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most elegant of sciences were cul- The intellect of the Christian Spativated together with equal zeal. Aver- niards could not be ungrateful for the roes translated and expounded Aris- rich gifts it was every day receiving totle at Cordova : Ben-Zaid and Aboul- from their misbelieving masters; while Mander wrote histories of their na- the benevolence with which instruction at Valencia ;-Abdel-Maluk set tors ever regard willing disciples must the first example of that most inte- have tempered in the minds of the resting and useful species of writing Arabs the sentiments of haughty suby which Moreri and others have since periority natural to the breasts of conrendered services so important to our- querors. By degrees, however, the selves; and an Arabian Encyclopædia scattered remnants of unsubdued Visiwas compiled under the direction of goths, who had sought and found rethe great Mohammed-Aba-Abdallah fuge among the mountains of Astu

Grenada. Ibn-el-Beither went rias and Gallicia, began to gather the forth from Malaga to search through strength of numbers and of combinaall the mountains and plains of Eu- tion, and the Mussulmen saw differope for every thing that might rent portions of their empire succesenable him to perfect his favourite sively wrested from their hands by sciences of botany and lithology, leaders whose descendants assumed and his works still remain to ex- the titles of kings in Oviedo and Nacite the admiration of all that are in varre—and counts in Castille-Soprara condition to comprehend their value. bia—Arragon--and Barcellona. From The Jew of Tudela was the worthy the time when these governments were successor of Galen and Hippocrates established, till all their strength was while chemistry, and other branches of united in the persons of Ferdinand and medical science, almost unknown to Isabella, a perpetual war may be said the ancients, received their first asto- to have subsisted between the profesnishing developements from Al-Rasi sors of the two religions and the naand Avicenna. Rhetoric and poetry tural jealousy of Moorish governors were not less diligently studied-and, must have gradaully, but effectually in a word it would be difficult to diminished the comfort of the Christians point out, in the whole history of the 'who yet lived under their authority. world, a time or a country where the Were we to seek our ideas of the peactivity of the human intellect was riod only from the events recorded in its more extensively or usefully or grace- chronicles, we should be led to believe fully exerted,--than in Spain, while the that nothing could be more deep and Mussulman sceptre yet retained any fervid than the spirit of mutual hosportion of that vigour which it had tility which prevailed among all the originally received from the conduct adherents of the opposite faiths : but and heroism of Tariffa.

external events are sometimes not the Although the difference of religion surest guides to the spirit either of prevented the Moors and their Spa- peoples or of ages--and the ancient nish subjects from ever being com- popular poetry of Spain may be repletely melted into one people, yet it ferred to for proofs, which cannot be appears that nothing could, on the considered as either of dubious or of whole, be more mild than the conduct trivial value, that the rage of hostility of the Moorish government towards had not sunk quite so far as might the Christian population of the coun. have been imagined into the minds and try during this their splendid period hearts of those engaged in the conflict. of undisturbed dominion. Their learn- There is, indeed, nothing more naing and their arts they liberally com- tural, at first sight, than to reason in municated to all who desired such par- some measure from a nation as it is in ticipation, and the Christian youth stu- our own day, back to what it was a died freely and honourably at the feet few centuries ago : but we believe of Jewish physicians and Mahomme- nothing could tend to the production dan philosophers. Communion of stu- of greater mistakes than such a mode dies and acquirements continued of judging applied to the case of Spain. through such a space of years could not In the erect and high-spirited peahave failed to break down, on both santry of that country we still see the sides, many of the barriers of religious genuine and uncorrupted descendants prejudice, and to nourish a spirit of of their manly forefathers—but in kindliness and charity among the more every other part of the population, the cultivated portions of either people. progress of corruption appears to have




been no less powerful than rapid, and was never tried, for down to the time the higher we ascend in the scale of of Charles V. no man has any right to society, the more distinct and morti- say that the Spaniards were a bigotted fying is the spectacle of moral not people. One of the worst features of less than of physical deterioration. their modern bigotry-their extreme This unusual falling off of men may and servile subjection to the authority be traced very easily to an universal of the Pope, was entirely awanting in falling off--an universal destruc- the picture of their ancient spirit. tion of principle-in regard to every In the 12th century, the kings of Arpoint of faith and feeling most es- ragon were the protectors of the bisential to the formation and preservagenses; and Pedro II. himself died in tion of a national character. We see 1213, fighting bravely against the red the modern Spaniards the most bi- cross, for the cause of tolerance. In gotted and enslaved and ignorant of 1268, two brothers of the king of CasEuropeans; but we must not forget tille left the banners of the Infidels; that the Spaniards of three centuries beneath which they were serving at back were, in all respects, a very dif- Tunis, with 800 Castillian gentlemen, ferent set of beings. Spain, in the for the purpose of coming to Italy and first regulation of her constitution, was assisting the Neapolitans in their reas free as any nation needs to be for all sistence to the tyranny of the Pope the purposes of social security and and Charles of Anjou. In the individual happiness. Her kings were great schism of the west, as it is her captains and her judges-the chiefs called (1378,) Pedro IV. embraced and the models of a gallant nobility, the party which the Catholic church and the protectors of a manly and in- regards as schismatic. That feud was dependent peasantry: But the autho- not allayed for more than a hundred rity with which they were invested years, and Alphonso V. was well paid was guarded by the most accurate limi- for consenting to lay it aside; while tations—nay, in case they should exceed down to the time of Charles V., the the boundary of their legal power- whole of the Neapolitan princes of the statute-book of the realm contain- the house of Arragon may be said to ed exact rules for the conduct of a have lived in a state of open enmity aconstitutional insurrection to recal gainst the papal see sometimesexcomthem to their duty, or to punish them municated for generations togetherfor its desertion. Every order of so- seldom apparently-never cordially reciety had its representatives in the conciled. When Ferdinand the Canational council, and every Spaniard, tholic, finally, wished to introduce the of whatever degree, was penetrated Inquisition into his kingdom, the whole with a

sense of his own dignity nation took up arms to resist a freeman-his own nobility as a The Grand Inquisitor was killed, and descendant of the Visigoths. And it every one of his creatures was compelis well remarked by the elegant led to leave the yet free soil of Arragon. Italian historian of our own day, * But the truest and best proof of the that, even to this hour, the influence liberality of the old Spaniards is, as of this happy order of things still we have already said, to be found in continues to be felt in Spain-where their beautiful ballads. Throughout manners and language and litera- the far greater part of these compositure have all received indelibly a tions, many of which must be, at least, stamp of courts, and aristocracy, and as old as the 10th century, there proud feeling-which affords a strik- breathes a charming sentiment of chaing contrast to what may be observed rity and humanity towards those in modern Italy, where the only free- Moorish enemies with whom the comdom that ever existed had its origin bats of the national heroes are repreand residence among citizens and sented. The Spaniards and the Moors merchants.

lived together in their villages beneath The civil liberty of the old Span- the calmest of skies, and surrounded iards could scarcely have existed, so with the most lovely of landscapes. In long as it did, in the presence of any spite of their adverse faiths--in spite feeling so black and noisome as the of their adverse interests—they had bigotry of modern Spain; but this much in common-loves, and sports,

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and recreations--nay, sometimes their ses were repeated by liberal encomie haughtiest recollections were in com- ums on Moorish valour and generosity mon, and even their heroes were the in Castillian and Arragonese Redon

Bernard de Carpio, Alphonse dilleras. Even in the ballads most VI., the Cid himself-every one of exclusively devoted to the celebration the favourite heroes of the Spanish of some feat of Spanish heroism, it is nation had, at some period or other of quite common to find some redeeming his life, fought beneath the standard compliment to the Moors mixed with of the crescent, and the minstrels the strain of exultation. Take, for exof either nation might, therefore, ample, the famous ballad on Don Rayin regard to some instances at mon of Butrago-translated in the least, have equal pride in the celebra- Edinburgh Annual Register for 1816, tion of their prowess. The praises just published. The version, it will which the Arab poets granted to them be seen, is by the same hand as those in their Monwachchah, or girdle ver- which follow. Your horse is faint, my king, my lord, your gallant horse is sick, His limbs are torn, his breast is gored, on his eye the film is thick ; Mount, mount on mine, oh mount apace, I pray thee mount and fly,

Or in my arms I'll lift your grace their trampling hoofs are nigh.
My king, my king, you're wounded sore, the blood runs from your feet,
But only lay your hand before, and I'll lift ye to your seat;
Mount, Juan, mount--the Moors are near, I hear them Arab cry,
Oh mount and fly for jeopardy, I'll save ye though I die.
Stand noble steed this hour of need, be gentle as a lamb,
I'll kiss the foam from off thy mouth, thy master dear I am ;

Mount, Juan, ride, whate'er betide, away the bridle fling,
And plunge the rowels in his side-Bavieca save my king.


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King Juan's horse fell lifeless-Don Raymon's horse stood by,
Nor king nor lord would mount him, they both prepare to die;
'Gainst the same tree their backs they placed they hacked the king in twain,
Don Raymon's arms the corpse embraced, and so they both were slain.-
But when the Moor Almazor beheld what had been done,
He oped Lord Raymon's visor, while down his tears did run;
He oped his visor, stooping then he kissed the forehead cold,
God grant may ne'er to Christian men this Moorish shame be told.

Even in the more remote and ideal to inspire both nations with sentiments chivalries celebrated in the Castillian of kindness and mutual esteem. Berballads, the parts of glory and great- nard de Carpio, above all the rest, ness were just as frequently attributed was the common property and pride to Moors as to Christians ;-Calaynos of both peoples. Of his all romanwas a name as familiar as Guyferos. tic life, the most romantic inci. At somewhat a later period, when the dents belonged equally to both. It conquest of Grenada had mingled the was with Moors that he allied Spaniards still more effectually with himself when he rose up to demand the persons and manners of the Moors, vengeance from king Alphonso for the we find the Spanish poets still fonder murder of his father. It was with of celebrating the heroic achievements Moorish brethren in arms that he of Moors; and, without doubt, this marched to fight against Charlemagne their liberality towards the “ Knights for the independence of the Spanish of Grenada, Gentlemen, albeit Moors, soil. It was in front of a Moorish host Caballeros Grenadinos

that Bernard couched his lance, vicAunque Moros hijos d'algo,

torious alike over valour and magic, must have been very gratifying to the “ When Roland brave and Oliver, former subjects of king Chico. It And many a Paladin and Peer must have counteracted the bigotry of At Roncesvalles fell.” Confessors and Mollahs, and tended All the picturesque details, in fine, of

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that splendid, and not unfrequently, ject of a separate article, we shall not perhaps, fabulous career, were sung at present enter deeper into any of with equal transport to the shepherd's their beauties. They form probably lute on the hills of Leon, and the the oldest series extant in the lancourtly guitars of the Algeneraliffe, guage, and next to those of the Cid, or the Alhamra. Surely these beau- the most extensive as well as the most tiful verses were written by any one beautiful. rather than a bigot-they breathe all The history of the children of Lara the meek and noble gallantry of is another series from which many knighthood.

rich illustrations of our proposition

might be borrowed, but we decline Bernardo qui vio del Moro Aquel pecho tan gallardo

entering upon it at present for similar Le dixo: Bernardo soy

reasons-and as to the ballads of the Y el que nunca ha recusado

Campeador himself, our readers may Batallo con ningun hombre

refer to the best of them translated, as Que occasion me huviesse dado. never ballads nor any other composiMuça le abraça, y le dize

tions that we are acquainted with Casi de plazer llorando :

were translated, by Mr Frere. The Has de saber que yo soy

dark and bloody annals of Pedro the El que mas ha procurado

cruel, are narrated in another long De tenerte por amigo

and exquisite series and in these too Aunque en las leyes contrarios ! we might find much to our purpose. Y pues el cielo lo quiere,

As a specimen of the style in which Abraçame, amigo caro,

they are written, will our readers acY de mi quiero te sirvas

cept, by the way, the following specie Como del menor criado

men ? It contains the narrative of Y si desto en algun tempo

the tyrant's murder of Blanche of Me hallares en algun falto

Bourbon, his young and innocent Quiero que el cielo me fallê

queen, whom he sacrificed


shortY quanto Dios ha criado.

ly after his marriage to the jealous But as the fine series of ballads in hatred of his Jewish mistress, Maria which the history of Bernardo is told, de Pedilla. The version is quite litemay probably furnish us with the subo ral.


MARIA DE PEDILLA be not thus of dismal mood,
For if I twice have wedded me it all was for thy good,
But if upon Queen Blanche ye will that I some scorn should show,
For a banner to Medina my messenger shall go,
The work shall be of Blanche's tears, of Blanche's blood the ground;
Such pennon shall they weave for thee, such sacrifice be found.
Then to the Lord of Ortis, that excellent baron,
He said, now hear me, Ynigo, forth with for this begone.
Then answer made Don Ynigo, such gift I ne'er will bring,
For he that harmeth Lady Blanche doth harm my lord the king.
Then Pedro to his chamber went, his cheek was burning red,
And to a bowman of his guard the dark command he said.
The bowman to Medina passed, when the queen beheld him near,
Alas! she said, my maidens, he brings my death I fear.
Then said the archer, bending low, the king's commandment take,
And see thy soul be ordered well with God that did it make,
For lo! thỉne hour is come, therefrom no refuge may there be
Then gently spoke the Lady Blanche, my friend I pardon thee;
Do what thou wilt, so be the king hath his commandment given,
Deny me not confession—if so, forgive ye heaven.
Much grieved the bowman for her tears' and for her beauty's sake,
While thus Queen Blanche of Bourbon her last complaini did make;
Oh France ! my noble country-oh blood of high Bourbon,
Not eighteen years have I seen out before my life is gone.

* At the end of Mr Southey's History of the Cid.

The king hath never known me. A virgin true I die.
Whate'er I've done, to proud Castille no treason e'er did I.
The crown they put upon my head was a crown of blood and sighs,
God grant me soon another crown more precious in the skies.
These words she spake, then down she knelt, and took the bowman's blow-
Her tender neck was cut in twain, and out her blood did flow.

After this series, in all the collec- Y de que repartimoento tions we have seen, the greater part

Son Celinda y Guadalara, of the ballads are altogether Moorish

Estos Moras y Estas Moras in their subjects, and of these we

Que en todas las bodas danzan. shall now proceed to give a few speci- Y por hablarlo mas claro mens. They are every way interesting

Assi tenguan buena pascua, -but, above all, as monuments, for

Ha venido a su noticia such we unquestionably consider them

Que ay Christianos en Espana. to be, of the manners and customs of But these complaints were not with. a noble nation, of whose race no re- out their answer; for says another lics now remain on the soil they so poem in the Romancero generallong ennobled. Composed originally Si es espanol Don Rodrigo by a Moor or a Spaniard, (it is often Espanol fue el fuerte Andalla very difficult to determine by which Y sepa el senor Alcayde of the two), they were sung in the Que tambien lo es Guadalara. village greens of Andalusia in either

But the best argument follows. language, but to the same tunes, and listened to with equal pleasure by man,

No es culpa si de los Moros

Les valientes hechos cantan, woman, child-mussulman and

Pues tanto mas resplendecen christian. n these strains, whatever Nuestras celebras hazanas. other merits or demerits they may possess, we are, at least, presented refer to the period immediately prece

The greater part of these ballads with a lively picture of the life of the ding the downfall of the throne of Arabian Spaniard. We see him as he was in reality,“ like steel among court-the bull-feasts and other spec

Granada—the amours of that splendid weapons, like wax among women.”

tacles in which its lords and ladies de Fuerte qual azero entre armas, lighted no less than those of the ChrisY qual cera entre las damas.

tian courts of Spain—the bloody feuds There came, indeed, a time when of the two great Moorish families of the fondness of the Spaniards for their the Zegris and the Abencerrages which Moorish ballads was made matter of contributed so largely to the ruin of reproach--but this was not till long the Moorish causeand the incidents after the period when Spanish bravery of that last war itself, in which the had won back the last fragments of power of the mussulman was entirely the peninsula from Moorish hands. overthrown by the arms of Ferdinand It was thus that a Spanish poet of the and Isabella. But the specimens we after day expressed himself.

give will speak for themselves. To Vayase con Dios Ganzul !

some of our readers it may, perhaps, Lleve el diable à Celindaxa !

occur that the part ascribed to MoorY buelvan estas marlotas

ish females in these ballads is not alA quien se las dið prestadas.

ways exactly in the oriental taste; Que quiere Dona Maria

but the pictures still extant on the Ver baylar a Dona Juana,

walls of the Alhamra contain abunUna gallarda espanola,

dant proofs how unfair it would be to Que no ay dança mas gallarda : judge from the manners of any mus. Y Don Pedro y Don Rodrigo sulman nation of our day, to those of Vestir otras mas galanas

the refined and elegant Spanish Moors. Ver quien son estos danzantes As a single example of what we mean, Y conocer estas damas.

in one of those pictures, engraved in Y el senor Alcayde quiere

the splendid work of Mr Murphy, a Saber quien es Abenamar.

Moorish lady is represented, unveiled, Estos Žegris y Aliatares

bestowing the prize, after a tourney, Adulces, Zaydes, y Andallas. on a knecling Moorish knight.

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