History of Europe from the Commencement of the French Revolution to the Restoration of the Bourbons in 1815, Volume 6

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W. Blackwood, 1860 - Europe

From inside the book

Contents

The arrival of the commissioners augments the discord
14
Storming and massacre of Cape Town
15
The universal freedom of the blacks is proclaimed 107 108 109 110
16
The English obtain a footing on the island but are soon expelled
17
Furious civil wars between the negroes and mulattoes 111
18
Military supremacy secured by civil qualifications
19
Vigorous measures of the negro chief in the administration
20
His agricultural policy He is appointed president for life of the island 113
22
But the French generally prevail in the field 32 Fruitless attempt to induce Toussaint to submit 34 Desperate defence at CrêteàPierrot 23 Increasing pr...
23
Preparations of Napoleon for its subjugation
24
Immense naval and military forces assembled
25
Necessity of such institutions to the maintenance of the Republic
26
S Page 30 State of religion in France at this period
27
Napoleons views on this subject
28
Arguments in the council of state against an establishment
29
Napoleons reply
30
Description of the mountainous interior to which the negroes retire
31
Concordat July 15 1801 passed into a law April 8 1802
32
Ceremony on the occasion in Notre Dame
33
Constrained religious observances at Paris
35
Prudence of Napoleon in restraining the highchurch party ib 39 His admirable proclamation on the subject of the concordat to the people of France
36
Great joy at the change in the rural departments
37
General satisfaction which the measure excited in foreign countries
38
Subsequent opinions of Napoleon on the subject
39
Napoleons views for the restoration of the property of the emigrants
40
Senatusconsultum proclaiming a general amnesty
41
Inadequacy of these measures to heal the evils of revolutionary confisca tion
42
Immense extent of this evil and its irremediable effects
43
Napoleons important observations on this subject
44
Ruinous effects of this violence
45
Measures to promote public instruction
46
Napoleons measures in favour of education
47
Principles on which his system was founded and rewards to sciences
48
Trials of public feeling by the royalists
49
Measures for recruiting the army and navy Debates on the subject in the council of state ib Discussion on the Ecole Militaire note
51
Their right to representation in the parent state
52
Superior justice of colonial administration in monarchical than in repub lican states
53
Finances of France General valuation or cadastre
54
Immense evils arising from its inequality
55
Napoleons arguments on the necessity of a cadastre
56
His system to remedy the evils
57
Indignation of Napoleon at the language used in the tribunate
58
Important change in municipal government carried in spite of that body
59
Debates on the tribunate in the council of state
60
Napoleons plan for modifying it
61
He resolves to make himself consul for life His efforts to spread monarchical ideas
63
Strong opposition of Josephine to these attempts
64
The attempt at first fails in the senate
65
Means adopted to insure its success
66
Reference of the question to the votes of the people ib 70 Result of the appeal and great satisfaction which this gave
67
Letter of Lafayette declining to vote for it
68
Answer of the First Consul to the address of the senate on the occasion
69
Napoleons ideas on the lists of eligibility
70
The usages of the English representative system inapplicable to France
71
Great changes in the constitution
72
Acceptance of the new constitution by the senate
73
Aspect of Paris and its society at this period ib Generous conduct of Mr Fox in defending Mr Pitt to the First Consul note
74
Formation of the lower gallery in the Louvre
75
Great satisfaction which these changes gave in foreign courts ib 81 Infamous proposals of Lucien rejected by Josephine
76
Suppression of the ministry of police
77
And dismissal of Fouché
78
Changes in the constitution of the senate
80
Renewed correspondence between Louis XVIII and Napoleon ib 86 Formation of the Code Napoleon
82
Extreme difficulty of legal reformation
83
Discussions on the subject of the Code in the council of state
84
Great ability of Napoleon in these discussions
85
Law of succession as finally fixed by Napoleon
86
Sketch of the French revolutionary system of succession ib 93 Prodigious effects of this law in subdividing land in France
88
Singular attachment of the modern French to this law
90
Which is fatal to all real freedom ib 96 Law regarding divorce
91
Great effects of the salutary changes introduced by Napoleon
92
Extreme difficulty of the task he had undertaken
93
Great public works set on foot in France
94
Vast improvements in Paris
95
CHAPTER XXXVI
97
Napoleon meditates an expedition to St Domingo Disastrous effects of the St Domingo revolt to the French navy
98
Its statistical details
100
Origin of the revolution in that island Rash measures of the French Constituent Assembly
101
Freedom is conferred on all persons of colour
102
The insurrection breaks out
103
23
104
Page
113
119
119
And on the introduction of steam into naval warfare
124
General pacification 38 Treacherous views of Napoleon 39 Perfidious arrest of Toussaint by the French authorities 40 Subsequent treatment and deat...
126
ib
128
VOL VI
129
Dreadful atrocities on both sides in Guadaloupe 42 General revolt in St Domingo Death of Le Clerc 43 Continued successes of the negroes
130
French
132
The rupture of the peace of Amiens causes the total destruction of the 45 Reflections on the expedition 133
133
Victory also declares for the French on their left
134
Degraded state of St Domingo ever since that time
135
Inferiority of the negro to the European
136
Ambitious designs of Napoleon in Europe
137
Interview of the Emperor Francis with Napoleon
138
And the Cisalpine republic again remodelled 51 Entry of Napoleon into Lyons Cisalpine government 139 Senatusconsultum there settling the
140
Cordial union of France and Prussia in this matter
146
In return for which Prussia guarantees the French acquisitions in Italy
147
Policy of Austria in this negotiation and of Russia
148
Secret views of the latter power
149
Courageous act of Austria in occupying Passau ib 62 Angry correspondence in consequence between France and Austria
150
Conferences at Ratisbon
151
The principle of secularisation is admitted ib 65 Compensations respectively received ib Proportion in which the several powers gained acquisitions ...
152
It destroyed all ideas of public right or international law
154
Projects of Napoleon against Switzerland federal system in that country
155
Necessity of it in all extensive democratic states
156
Its adaptation to the varieties of the physical condition of Switzerland ib 71 Discontent which the central democratic government produced
157
Nature of the new constitution
158
Arguments adduced by the partisans of France
159
Answer of the partisans of the old institutions
160
Revolution effected by the aid of the French troops
161
But it does not answer the views of Napoleon
162
The government is again deposed and a new constitution framed by Napoleon
163
The French troops are withdrawn and the independence of the Valais is proclaimed
164
Upon which the government at Berne is overturned and the mountaineers prepare for war
165
Hostilities commence Great early success of the mountaineers
166
Diet assembled at Schwytz and total subversion of the central government
167
Forcible interference of the First Consul
168
The Swiss in vain invoke the aid of Austria England remonstrates in vain
170
The Swiss in despair submit and Ney overruns the country
171
Speech of the First Consul to the Swiss deputies at Paris
172
His statement of the proposed constitution
173
Discontent which his principles excite on both sides
174
His final Act of Mediation for the settlement of Helvetia
175
Equitable measures for the government of the country
176
Extreme dissatisfaction excited by this event over Europe
177
Opinion of Mr Fox on the subject and on the treatment of Holland note
179
Rapid improvement of the finances and trade of the country
180
Financial details
181
Causes of irritation which gradually arose with France
183
Complaints and demands of the First Consul
184
Answer of the British government
185
Trial of Peltier for a libel on the First Consul
186
Expedition of Sebastiani to Egypt
187
Violent explosion of Napoleon in conversation with Lord Whitworth
189
Second violent ebullition of Napoleon to Lord Whitworth
193
Diplomatic and military preparations of France
194
Note in reply to Napoleons complaints from Lord Hawkesbury
196
Ultimatum of both parties War is at length declared
197
Arrest of all the British travellers in France
198
General indignation which it excited even in France note
200
Defence of the retention of Malta
201
The aggressions of France on the Continent as a ground for war
202
And Napoleons measures specially directed against England
203
Results of noninterference during the peace
204
Arguments on the other side by the Opposition
205
Their defence of the German spoliations c
206
Reprobate the demands of Napoleon relative to the emigrants
207
And the sending of French commissioners to England
208
Reflections on the altered tone of the Opposition
209
England was obviously resolved on war
210
But it was unavoidable on Napoleons acknowledged intention ib 120 Napoleons own account of his designs against England at this period
211
The greatest stretches of power by France during his reign were made in time of peace
213
And vast growth during peace of her military power
214
His constant severity to his most friendly and submissive allies as exempli fied in the cases of Holland Sardinia and Spain
215
And in those of Portugal the Pope Venice c
216
His lenity to the great powers which resisted him
217
All which was a prelude to his grand final attack on England
218
CHAPTER XXXVII
219
Conquest of Hanover by the French
220
A convention is agreed to by the Hanoverian generals
221
Violation of neutral rights by the French generals
222
They extend themselves through southern Italy
223
142
224
Immense preparations on the shores of the Channel for the invasion of Britain ib 8 Object of these preparations Works at Boulogne
226
And in the other harbours in the Channel
227
S Page 11 Napoleon visits Antwerp and orders immense works there
229
His design for the invasion
230
And measures to enforce discipline in the army on the coast
231
Humiliating treaties agreed to by Switzerland Spain and Portugal
232
Louisiana sold to America and Piedmont annexed to France Vast force collected on the coast by the money thus gained
233
Military force and finances of France
234
Preparations of England to repel the danger
235
Numbers and warlike spirit of the volunteers
237
Naval preparations
238
Finances and new taxes of the year
239
Mr Pitts speech on fortifying London ib 22 Reflections on this measure
240
Napoleons opinion on the subject note
241
Murder of the Lord ChiefJustice in Dublin
242
Execution of the ringleaders
243
Naval events of the year
244
Defeat of Linois by the China fleet
245
Supplies and finances for 1804
246
General despondency which ensued in Britain
247
Which is increased by the alarming illness of the King
248
All eyes are turned to Mr Pitt and coalition against the ministry
249
Mr Pitt becomes Prime Minister
251
Vigorous measures of Lord Melville for the restoration of the navy
252
And admirable civil regulations for that service
253
Alexanders difference with France
254
Which leads to the recall of the Russian ambassador from Paris
255
Napoleon gains over Prussia by hinting at its getting Hanover
256
Immense sensation excited by the execution of the Duc dEnghien
257
The French governinent attempts a setoff by falsifying Mr Drakes pro ceedings at Stuttgard
258
Opinions of the diplomatic body at Paris on the subject
260
Note of Lord Hawkesbury on the subject and answer of Talleyrand note
261
Talleyrands answer
264
Annexation of Piedmont to France
265
Pacific system of Austria
266
Its conduct on the death of the Duc dEnghien and the affair of Drake and Spencer Smith
268
Temporising policy of Prussia
269
The accession of Hardenberg to power produces no external change
270
They remonstrate against the seizure of Sir George Rumboldt
271
Hostile dispositions of Sweden
273
Which is taken advantage of by Great Britain
274
Extension of French power in Italy
275
Internal measures of Napoleon
276
Splendid fête at Boulogne ib 55 His vexation at the dispersion of his flotilla in the midst of it
278
Defence of the government by Mr Pitt
292
On the successive provocations given by the Spanish government
293
Defence of the capture of the frigates
294
The government is supported by parliament
295
Reflections on the subject ib 71 And particulars in which England appears to have been wrong
296
CHAPTER XXXVIII
298
Discontent of the republican officers of the army
299
Pichegru in London and royalist movements in France
300
Project of Fouché for getting up a conspiracy of republicans and royalists
301
The royalist leaders are landed on the French coast
302
Fouché reveals the plot to Napoleon and is restored to power Arrest of the conspirators
304
Consternation which the announcement of the plot excites in Paris
305
Arrest of Pichegru
307
History and character of the Duc dEnghien
308
Generous conduct of his grandfather on a proposal to assassinate Napo leon note
309
Occupation of the prince at that time
311
He is seized and conducted to Strassburg Vain intercession of Josephine
312
He had been vainly warned of his danger and is removed to Vincennes ib 15 Where he is delivered over to a military commission by Napoleons orde...
314
Gross iniquity committed towards him
315
He is convicted upon his declaration only without any evidence
316
His noble demeanour before the judges
317
His sentence and execution
318
His innocence is completely established after his death
319
Napoleons vindication of himself at St Helena
320
Remarkable retribution which overtook all the actors in the murder
321
Consternation which the act excites in Paris
322
And in the foreign ambassadors ib 25 Courageous conduct of M Chateaubriand
323
Opinion which Napoleon entertained of him
324
The surgeons report on his death and presumptions against Napoleon
326
Reflections on the probable privity of the First Consul to his death ib 30 Confirmation of the probability of his assassination from his previous expres...
327
Napoleons defence of himself on this subject at St Helena note
328
Trial of Moreau Georges and others
329
Amount of the admission on which Moreau was condemned
330
Intense interest excited at Paris
332
Heroic indifference of Georges and condemnation of the prisoners
333
Public feeling on this subject ib 37 Clemency of the First Consul after the convictions were obtained
334
His intended lenity to Moreau
335
His opinion of Georges note
336
Napoleon resolves to assume the imperial crown
338
This explains his murdering the Duc dEnghien ib 42 First broaching of the project to the senate
339
The tribunate is put forward to make the proposal in public
341
Speech of the movers on the occasion ib 45 Honourable resistance of Carnot
342
Universal adulation with which Napoleon was surrounded His answer to the senate
343
Key which it affords to his whole policy on the throne
345
He is declared Emperor of the French General concurrence of the nation ib 49 Rank conferred on his family and creation of the marshals of the empi...
346
Rapid progress of court etiquette
347
Dignified protest of Louis XVIII
348
Construction of the road over Mont Cenis and the Simplon 55 Parma and Placentia are occupied with Elba 143
350
Result of the appeal to the people on the subject of the hereditary suc cession
352
Progress of the negotiation regarding the German indemnities 145
353
Ceremony of the coronation ib 56 Distribution of eagles to the army
354
Splendour of the imperial court
355
Napoleon refuses any accession of territory to the Holy See ib 60 Reflections on these events
356
Difference between the English and French revolutions
357
Which was all owing to the violence and injustice of the French convul sion
358
Vast concentration of influence at this period in the hands of government
359
Total destruction of the liberty of the press
360
Armistice with Russia
363
Great influence of the French press in Napoleons favour
365
Supplies for 1805
371
The present expediency of that relaxation urged
377
Reflections on this subject Total failure of Catholic emancipation
383
Dangerous mistake in giving the Irish political power
390
Splendid pageant on the field of Marengo
395
Napoleon enters Milan
396
Is crowned with the iron crown of Charlemagne
397
Adulatory addresses from Naples and Genoa ib 41 Napoleons reply to the latter body
398
Incorporation of Genoa with France and Napoleons secret designs in that step
399
Eugene appointed Viceroy of Italy and great improvements in his kingdom
400
Popularity of Napoleons government in Italy and great works which he undertook
401
His progress through the Italian cities
402
Magnificent fêtes at Genoa
403
Extinction of Lucca and incorporation of Parma and Placentia with France
404
Increasing jealousy of Austria and change in its ministry ib 49 Treaty offensive and defensive between Russia and England and its objects
406
Subsequent articles of agreement and provision for extending the treaty to Austria Sweden c
407
They disclaim all intention to control the French in the choice of their government note
408
Sweden also is included
409
Prussia in vain endeavours to mediate
410
Prussia persists in her neutrality from the hope of getting Hanover 411
411
And at length agrees to the French alliance on condition of obtaining that electorate
412
Napoleon repairs to Boulogne to superintend the English expedition
413
Immense force collected on the coasts of the Channel for that object
415
Its admirable organisation and equipment
416
Organisation of the Imperial Guard and Junots splendid grenadiers
417
Nature of the camps in which the soldiers were lodged
418
Rapid improvement in the character and habits of the army
419
Measures of Napoleon at this period
420
Vast extent of his correspondence with his officers note
421
Organisation of the flotilla
422
His secret projects for effecting the passage
423
Autograph note which he has himself left on the subject note
424
Operations of the combined fleets of France and Spain to second the enterprise
426
Measures of defence by the English government
427
The Toulon and Rochefort squadrons put to sea
428
Change of government in Holland
429
The combined fleet steers for the West Indies ib 73 Uncertainty of Nelson He at length follows to the West Indies
430
Simultaneous anxiety of Napoleon as to Nelsons destination note
431
Combined fleet had returned to Europe Its secret orders
433
Entire success hitherto of Napoleons design which is penetrated by Nelson
434
Energetic measures of the Admiralty when they received his despatches
435
The combined fleet is outstripped by the British brig with the despatches
436
Sir Robert Calders action ib 80 The two fleets separate without decisive success
438
Vast importance of this action Napoleons conduct on receiving the intelligence of it
439
It totally defeats his welllaid designs
440
Cruel injustice to which Sir Robert Calder was meanwhile subjected ib 84 Sir Robert Calder is brought to a courtmartial
442
Nelson returns to England ib 86 Napoleon orders the combined fleet again to put to sea but it makes for Cadiz instead of Brest
443
Gantheaume in vain leaves Brest to meet them
444
Napoleons designs are in consequence entirely ruined and he sets off for Paris
445
Austria had been making hostile preparations
447
Both parties warmly assail the court of Munich with proposals for alliance
448
It finally joins France
450
The Austrians cross the Inn Forces on both sides
451
The army of England marches from Boulogne to the Rhine
452
Immense preparations of Napoleon
453
His address to the senate ib 96 Entire breaking up of the armament at Boulogne
454
The combined fleet is ordered nevertheless to sail from Cadiz
455
Restoration of the Gregorian Calendar
456
Enthusiastic reception of Nelson by the fleet
457
His stratagem to induce the enemy to leave the harbour
458
Which is completely successful
459
Dispositions on both sides
460
Magnificent aspect of the fleets as they approached each other
462
Order in which the English fleet bears down
463
Battle of Trafalgar Heroic conduct of Collingwood
464
Nelson next breaks the line
465
And engages the enemy in close combat
466
Nelson is mortally wounded
467
Details of the action in other quarters
468
Victory everywhere declares for the British
469
Nelsons last hours and death ib 113 Vast magnitude of the victory
470
Violent tempest and disasters to the prizes
473
Courteous intercourse with the Spaniards at Cadiz
475
Mingled joy and grief in Britain on the occasion
476
Honours granted to the family of Nelson ib 118 Character of that naval hero
477
Victory of Sir R Strachan
479
Reflections on the decisive nature of these successes
480
Comparison of victories at land and sea ib 122 Reflections on the manœuvre of breaking the line
481
Which is safe only to the superior and braver power
483
Great national reverses which this united spirit has enabled Austria
492
Military resources of the empire
500
Taxation and finances of the empire
506
Austrian system of education
512
Civil government in the Imperial dominions
518
Statistics of the Empire
524
Bloody combat at Hasslach
544
Retreat of the Archduke Ferdinand with great loss
550
Feelings of the two armies on the occasion
557
The French are in the end repulsed
565
Defensive measures of the Austrians
569
Increasing irritation of Prussia
570
Arrival of Alexander at Berlin and conclusion of a treaty with Russia
572
Nocturnal visit to the tomb of the Great Frederick ib 86 Prussia subsequently relapses into her temporising system
573
Opinions on the subject in a council of war at Potsdam
574
Landing of the Allies in Hanover
575
Desperate conflict in storming the heights
576
Surrender of Jellachich
578
Bold enterprise and final failure of the Prince de Rohan ib 93 Napoleon advances into Upper Austria
579
His measures at Lintz to envelop Kutusoff
580
Austrian proposals of peace which come to nothing
581
Kutusoff withdraws to the left bank of the Danube
582
Continued advance of the French towards Vienna
583
Destruction of part of Mortiers corps by Kutusoff
584
Desperate action at Dürrenstein
585
The French are at length successful
586
Mortier recrosses the Danube
587
Napoleon advances rapidly on Vienna
588
Description of that city
589
Seizure of the bridge of Vienna
590
Discreditable stratagem by which it was seized
591
Napoleon passes through Vienna and establishes headquarters at Schönbrun
592
Subsequent movements of the armies
593
Finesse of Kutusoff in parrying the attempts of the French to circum vent him
594
Heroic action of Bagrathion who at length makes good his retreat
595
Junction of the Russian armies and critical position of Napoleon
596
Able measures of Napoleon to avert this danger
597
Conduct of the French at Vienna
598
Forces on the two sides
599
Napoleon reconnoitres the field of Austerlitz
600
Simulate negotiations on both sides to gain time
601
Conversation between Napoleon and Alexanders aidedecamp
604
Haugwitz arrives from Berlin ib 119 The Allies advance to Wischau
605
Preparatory movements on both sides
606
Napoleons measures to draw the enemy on
607
Allied order of battle
609
Description of the field of battle
610
Disposition of the French troops
611
Nocturnal illumination of the French lines ib 126 Movements on both sides in the morning
612
Napoleon at length orders the attack
613
Battle of Austerlitz
614
The French cut through the Russian centre
615
Progress of the action on the French left
616
Page
618
Armistice of Austerlitz
627
Dissimulation of Prussia and accommodation with that power
628
Matchless effrontery and perfidy of Prussia
629
Treaty of alliance with Prussia which gains Hanover
630
Indignation this treaty excited at Berlin
631
Affairs of Naples 146 And of the north of Germany 147 Peace of Pressburg 148 Secret articles of the treaty 149 Objects of Napoleon in this treaty 15...
632
637
637
Secret views of Napoleon in this step 153 Napoleons return to Vienna Munich the Rhine and Paris 154 Reflections on the campaign 639
639
Importance of the valley of the Danube as the theatre of contest
642
Its failure is no impeachment of the justice of his principles 166 His defective military combination 651
651
Principles of his domestic administration
655
How he was first drawn into the war
656
He became the great champion against the French Revolution 173 Progressive and steady growth of his fame
657
His private character Funeral honours paid to him 662
662
APPENDIX
665

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Page 460 - my plan of attack, as far as a man dare venture to guess at the very uncertain position the enemy may be found in: but it is to place you perfectly at ease respecting my intentions, and to give full scope to your judgment for carrying them into effect. We can, my dear Coll, have no little jealousies. We have only one great object in view, that of annihilating our enemies, and getting a glorious peace for our country. No man has more confidence in another than I have in you; and no man will render...
Page 389 - I say these have no right to be tolerated by the magistrate; as neither those that will not own and teach the duty of tolerating all men in matters of mere religion. For what do all these and the like doctrines signify, but that they may, and are ready upon any occasion to seize the government, and possess themselves of the estates and fortunes of their fellowsubjects; and that they only ask leave to be tolerated by the magistrates so long, until they find themselves strong enough to effect it?
Page 458 - May the great God, whom I adore, enable me to fulfil the expectations of my country ; and if it is his good pleasure that I should return, my thanks will never cease being offered up to the throne of his mercy. If it is his good providence to cut short my days upon earth, I bow with the greatest submission, relying that he will protect those so dear to me whom I may leave behind. His will be done. Amen! Amen! Amen!
Page 469 - as that officer, though often sent for, could not leave the deck, Nelson feared that some fatal cause prevented him, and repeatedly cried : " Will no one bring Hardy to me ? He must be killed ! He is surely dead!
Page 477 - Nelson — so the gunner of the Victory called them ; and when, at his interment, his flag was about to be lowered into the grave, the sailors who assisted at the ceremony with one accord rent it in pieces, that each might preserve a fragment while he lived.
Page 467 - Hardy, the chaplain, and the medical attendants. He himself being certain, from the sensation in his back, and the gush of blood...
Page 461 - May the Great God whom I worship, grant to my Country, and for the benefit of Europe in general, a great and glorious Victory; and may no misconduct in anyone tarnish it; and may humanity after Victory be the predominant feature in the British Fleet. For myself individually, I commit my life to Him who made me, and may His blessing light upon my endeavours for serving my Country faithfully.
Page 470 - ten ships have struck, but five of the van have tacked, and show an intention to bear down upon the Victory. I have called two or three of our fresh ships round, and have no doubt of giving them a drubbing." "I hope," said Nelson, "none of our ships have struck?" Hardy answered, "There was no fear of that.
Page 637 - No, no ! The dynasty of Naples has ceased to reign. Its existence is incompatible with the repose of Europe and the honour of my crown.
Page 477 - There was reason to suppose from the appearances upon opening the body, that in the course of nature he might have attained, like his father, to a good old age. Yet he cannot be said to have fallen prematurely whose work was done ; nor ought he to be lamented, who died so full of honours, and at the height of human fame.

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