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zaten with bitter berbs."*

But the manner in which the peculiar vengeance of insulted heaven is (in all the prophecies) applied to the mystic Babylon, to her utter destruction (Rev. xviii. 8) by fire, launched from the strong band of God, sitting in judgment upon her, and so as to leave her a smoking monument of divine justice and truth to all succeeding ages, seems to prevent the possibility of admitting any other sense of so many prophecies, so well agreeing together, than a literal

That TOPHET is ordained of old for this occasion, and made deep and large by previous excavation, if not from the original formation of the earth, yet at least by successive evacuations of lava, beyond the earliest records of history, and as infidels pretend, before the alledged date of the age of the world's existence. The amazing extent of the subterraneous commotions originating from a centre between Ætna and Vesuvius, have already demonstrated the possibility and even probability of a literal fulfilment of all


* Exod. xi. 8.

that the prophets have spoken on this subject. And the peculiar accumulation of a deeply aggravated guilt, contracted by this very ana cient offender, by her unparalleled cruelty and wickedness, and her persevering in her enchantments, and becoming more hardened in her impenitency for the repeated warnings that are sent to her; have, beyond all doubt, rendered her an object worthy of so exemplary a punishment. But at the same time it is evident that all these marks of character, both in her prosperity and in her fall, so peculiarly expressive as applied to Rome, lose all their force, and indeed all the propriety of most of them, when confined wholly to Bae bylon in Chaldea. *

* That the prophery of Edom (Isai. xxxiv, 9.) belongs to Rome, (there mystically so called, as also in Obadiah,) was the opinion of the Jews, as Bishop Newton quotes Buxtorf to prove." Rab. David in principio Obadiæ," quod autem dicunt Prophetæ de vastatione Edom in extremitate dierum, de Roma dixerunt-Buxtorf Chald. Lex.

The hostility of Edom or even Egypt and Babylon to the people of God, sinks into insignificance, compared with Rome's. Edom signifies Red, and red is the distinguishing colour of the roman harlot both in prophecy, and history, and existing fact. These little coincidences are not to be disregarded in the Prophe

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Of Edom, Jeremiah* says, that "it shall be a desolation. Every one that goeth by it shall be astonished, and shall biss at all the plagues thereof. As in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrab, and the neighbour cities thereof, saith the Lord, no man shall abide there, neither shall a son of man dwell in it.” It is not very apparent how this can apply to the territory of Idumea, of which no extraordinary plagues are recorded in history, nor is the state of that country such at this day, as to warrant so strong and frequent a comparison with Sodom and Gomorrah. Nor in what respect the same can be said also of Babylon, unless both these names are typical of ROME. “ Because of the wrath of the Lord, it shall not be inhabited, but it shall be wholly desolate : every one that goeth by Babylon shall be astonished, and biss at all her plagues.”+

cies. Those that relate to our Saviour are illustrated and strongly corroborated by an accumulation of such things, which being apparently casual, are the more wonderful proofs of the divine prescience. * Jer. xlix. 17, 18.

Jer. 1, 13.


The connection in prophecy between the fall of Anti

christ, and the restoration of Israel.-Prophetic illustrations of the harvest and vintage.-They are destructive to popery but restorative to Israel Christ coming from Edom.The mystic Ephah, the original of St Paul's man of Sin.-Fruitless attempt at the restoration of Popery.---It is the object of sacred abhorrence to God and man for ever. -The harmony of prophecy.

It has been asserted in the earlier part of these reflections, that there are many intimations in prophecy of a correspondence between the two facts of the destruction of Rome, and the restoration of the Jews, insomuch that in the most remarkable prophecies of either of these events, we find the other also closely accompanying it.

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St John has noticed this circumstance in his account of the sixth vial, wherein the HARVEST and VINTAGE decreed against Rome begin to ripen ; which passage* seems to be the collected sense of all the ancient prophets, related in an epitome; and apparently signifying that the vengeance of heaven upon popery will be the prelude and the introductory means of God's restored mercy to bis ancient people. “ Behold your God will come with vengeance, even God with a recompence” —(upon your persecutors and captors).—“He will come and save you. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened" Sit It is undeniable that this is a prophecy belonging to the latter days, and to a late period of them, because a remarkable vengeance upon their enemies is to precede the conversion of the jews, and prove in the event of things, an instrument of deliverance for them. And it also includes in it a promise of restoration to the desolated land of Judea, as well as to the remnant of Israel, the heirs of these promises,



* Rev. xvi, 12, &e.

† Isai, xxxv. 4.

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