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AVOGADRO, his law made basis of sys-

tem of Gerhardt
and Laurent, 23
not accepted by
Berzelius, 7

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Atomic synthesis, Berzelian rules of, 17

theory, shortcomings of the

Daltonian, II
volumes of elements, curve

shewing, 226
weight, of an element, defini-

tion of, 35
weights, Berzelius's table of, 19

data required before,

can be determined,

determined by appli-

cation of Avogadro's
law, and of law of

Dulong and Petit,64
determined by appli-

cation of Mitscher-
lich's law of isomor-

phism, 69
determined by chemi.

cal methods, 71
of heryllium, cerium

metals, and uranium,
determined by ap-
plication of periodic

law, 233
of elements, connec-

tion between, and
heats of formation of

haloid salts, 229
of elements, data for,

tables, 37, 78
of elements, periodic

connection between,
and properties of

elements, 223 et seq.
of elements, table of,

Atomicity of molecules, explanation of

term, 42
table shewing,

Avidity, meaning of term as used by

Thomsen, 437
AVOGADRO, application of his law to

determine atomic weights,
compared with applica-
tion of law of Dulong and
Petit, 64
his distinction between
atom and molecule, 13
his law, 13, 26

accepted by Du-

BAKER, H., his work in connection

with isomorphism, 67 note
Bases, classification of, by help of ther-

mal data, 285
BEMMELEN, VAN, his experiments bear-

ing on molecular compounds, 217
BERGMANN, his tables of affinity, 402

his work in connection

with the atomic theory, 7
Berthelot, his law of maximum work,

297, 445 note
his thermal investigation of

the isomerides benzene

and dipropargyl, 303
his three principles of ther-

mal chemistry, 297
BERTHOLLET, his study of affinity, 403

his views regarding

chemical change, 369
his views regarding solu-

tion, 370
Beryllium, atomic weight of, 233

fusibility of salts of, 228

specific heat of, 58
Berzelius, his acceptance but limita-

tion of Gay-Lussac's law,

his conception of affinity,

373, 458
his electro-chemical investi-

gations, 108
his rules with regard to

atomic synthesis, 17
his table of atomic weights,

his use of double atoms,

the term polarily,
his work on atomic synthe-

sis, 16
refuses to accept Avogadro's

law, 17

the dualistic theory of, 110
Boiling points of carbon compounds,

mas, 20
applied to chem-

ical reactions, 29
leads to definition

of atomic weight,

connections between, and structure,

Bonds, free and satisfied, 129

relative strength of, 199
saturation of, 128
Thomsen's thermal researches

connected with, 172, 300
use of term in theory of valency,

124 et seq.

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Boron, carbon, and silicon, Kopp's hy.

pothesis regarding atoms of,63

specific heat of, 59 et seq.
BRAUNER, his investigations connected

with the periodic law, 234, 237
Brodie, his work bearing on structure

of small particles of elements, 71
Bromine, density of gaseous, 209
BRÜHL, his work on the refraction-

equivalents of carbon compounds, 309

et seq.
BUNSEN and Roscoe, their use of the

term induction, 378
Calorimetric equivalents, meaning of

term, 290
Calorimetric equivalents of solutions,

relations between and composition,

CANNIZZARO, his generalisations re-

garding specific heats of compounds,

47, 55
Carbon, boron, and silicon, Kopp's hy.

pothesis regarding atoms of,


Chemical classification, 1, 116

equilibrium, hypotheses re-

garding, 386 et seq.
induction, use of term by

Bunsen and Roscoe (see

also induction), 378


atomic weights, examples

specific heat of, 59
CARNELLEY, his determinations of fusi-

bility of elements, 228
his papers on the periodic

law, 230 note, 248 note
Catalytic actions, 374, 430
CAYLEY, his mathematical examination

of isomerism, 140 note
Central nucleus, use of term, 165
Cerium metals, atomic weights of, 236
Chain, closed, open, side, meanings of

terms, 163
Chemical and electrical forces, relations

between, 455
Chemical change, Berthollet's view's re-

garding: 369
Berzelius's views re-

garding, 109, 373
considered thermo-
dynamically (Helm-

holtz), 446
general considera-

tions regarding, 369
influence of mass on,

294, 381
influence of tempera-

ture on, 391 note
investigations of Har-
court and Esson on,

physical methods of

measuring, 417 note
Chemical changes are accompanied by

degradation of en-
ergy, 445 note, 446

of, 71
methods for investigating affi-

nities of the acids, 424 et seq.
problems, need of considering

both reacting bodies and

forces in, 5
Statics and Kinetics, use of

these terms explained and

illustrated, 6, 353, 473
Chemistry, methods by which brought

under domain of dynamics,

thermal, 250 et seq.
the fundamental problem of,

4, 106, 373
the general scope of, i
the sphere of, contrasted

with spheres of dynamics

and physics, 4
the two lines of advance in,


1, 116

Chloral hydrate, density of vapour of,

Chlorine, density of, 209

specific heat of, 51
CLARKE, F. W., his investigations on

hydrated and dehydrated salts, 34+
Classification, chemical, based on theory

of types, 116
of acids and bases by help

of thermal data, 279 it

of elements and com-

pounds by help of ther-

mal data, 274
of elements in accordance

with their atomic heats,

of elements in accordance

with the periodic law,

the two schemes of, adopt-

ed in chemistry, 1, 116
Closed chain, meaning of term, 163
Colloids and crystalloids, 216, 398



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Combining weights of elements, defini-

Dissociation, analogies between, and

evaporation, 356
bearing of, on determina-

tions of vapour-densi-

ties, 362
general phenomena of,

356 et ser
of salts in solution, 367
phenomena more or less

analogous to, 366
special characteristics of,

treatment of, by

Debray, 357
Deville, 356
Gibbs, 396
Hicks, 393
Horstmann, 393

Pfaundler, 360, 393

use of term, 355
Dissociation-pressure, meaning of term,

Divalent, the atom of oxygen is, mean-

ing of expression, 123 et seq.
the atom of tin is, in given

molecule, but is tetravalent

in another molecule, 126
Divers, his experiments on the action

of tin, &c., on nitric acid, 103,
DONATH, his determination of the spe-

cific heat of uranium oxide, 55
Dualism, opposed by Dumas, 113

opposed to Faraday's electro-

lytic laws, 112
system of, introduced by Ber-

zelius, 110
DULONG and Petit, their law regaril.

ing specific heats of solid elements,

46, 63
Dumas, his early acceptance of Avo-

gadro's law, 20
his system of notation partly

atomic, partly equivalent, 20
introduces the conception of

types, 113 et seq.
opposes the dualistic system of

Berzelius, 113
Eka-ainminium, cka-boron, and eka-

silicon, 231
Electro-chemical investigations of

Berzelius, 108
Davy, 106
Faraday, 112, +51
Helmholtz, 455
Joule, 452
Thomson, 453

Wright, +5+
Electrolysis of acids, 93

tion of, 34
weights of elements do not

always represent equiva-

lent weights, 16, 22
Compound radicles, 110, 114, 118

possess a definite

replacing power,

Compounds, ciassification of, by help of

thermal data, 275 et seq.
formula of gaseous and

solid, 43, 132, 246
isomorphism of, 65
molecular, 202 et sey., 398

specific heats of, 46, 55
Constitution, water of, 343
Contact-actions, 374, 430
COOKE, J. P., his experiments in con-

nection with physical isomerism, 184
COUPER, his work bearing on valency

of atoms, 118
Cross, on the action of carbon and

phosphorus on sulphuric acid, 96 note
Cryohydrates, 214, 397
Crystalline form, determination of, as

aid in fixing atomic

weights, 69
salts, dehydration and re-

hydration of, 210, 215,

217, 343
Crystallisation, water of, 210, 343
Cumulative resolution, 383

water, 100

DALTON, development of the atomic

theory of, 8
his New System of Chemical

Philosophy, 9
his reasons for giving to water

the formula HO, HI
his refusal to accept Gay-

Lussac's law, 12
his remarks on specific heats

of solids, liquids and gases,

his rules respecting atomic

synthesis, 10
shortcomings of his atomic

theory, II
Davy, his electro-chemical investiga-

tions, 106

his views regarding acids, in
DEBRAY, his work on dissociation, 357
DEVILLE, his work on dissociation, 356

his work on the action of

nitric acid on metals, 94
Dimorphism, 69
Disgregation, meaning of term, 44+

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Element, the old conception of, 1, 248

Elements, atomic heats of, 56

atomic weights of, data for

finding, tables, 37 et seq.,

78 et sey:
atomic weights of, table, 45
atomic volumes, curve of, 226
atoms of, have definite re-

placing values, 117
atoms of, valency of (see also

valency of atoms), 121
classification of, by help of

thermal data, 274
classification of, in accord.

ance with their atomic

heats, 56
classification of, in accord-

ance with the periodic law,

susibility of, 228
isomorphism of, 67
periodic connection between

atomic weights and pro-

perties of, 223 et seq.
specific heats of, law of Du-

long and Petit regarding,46
specific heats of some, deter-

mined indirectly, 51 et seq.
specific heats of, table, 48
study of properties of, by help

of the periodic law, 233
unknown, properties of, pre-

dicted by the periodic law,

Elementary gases, table of molecular

weights of, 31
Endothermic and exothermic changes,

meaning and application of terms,

254, 446
Energy-changes accompanying chemical

changes, 175, 265,406
connected with affinity-

changes, 443, 448
measurements of, by

electrical methods,

measurements of, by

thermal methods, 250,

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Equilibrium-pressure, use of term in

connection with dissociation, 356
Equivalency of atoms (see also valency),

116 et seq.

an, use of term, 124
Equivalent, atom, molecule, the terms

contrasted, 24
connected with function,

14, 22, 472
difficulty of determining the

true, of an element, 14
notation, inconveniences of,

term introduced by Wol-

laston, 14
weights of elements deter-

mined by Laurent, 22
Equivalents, work of Dumas, Laurent,

and Gerhardt on, 20
work of Ostwald on, com-

pared with earlier investi-

gations, 472
Esson (see HARCOURT)
Etherification-values, connection be-

tween, and molecular

structure of alco-

hols, 351, 399
meaning of term, 348

et seq.
methods of determin.

ing, 350
FARADAY, his electro-chemical investi.

gations, 112, 451, 455
FISCHER, his work in connection with

the atomic theory, 7
Fluorine, specific heat of, 52
Forms of oxides and salts as determined

by application of the periodic law, 243
Formulæ, chemical, of gases compared

with those of solids, 43,

chemical, structural, examples
of methods of obtaining,

144 et seq.
chemical, structural, general.

isations usually made in

obtaining, 151 et seq.
chemical, structural, regarded

from kinetical point of

view, 466
FRANKLAND recognises a substituting

value for each elementary atom, 117,

I 22 note
Fusibility of elements, connection be-

tween, and atomic weights, 228
Gallium, identical with eka-aluminium,

GARNIER and CANNIZZARO, their gene-


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257, 288


Energy, degradation of, accompanying

chemical changes, 445 note,
free and bound, use of terms by

Helmholtz, 446
Equilibrium, chemical, hypotheses re-

garding, 386 et seq.
chemical, equation of

(Guldberg and Waage),


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et seq.

ralisation regarding specific heats of

and structure of molecules of
compounds, 47, 55

changing substances, 172 et seq.
Gases, formulæ of, compared with those Heat evolved in chemical changes, study
of solids, 43, 462

of, 250 et seq.
Gay-LUSSAC, Berzelius modifies the law

evolved in reactions of isomerides,

173 note, 175 et seq.
Dalton refuses to accept of formation of compounds, mean.
the law of, 12

ing of term, 260 et seq.
his law regarding volu- of neutralisation of an acid by a
metric combinations of

base, and vice versa, 279, 285
gases, 12

(See also thermal chemistry, and
GEOFFREY, his tables of affinity, 401

thermal data.)
GERHARDT, his law of even numbers, HELMHOLTZ, his electro-chemical in-
76, 200

vestigations, 455
his reasons for changing

his thermodynamical con-
the equivalents of carbon,

siderations regarding
&c., 21

chemical change, 446
Gibbs, his investigation of the equili-

his use of the terms free
brium of heterogeneous systems, 394

and bound energy, 446

HERMANN, R., his work in connection
GLADSTONE, his investigations on chemi- with specific heats, 47
cal change, 398

Hicks, his treatment of dissociation-
GLADSTONE and Dale, their investiga. phenomena, 393

tions on refraction-equivalents of HOFF, J. H. VAN'T, his hypothesis re-
carbon-compounds, 307 et seq.

garding optically active compounds,
GLADSTONE and Tribe, their investiga- 323 et seq.

tions in connection with the electro- Hoov, his experiments on the influence
lysis of acids, 93

of temperature on the rate of chemical
GMELIN, his system of notation, 20 change, 391 note
Goldstein, his investigations on the HORSTMANN, his treatment of dissocia-

connection between boiling points and tion-phenomena, 361, 393
molecular structure, 305

Hydration and dehydration of salts,
GRAHAM, his work on colloidal and 210, 215, 217, 343

crystalloidal matter, 216, Hydrofluoric acid, density of vapour of,
398 note

I21 note
his work on water of crystal Hydrogen, replaceable, illustrations of,
lisation, 343

147, 158, 165, 169
GROTH, his investigations regarding

specific heat of, 52
morphotropic relations, 170
Group, use of term in nomenclature of Iatro-chemists, 2
the periodic law, 224

Induction, chemical, use of term by

Bunsen and Roscoe, 378
their theory of chemical affinity, 407

chemical, regarded from

stand-point of equilibrium-
their theory of chemical affinity ap-

theories, 398
plied by Ostwald, 416 et seq.

chemical, Wright's experi.
their theory of chemical change, 373

ments in connection with,
GUTHRIE, his work on cryohydrates,


Iodine, atomic weight of, fixed by help

of periodic law, 238
Halogens, hydracids and oxyacids of,

density of vapour of, 208
considered thermally, 279.

Isomerides, formula for finding maxi-
HARCOURT and Esson, their investiga-

mum number of monad
tion of conditions of chemical change,

atoms in molecules of, 139

heat evolved or absorbed in
HARTLEY, his investigation of relations

reactions of, 175 et seq., 303
of molecular structure to absorption- Isomerism, detailed consideration of,
spectra, 331

140 et seq.
Heat, connection between quantities of,

exceptions generally
evolved in chemical changes,

adopted explanation of, 181

et seq.


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