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18. The omission of the verb war is very effective in this place. The bird had hid itself in the leaves and had ceased its singing.

19. The delicate carpet' is the grassplot. The poet expresses hiinself, as if he were afraid of spoiling the beauty of this natural carpet.

25. According to the belief of the ancients, the tranquil silence of noon was sacred to Pan, who was then said to hold his siesta. The expression dämonische Stille may, perhaps, be understood with reference to this silence Sacred to a δαίμων.

26. innerer Sinn 'inner sense’ is suggestive of the whole feeling and thinking within a human breast and mind.

28. etwas denken means to have one's thought completely taken up with a certain subject.

XXIII. An idyl almost epigrammatic in its brief and distinct description of a Greek monastery in ruins. It may be observed that the poet spent a con. siderable number of years in Greece.

nimmer would seem here to retain its original sense of nie mehr.Ewige lampe denotes the sacred lamp always kept burning in the chancel of a Greek church.

5. We say both der Quell and die Quelle.

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XXIV. After his exile from Athens, Themistocles went to Asia and was graciously received by the Persian king, to whom he offered his services. He died before he was compelled to serve against his own country. His ashes are said to have been secretly conveyed to Attica and to have been deposited not far from the frontier.

Das Gewoge or Gewog is the collective of die Woge; see note on XXII. 5.

It was customary to pour wine on the ashes of the departed as an offering to the Manes.

7. Denksteinlog is a word probably coined by our poet; without a monument.'--Spätroth, the last glow of the setting sun.

8. Mal=Denkmal.—Themistocles obtained the victory of Salamis over the Persians, 480 B.C.





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*If you have rid yourself of egotism or selfish feelings, you may safely follow the prompting of your soul. Then you need not be disturbed in your decisions by the doubting criticism of outsiders.'

3. Hang= Abhang. - Die Unschuld should, of course, be taken in the sense of ber Unschuldige.

4. An allusion to the history of Daniel in the lions' den.

5. Even adversity furnishes the innocent with some 'sweet uses' and lifts them up to higher honour.

9. Alexander of Macedon is styled 'the powerful darling of Fortune,' on account of the great power heaped upon him by Fortune.

10. Alexander became so much intoxicated with his excessive fortune that he imagined himself to be a god, and forgot his human origin. He gave out that he was the son of Jupiter Ammon and commanded his subjects to adore him like a god.


1. Lehre= Belehrung ; a precept which comes from outside.

3. und wär' es= wenn es auch...wäre.—e8 frommt mir, “it benefits me'= es gereicht mir zum Frommen.

In order to profit by the lessons of another, you must have something in your own soul to respond to it.

5. “Miracles cannot be understood with the intellect, you must ex. perience them in your own person.'

6. Wahn denotes an unfounded opinion. All faith is merely imaginary, as long as the power of faith has not been operative within our very soul.

7. dir=zu dir. Real faith should be like a divine inspiration, come down to us from above.

8. ein lebendiger Hauch 'like a breath of life.'—In prose : die Macht sich zu verwandeln.


Shakespeare was not only one of the profoundest investigators of the human heart, but he was also one of the most devout worshippers of divine Providence as manifested in the varying fate of men. All the great works of Shakespeare may be said to be an illustration of some eternal law of morality.

die Dinge, “the world,' rerunt naturam.

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XXVII. In prose : wenn du Menschen lieben will ft. The poet has chosen to place Menschen at the beginning of the sentence in order to enforce the antithesis to Gott. The sense is ‘Men are loved by knowing them, God is known by loving him.'


2. In prose : in jeglichem Zweig.
3. dein innerstes Leben ‘the very core of your life.'
4. gezeitigt ' quite ripe, matured.'



GEIBEL (Emmanuel), was born at Lübeck, Oct. 18, 1815, lived at Athens, 1838—40, and after his return to Germany, at various places, especially Munich ; he now lives again in his native town.

GOETHE (Wolfgang), born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Aug. 28, 1749, went to Leipzig in 1765, at Frankfort again in 1768, at Strassburg in 1770, publishes Götz von Berlichingen 1772, Werther's Leiden 1773 and 1774; on Nov. 3, 1775 he arrives at Weimar, where he remained until his death, March 22, 1832. (See his 'Life' by G. H. Lewes.)

HOELDERLIN (Johann Christoph Friedrich), born at Lauffen, in the kingdom of Württemberg, March 29, 1770, died at Tübingen, June 7, 1843.

MOERIKE (Eduard), born Sept. 8, 1804, lived at Stuttgart, and died June 4, 1875.

PLATEN (August, Graf von P.-Hallermünde), born at Ansbach, Oct. 24, 1796, died at Syracuse, Dec. 5, 1835.

SCHILLER (Friedrich), horn at Marbach, Nov. 10, 1759, died at Weimar, May 9, 1805. (See his . Life' by Carlyle.)

SCHLEGEL (August Wilhelm), born at Hanover, Sept. 8, 1767, travelled in Italy, France, Germany, and Sweden, with Madame de Staël, 1805, was appointed professor of literature at the University of Bonn, in 1818, and died there May !2, 1845.

Voss (Johann Heinrich), born at Sommerdorf in Mecklenburg, Feb. 20, 1751, studied at Göttingen 1772—75, lived at Wandsbeck near Hamburg till 1778, was 'rector' of a college at Otterndorf till 1782, and then at Eutin till 1802, lived then at Jena and Heidelberg, at which place he died March 29, 1826.


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