliminary invocation to Zeus of Aetna and Artemis ? Prof. Paley says, 'Lit. “A foundation is laid of the gods,” viz., of praising them.' Mr Holmes renders Now of heaven have been laid the foundations that sustain yon hero's godlike merits, and in success is the crown of glory, for &ο.'

9. δαιμονίαις.] Cf. Oι. ΙΧ. 110. These good qualities are φυά (i5. 100), and opposed to διδακταϊς άρεταϊς. I think αρεται would scarcely be used in the plural of one victory,' which is all we have here.

10. ευτυχία.] If we regard Isth. III. 1 as a mild case of zeugma, euτυχία, ευτυχέω, in all four instances where they occur in Pindar, mean the crowning good fortune of success in games : so too ή έχοντες, Οι. v. 16. For sentiment, cf. Nem. IX. 46.

11. άκρον.] Ας πανδοξίας (prob. coined by Pindar, cf. παγγλωσσία) is a superlative expression, å. may mean first prize;' cf. Ρyth. ΧΙ. 55, (άρετών) άκρον ελών, and Theokr. ΧΙΙ. 31, άκρα φέρεσθαι. The meaning of the sentence is, •The consummation (or 'first prize') of highest renown'-i.e. celebration in song

'has its occasion in victory. For the sentiment cf. Pyth. 1. fin. δε παθείν ευ πρώτον αέθλων: ευ δ' ακούειν δευτέρα μοίρ' αμφοτέροισι δ' ανήρ | δε ών εγκύρση και έλη, στέφανον ύψιστον δέδεκται--, Nem. IX. 46.

11. ó'.] 'For.' Several mss. read μεγίστων for μεγάλων.

13. σπείρε νυν.] Corrected from έγειρε νύν, νύν έγειρ, on a hint of the Schol. έκπεμπε τοίνυν, ώ Μούσα, και σπείρε λαμπρότητά τινα τη νήσω τη Σικελία, κ.τ.λ. In uncials ΣΓΕΙΡΕ and ΕΓΕΙΡΕ are not unlike. For phrase cf. Ol. xi. 94, τιν δ' αδυεπής τε λύρα | γλυκύς τ' αυλος αναπάσσει χάριν. The poet invokes himself or the chorus. The word rivà apologises for the boldness of the phrase, as αγλαΐαν has not elsewhere the meaning wanted, namely, 'fame' or ‘song,' though the ode is αγλαΐας αρχά in Pyth. Ι. 2, cf. Frag. 182 [213], χοροί και Μοίσα και 'Αγλαΐα.

14. έδωκεν.] As a dowry on her union with Pluto. Perhaps there is a covert allusion to the temples of Dêmêter and her daughter built by Gelo. The Schol. is needlessly exercised at the δέμνιον' Αρτέμιδος being in a possession of Persephone's, and suggests that the two goddesses were identical, citing Kallim. Hecale

και 'Απόλλωνα παναρχέος Ηελίοιο χώρι διατμήγουσι και εύποδα Δηϊωΐνης | 'Αρτέμιδος.

αριστεύοισαν.] This goes with the

οι νυ

E. a. 15 Σικελίαν πίειραν ορθώσεις κορυφαίς πολίων άφνεαϊς :

ώπασε δε Κρονίων πολέμου μναστηρά οι χαλκεντέος λαόν ίππαιχμoν, θαμά δη και Ολυμπιάδων φύλλοις έλαιών χρυσέοις

25 μιχθέντα. πολλών επέβαν καιρόν ου ψεύδει βαλών

predicate as bearing off the palm for fertility of soil' (lit. 'from (all) fruitful soil ').

15. opowoelv.] This sense raise to renown' (Isth. IV. 48, v. 65) is an extension of “rear (as a memorial),' rear a memorial pillar to,' cf.Ol. 111. 3 note. The grammar of the transition is well illustrated by the double accusative Aristoph. Acharn. 1233, τήνελλα καλλίνικος α δοντες σε και τον ασκόν. The κορυφαι πολίων άφνεαί, cities unsurpassed in wealth,' are the otņlai which perpetuated the renown of Sicily. For kopupal in this sense 'prime, choicest specimens,' cf. v. 34, Ο1. 1. 13, δρέπων κορυφας αρετών από πασαν. . It is equivalent to äwtos, choicest bloom.' Here and v. 31 there is perhaps hypallage, cf. O. and P. p. xxxv.

16. μναστήρα.] Cf. Ρyth. ΧΙΙ. 24, μναστήραγώνων.

xalkertéos.] The epithet alludes to the fame of the Sicilian armour, cf. Pyth. II. 2.

17. θαμά δή και.] “Right often even.'

'OXvuniádwv.] With special complimentary allusion to the victories of Gelo and Hiero B.C. 488.

xpuobous.] For this epithet meaning only glittering,' cf. Ol. viii. 1, x. 13, Pyth. X. 43. Prof. Paley however, on Martial ix. xxiii. 1, suggests that even in Pindar's times the crown was actually of gold (cf. Nem. vii. 77–79), or that the leaves were gilded. 18. μιχθέντα.]

.] Lit. brought

into contact with.' Cf. Nem. IX. 31, ΟΙ. Ι. 21, κράτει δε προσέμιξε δεσπόταν, Nem. ΙΙ. 22, οκτώ στεφάνοις & dex@ ev ñón. Infra v. 56 the use is not quite similar. Mr Fanshawe suggests that the lemma, coming so close to uvaotípa, 'wooer,' may here mean wedded'; so Holmes. L. and S. wrongly render it here and in Pyth. XII. 24, "calling to mind,' mindful of.' Dissen compares μνήσασθαι χάρμης, but the idea is not the same. The aor.=

call to mind,' uvnothp one who keeps in mind of.'

πολλών, κ.τ.λ.] “I have entered upon a copious theme, having aimed at moderation with a statement of simple truth. The Aldine and Roman editions with two Scholia make kạipov object of BaNáv. It is generally taken as the object of επέβαν. I think the sense inferior and the construction questionable, though it is true that elBalvw takes an accusative of place. T. Mommsen (on 01. 1. 89) regards Yeúdel as a dativus termini (cf. Pyth. xii. 31), but it is better to make it the instrumental dative. Mr Myers—Thus shoot I arrows many and without falsehood have I hit the mark'-scarcely represents the criginal. Pindar has briefly mentioned five points on which a poet might dilate, the divine patronage of Sicily, its fertility, the wealth of its cities, its achievements in war and in games. He has stated truths without exaggeration. But only to dismiss them and turn to his special theme, the praise of Chromios, &c.

Στρ. β'. έσταν δ' επ' αυλείαις θύραις 20 ανδρός φιλοξείνου καλά μελπόμενος, ,

30 ένθα μοι αρμόδιον δείπνον κεκοσμηται, θαμά δ' αλλοδαπών ουκ απείρατοι δόμοι εντί λέλoγχε δε μεμφομένοις έσλους ύδωρ καπνώ φέρειν

35

In this difficult sentence the poet checks himself—the suggestion of the necessity for doing so being a compliment to Sicily, Syrakuse and Hiero, the fact that he does so a compliment to Chromios. Thus oủ yeúdel='not with a false statement. For dat. cf. Ol. xi. [x.] 72, μάκος δε Νικεύς έδικε πέτρω; Isth. I. 24. What he has said is a βέλος shot Μοισαν από τόξων (Ο1. IX. 5). Both επέβαν and έσταν are idiomatic aorists indicating the immediate past; the former refers to the recitation of the previous verses, the latter to the arrival of the chorus at the place of recitation. For the sense given to kaipòv cf. Ρyth. Ι. 81, καιρόν εί φθέγξαιο, IX. 78, Ol. ix. 38. Mr Postgate has kindly sent me an interpretation substantially the same as the above, and quotes Nem. VIII. 37 for the emphatic application of the negative to a single word.

19. αυλείαις.] The chorus with the poet were, it would seem, just outside the apbupov (cf. Pyth. III. 78, Isth. VII. 3). Perhaps they were in the πρόθυρον, for the ευτειχες TT pól upov of Ol. vi. 1 could hardly have been a space before a door'

a porch' (L. and S., Smith's Dict. of Antiquities, Guhl and Koner); but was probably walled on three sides and with pillars in the front like the apóvaos of a

templum in antis. It is probable that in such cases the αυλεία θύρα opened immediately into the peristyle without a Oupáv, a narrow pas. sage' or 'entrance chamber,' which would appear in town houses when the sides of the apód upov were built up to form chambers. According to L. and S. the household gods were in the apóð upov, but Smith's Dict. of Ant. places them in the peristyle.

21. ένθα.] 'In whose hall.' Though, as the victory was won at the summer Nemea, the feast may have been held outside.

αρμόδιον.] Cf. Ρyth. IV. 129, ξείνι' αρμόζοντα, and the Homeric δαιτος είσης. .

22. álloda rwv.] Perhaps includes the poet, who was in Sicily this year. For Chromios' hospitality cf. Nem. IX. 2.

24. λέλoγχε, κ.τ.λ.] It is in my opinion impossible to arrive at a definite conclusion as to the interpretation of this difficult sentence. I therefore give the views of the chief authorities before my own. (A.) 'But he hath got good men and true against cavilliers (dat. incommodi) so as to bring water against smoke,' i.e. to use to drown the voice of envy; so Hermann, Don. (B.) Dissen also approves; but says,“ “ Credas etiam sic jungi posse: λέλoγχε, έσλους μεμφομένοις ύδωρ κάπνώ αντία φέρειν, consequutus est hoc, ut probi viri obtrectatoribus

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25 αντίον. τέχναι δ' ετέρων έτεραι χρή δ' εν ευθείαις οδούς στείχοντα μάρνασθαι φυά.

'Αντ. β. πράσσει γαρ έργω μεν σθένος,

aquam obviam ferant fumo, quem φίλον ες άνδράγων κλέος ετήτυμον movent.” He objects however to αινέσω ποτίφορος δ' αγαθοίσι μισθός an accusative and infinitive after ούτος. Ρlutarch, Fragm. ΧΧΙΙΙ. 2, λαγχάνειν as unsupported. (C.) τον φθόνον ένιοι το καπνώ εικάMatthiae proposes λέλoγχεν έσλούς, ζουσι, was thinking more of other μ. υ. α. φ. (ώσπερ) καπνό ignoring applications of the similitude than the order of the words. (D.) of this passage, for he goes on to Mommsen (after a Schol.) renders explain πολύς γάρ εν τοις άρχομένους Innata vero est (sortito evenit) ών, όταν εκλάμψωσιν, άφανίζεται iis qui bonos vituperare solent ήκιστα γούν τους πρεσβυτέροις φθονούars fumum (gloriae] aquâ [repre- ow. The connection of this difficult hensionis] restinguendi.(E.) An passage is not impaired by making improvement in this line of inter- the statement general. “We poets pretation seems to be "Tis men's are wont to help the noble by lot when cavilling at the good to drowning the voices of cavillers bring water to check smoke,' i. e. with our song. Divers folk have to increase what they wish to divers arts. (This comprehends the diminish. Only thus I think could idea that it is the poet's work to καπνός stand for glory in such a perpetuate a victory as much as it metaphor (von Leutsch, Mezger). is the work of men of action to The two last interpretations make gain one.).

One must walk uptoo abrupt a disconnection of sense, rightly and make the best use of not to mention the rare construc- natural powers. Strength, to wit, tion which is assumed. Mezger has its function in action, intellect cites Strabo to defend the dat. in counsel, in the case of those who governed by λαγχάνω. Bergk would have an innate gift of foresight alter εντί· λ. το αντιλέλoγχεν, only (which class includes the poet and found, I believe, as an Attic law also, as is at once stated, Chromios).' term. .

As to sentiment vv. 24—33 have (F.) I prefer the following version, much in common with Isth. 1. 40suggested by the reading éolds of 51. the best mss, and supported by 01. 25. τέχναι δ' ετέρων έτεραι.] For Ι. 53, ακέρδεια λέλoγχεν θαμινά κα- sentiment, cf. ΟΙ. ΙΧ. 104-107, καγόρος, some loss hath oft be. VIII. 12-14, Nem. VΙΙ. 54. fallen evil speakers’; It hath be- στείχοντα.] For metaphor, cf. Οι. fallen the noble against cavillers, 115, είη σε τε τούτον ύψου χρόνον to bring water against smouldering πατείν, Nem. VΙΙΙ. 35. fre (of envy),” taking μεμφομένοις μάρνασθαι.] Cf. Nem. V. 47, έσ. as dat. incom. and φέρειν, κ.τ.λ. as λοίσι μάρναται πέρι πάσα πόλις. inf. subject to λέλoγχε. The me- φυα.] For the superiority of natutaphor of water for streams of song ral over acquired attainments, cf. is used, as here, in connection with ΟΙ. ΙΙ. 85, ΙΧ. 100, το δε φυα strangers Nem. VΙΙ. 61, 62 (noted by κράτιστον άπαν. Don.) ξείνος είμι σκοτεινόν (κοτεινόν) 26. πράσσει.] Εxercises its funcαπέχων ψόγον, | ύδατος ώστε ροάς tion,' cf. Frag. 108 [96] πρασσόντων

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