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ing or sitting on; the finer sort its used for garments. They are dexterous too in making basket and wicker-work. Ropes and lines are made of the bark of a tree; and the fibres of the cocoa-nut furnish them with thread, with which they fasten the different parts of their canoes, &c. The bark of a nettle which grows in the mountains, called orawa, supplies them with excellent fishinglines; their hooks are made of mother-of-pearl, to which they fix a tuft of hair, made to resemble the tail of a fish. The point is turned inwards. They make also a kind of seine of a coarse broad grass, the blades of which are like flags. These they twist and tie together in a loose manner, till the net, which is about as wide as a large sack, is from sixty to eighty fathoms long. This they haul in smooth shoal-water; and its own weight keeps it so close to the ground that scarcely a single fish can escape. Their cane harpoons, pointed with hard wood, are very effectual weapons. Tools used by the Otaheiteans are, an adze made of a kind of basaltes, of a gray or blackish color, not very hard, but of considerable toughness; a chisel or gouge of bone, generally the bone of a man's arm between the wrist and elbow; a rasp of coral, and the skin of a sting-ray; also coral and sand, as a file or polisher. With such tools they generally take up several days in felling a tree; but after it is down, and split into planks, they smooth them very expeditiously with their adzes, and can take off a thin coat from a whole plank without missing a stroke.

The men of consequence wear the nails of their fingers long, as a badge of distinction. The women always cut their hair short round their heads. Both sexes tattoo the hinder part of their thighs and loins with black lines in various forms; these marks are made by striking the teeth of an instrument somewhat like a comb just through the skin, and rubbing into the punctures a kind of paste made of soot and oil, which leaves an indelible stain. Both sexes are gracefully clothed. Their dress consists of two pieces of this cloth; one of them, having a hole in the middle to put the head through, hangs from the shoulders to the mid-leg before and behind; another piece between four and five yards long, and about one broad, they wrap round the body; this cloth is made like paper, of the macerated fibres of the inner bark spread out and beaten together. Their ornaments are feathers, flowers, pieces of shell, and pearls; the pearls are worn chiefly by the women. In wet weather they wear matting. They have a custom also of anointing their heads with what they call monoe, an oil expressed from the cocoa-nut, in which some sweet herbs or flowers have been infused: as the oil is generally rancid, the smell is at first very disagreeable to a European; and as they live in a hot country, and never use a comb, they are not able to keep their heads free from lice, which the children and common people pick out and eat; a custom wholly different from their manners in every other particular, for they are delicate and cleanly, almost without example; and those to whom captain Cook distributed combs, soon delivered themselves from vermin. Later voyagers, however, VOL. XVI.-PART 2.

give the same account of their filthiness in this respect as Cook. Since captain Cook was here the number of the inhabitants on the island is much decreased; it is not now supposed to contain above 5000 souls.

The priesthood seems to be hereditary in one family or tribe; and is said to be numerous. These priests are professedly the men of science and medicine. They teach that the Supreme Deity, besides many female descendants, has one son named Tane, and to him they direct their worship, though they do not believe that the good or bad conduct of mankind on earth makes them more or less acceptable to him. They believe the existence of the soul after death, and of a greater or less degree of happiness to be then enjoyed; but they seem to have no conception of a state of punishment hereafter. The share of happiness they imagine every individual will enjoy in this future state will be assigned to him according to the rank he holds on earth. Much parade is used in their attempts to recover the sick, though their remedies consist only of ridiculous ceremonies and enchantments. The marriages are secular contracts; but no one has a right to perform tattooing except the priests; and, this being a custom universally adopted, it may be supposed that the performing it is a lucrative employment. The males in general undergo a kind of circumcision which is likewise the exclusive privilege of the priests to perform. But what most establishes the credit of this order of men is their skill in astronomy and navigation.

Captain Cook saw a wicker representation of Mauwe, one of their Eatuas, or gods of the second class, which was said to be the only one of the kind in Otaheitee. It was seven feet high. These people pray at sun-rise and sun-set. Our navigator, who had some reason to believe that, among the religious customs of this people, human sacrifices were sometimes offered up to their deities, went to a morai, or place of worship, accompanied by captain Furneaux, having with them a sailor who spoke the language tolerably well, and several of the natives. In the morai was a tupapow, a kind of bier, with a shed erected over it, on which lay a corpse and some provisions. Captain Cook asked if the plantain were for the Eatua? If they sacrificed to the Eatua hogs, dogs, fowls, &c.? To which an intelligent native answered in the affir mative. He then asked if they sacrificed men to the Eatua? He was answered, bad men they did; first beating them till they were dead.' He then asked if good men were put to death in this manner? His answer was No. He gathered that men for certain crimes were condemned to be sacrificed to the gods, provided they did not possess any property, which they might give for their redemption. It seems to rest with the high-priest to single out the victims for sacrifice.

The dead bodies are placed in the open air till the bones become quite dry: a shed was erected on one occasion close by the house where the deceased had resided; it was about fifteen feet long, and eleven broad; one end was left quite open; the other end and the two sides were partly enclosed with a sort of wicker-work. The

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bier was a frame of wood, like that on which the sea beds, called cots, are placed, with a matted bottom, and supported by four posts, at the height of about four feet from the ground. The body was covered first with a mat, and then with white cloth; by the side of it lay a wooden mace, one of their weapons of war; and near the head of it, which lay next to the close end of the shed, lay two cocoa-nut shells; at the other end a bunch of green leaves, and some dried twigs, all tied together, were stuck in the ground, by which lay a stone about as big as a cocoanut. Near these lay one of the young plantainleaves that are used for emblems of peace, and close by it a stone axe. At the open end of the shed also hung, in several strings, a great number of palm-nuts; and without the shed was stuck up in the ground a stem of a plantaintree, about six feet high, upon the top of which was placed a cocoa-nut shell full of fresh water; against the side of one of the posts hung a small bag, containing a few pieces of bread-fruit ready roasted. The food so placed by the corpse seemed designed as an offering to their gods. They cast in, near the body, small pieces of cloth, on which the tears and blood of the mourners have been shed; for in their paroxysms of grief it is a universal custom to wound themselves. The mourner is always a man; and he is dressed in a very singular habit. When the bones are stripped of their flesh, and become dry, they are buried.

The mourning which is worn here is a headdress of feathers, the color of which is consecrated to death, and a veil over the face. The whole nation is said to appear thus on the death of their king. The mourning for fathers is very long. The women mourn for their husbands, but not the husbands for their wives.

Their boats or canoes are of different sorts. Some are made out of a single tree, and hold

from two to six men. These are principally employed in fishing; others are constructed of planks very dexterously sewed together; they will sometimes hold from ten to forty men; they generally lash two of these together, and set up two masts between them; or, if they are single, they have only one in the middle; and in these vessels they will sail far beyond the sight of land. A third sort seems to be principally designed for pleasure. These are very large, but have no sail; and in shape resemble the gondolas of Venice. The plank of which these vessels are constructed is made by splitting a tree, with the grain, into as many thin pieces as possible. The boards are brought to the thickness of about an inch, and are afterwards fitted to the boat with great exactness. To fasten these planks together, holes are bored with a piece of bone, fixed into a stick for that purpose. Through these a kind of plaited cordage is passed, so as to hold the planks strongly together. The seams are caulked with dry rushes; and the whole outside of the vessel is painted over with a kind of gummy juice, which supplies the place of pitch. Their weapons are slings, which they use with great dexterity; pikes headed with the skins of stingrays, and clubs of about six or seven feet

long, made of a very hard wood. Thus armed, they fight with great obstinacy, and give no quarter to man, woman, or child, who happens to fall into their hands during the battle, nor for some time afterwards, till their passion subsides. They have likewise bows and arrows; but the latter are headed only with stone, and none of them pointed. They have targets of a semicircular form, made of wicker-work, and plaited strings of the cocoa-nut fibres, covered with glossy bluish green feathers belonging to a kind of pigeon, and ornamented with sharks' teeth, arranged in three concentric circles.

European visits led to the attempt to establish missionaries on this island; but, after varıous efforts to introduce Christianity and the arts of civilised life, those worthy laborers were compelled to retreat.

OTAKOOTAI, or Wenooaette, an island in the South Pacific Ocean, about three miles in circumference, discovered by Cook in the year 1777. The beach within the reef is composed of a white coral sand, and the land within does not rise above six or seven feet: it is entirely destitute of water. The only common trees found there were cocoa-palms, of which there were several clusters; and vast numbers of the wharra. The only bird seen was a beautiful cuckoo, of a chestnut brown, variegated with black. But upon the shore were some egg-birds, a smaller sort of curlew, blue and white herons, and great numbers of noddies. Though there were at this time no fixed inhabitants, indubitable marks remained of its being, at least occasionally, frequented. Long, 201° 37′ E., lat. 19° 51'S.

OTFORD, a town of England, in Kent, celerated for a battle between the two Saxon kings, Oila of Mercia, and Alrick of Kent, who was killed by Offa; and another in 1016, wherein the Danish king Canute was routed by king Edmund Ironside. Offa, to atone for the blood he had shed in that battle, gave this place to Christchurch, Canterbury (as the deed says), in pascua porcorum, for feeding the archbishop's hogs;" and so it remained in the archbishop's liberty, till exchanged with king Henry VIII. for other lands. There was a chantry founded at the Ryehouse in this parish.

OTHER, adj., pron., & n. s.


Sax. oðen

a den; Goth. » audr odr; Teut. odir; French autre. Differ

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As Jews they had access to the temple and synagogues, but as Christians they were of necessity forced otherwhere to assemble themselves.


The dismayed matrons and maidens, some in their houses, other some in the churches, with floods of tears and lamentable cries, poured forth their prayers to the Almighty, craving his help in that their hard distress. Knolles. Were I king,

escape the worst of all evils, both in itself and in its
consequences--an idle life.
Sure never were seen two such sweet little ponies;
Other horses are clowns, and these macaronies;
And to give them this title I'm sure is'nt wrong,
Their legs are so slim and their tails are so long.
And the pale smile of beauties in the grave,
The charms of other days, in starlight gleams
Glimmer on high; their buried locks still wave
Along the canvas.
OTHNIEL, the celebrated judge of Israel,
was the son of Kenaz, of the tribe of Judah. We
are told (Joshua xv. 17 and Judges i. 13) that

I should cut off the nobles for their lands;
Desire his jewels and this other's house.


Will it not be received

That they have don't?
-Who dares receive it other!


Id. Sir John Norris failed in the attempts of Lisborn, and returned with the loss, by sickness and otherwise, of eight thousand men. Raleigh. Physicians are some of them so conformable to the humour of the patient, as they press not the cure of the disease; and some other are so regular in proceeding according to art, as they respect not the condition of the patient. Bacon.

If Sir Toby had not been in drink, he would have he was Caleb's younger brother. But, if Caleb tickled you othergates than he did. and Othniel had been brothers, the latter could not have married his niece Achsah the daughter of Caleb. The Scripture mentions Kenaz as father to Othniel, and Jephunneh as the father of Caleb. It is therefore supposed that Kenaz and Jephunneh were brothers, and that Othniel and Caleb were cousin-germans, and in this sense to be brothers according to the language of Scripture. Thus, Achsah being but second-cousin in respect of Othniel, he might marry her consistently with the letter of the law. The heroism by which he obtained Achsah is recorded in Joshua xv. 16, 17: and the still greater heroism by which he delivered his country from the oppressions of Chushanrishathaim, A. M. 2599, is recorded in Judges iii. 9-11. Whether he judged Israel during the forty years of peace that followed is uncertain.

Bind my hair up: as 'twas yesterday?
No, nor the other day.

Ben Jonson.
The king had all he craved, or could compel,
And all was done-let others judge how well.


OTHO, a tribune of the people, who, in Cicero's consulship, introduced a regulation to permit the Roman knights' at public spectacles to have the fourteen first rows after the seats of the senators. This was opposed with virulence by some, but Cicero ably defended it.

OTHо (M. Salvius), the eighth emperor of Rome, born A.D. 32, of a family descended from the ancient kings of Etruria. He was among the number of Nero's favorites, was raised to the highest offices of the state, and made governor of Pannonia by the interest of Seneca, who wished to remove him from Rome, lest Nero's love for Poppaa should prove his ruin. After Nero's death, Otho conciliated the favor of Galba the new emperor; but, when Galba refused to adopt him as his successor, he procured his assassination, and proclaimed himself empeHe was acknowledged by the senate, but the sudden revolt of Vitellius in Germany rendered his situation very precarious. Otho obtained three victories; but in a general engagement near Brixellum his forces were defeated, and he stabbed himself when all hopes of success had vanished, in the thirty-seventh year of his age, after a reign of about three months. The last moments of Otho's life were those of a philosopher. He comforted his soldiers who lafor their safety, observed, that it was better that mented his fortune, and, expressing his concern


one man should die than that all should be involved in ruin on account of his obstinacy. His nephew was much affected, and feared the anger of the conqueror; but Otho observed, that Vitellius would be kind to the relations of Otho, since, in the time of their greatest enmity, the mother of Vitellius had received every friendly

His godlike acts, and his temptations fierce, And former sufferings otherwhere are found.


The evidences for such things are not so infallible, but that there is a possibility that the things may be otherwise. Wilkins.

I can expect no other from those that judge by single sights and rash measures, than to be thought

fond or insolent.

Scotland and thou did each in other live,
Nor would'st thou her, nor could thee she survive.

He that will not give just occasion to think that all government in the world is the product only of force and violence, and that men live together by no other rules but that of beasts, where the strongest carries; and so lay a foundation for perpetual disorder and mischief, tumult, sedition, and rebellion; things that the followers of that hypothesis so loudly cry out against, must of necessity find out another state of government.


There is that controlling worth in goodness, that the will cannot but like and desire it; and, on the other side, that odious deformity in vice, that it never

effers itself to the affections of mankind but under the disguise of the other. South.

In these good things, what all others should practise, we should scarce know to practise otherwise. Sprat.

Thy father was a worthy prince,
And merited, alas! a better fate;
But heaven thought otherwise.
Addison's Cato.
Never allow yourselves to be idle, whilst others are
in want of any thing that your hands can make for



Men seldom consider God any otherwise than in relation to themselves, and therefore want some extraordinary benefits to excite their attention, and engage their love. Rogers. No leases shall ever be made other than leases for years not exceeding thirty-one, in possession, and not in reversion or remainder. Swift. I have long discontinued this practice, and many others which I found necessary to adopt, that I might

treatment from his hands. He also burnt the letters which, by falling into the hands of Vitellius, might provoke his resentment against those who had favored the cause of an unfortunate general. His father was a favorite of Claudius. OTHONNA, in botany, African ragwort, a genus of the polygamia necessaria order, syngenesia class of plants; natural order forty-ninth, compositæ: receptacle naked; there is almost no pappus: CAL. monophyllous, multifid, and nearly cylindrical. Species one, a native of the south of Europe.

OTHRYADES, one of the 300 Spartans who fought against 300 Argives, when those two nations disputed their respective right to Thyreata. Two Argives, Alcinor and Cronius, and Othryades, survived the battle. The Argives went home to carry the news of their victory; but Othryades, who had been reckoned among the number of the slain on account of his wounds, recovered himself, and carried some of the spoils of which he had stripped the Argives into the camp of his countrymen; and after he had raised a trophy, and had written with his own blood the word vici on his shield, he killed himself, unwilling to survive the death of his country


OTHUS AND EPHIALTES, in mythology, two giants, sons of Neptune by Iphimedia, the wife of the giant Aloeus; who educated them as his own, whence they were called Aloeides. They grew nine inches every month, and were only nine years old when they made war against the gods; but were slain by Apollo and Diana. They built the town of Asera, at the foot of Mount Helicon.

OTIS, in ornithology, a genus of birds belong ing to the order of gralla. There are several species, principally distinguished by their color. One of these,

twenty or thirty miles. Their food is corn and other vegetables, and those large earth worms that appear in great quantities on the Downs before sun-rising in the summer. These are replete with moisture, answer the purpose of liquids and enable them to live long without drinking, on those extensive and dry tracts. Besides this, the males have an admirable magazine for their security against drought, being a pouch, whose entrance lies immediately under the tongue, and which is capable of holding nearly seven quarts; this they fill with water, to supply the hen when sitting, or the young before they can fly. Bustards lay only two eggs, of the size of those of a goose, of a pale olive brown, marked with spots of a dark color; they make no nest, only scrape a hole in the ground. In autumn they are (in Wiltshire generally found in large turnip fields near the Downs, and in flocks of fifty or more.

O. tarda, the bustard, is the largest of the British land fowls; the male at a medium weigh ing twenty-five pounds; there are instances of some very old ones weighing twenty-seven: the breadth nine feet; the length nearly four. Besides the size and difference of color, the male is distinguished from the female by a tuft of feathers about five inches long on each side of the lower mandible. Its head and neck are ash-colored: the back is harred transversely with black and bright rust color: the greater quill-feathers are black: the belly white: the tail is marked with broad red and black bars, and consists of twenty feathers: the legs are dusky. The female is about half the size of the male: the crown of the head is of a deep orange, traversed with black lines; the rest of the head is brown. The lower part of the fore side of the neck is ash-colored: in other respects it resembles the male, only the colors of the back and wings are far more dull. These birds inhabit most of the open countries of the south and east parts of England, from Dorsetshire, as far as the Wolds in Yorkshire. They are exceedingly shy, and difficult to be shot; run very fast, and when on the wing can fly, though slowly, many miles without resting. They take flight with difficulty, and are sometimes run down with greyhounds. They keep near their old haunts, seldom wandering above

OTODINI, OITADINI, or OTTODINI, a nation of ancient Britons, seated on the north-east of the Brigantes, in the countries now called Northumberland, Merse, and the Lothians. As the Otodini are not mentioned by any of the Roman historians, but only by Ptolemy, it is uncertain whether they formed a distinct independent state, or were united with the Brigantes. They were, however, a considerable people, and possessed a long tract of the sea coast, from the Tyne to the Frith of Forth. Their name is derived by Baxter from the old British words Ot o dineu, which signify a high and rocky shore; descriptive enough of their country. They were probably reduced by Agricola at the same time with their more powerful neighbours the Brigantes; but, as they lived without the wall of Severus, they were, like the rest of the Maratæ, engaged in frequent revolts. In the most perfect state of the Roman government in this island, the country of the Otodini made a part of the Roman province called Valentia; which comprehended all that large tract between the two walls. As this province was never long together in the peaceable possession of the Romans, they had but few stations in the country of the Otodini, except those on the line of the wall of Severus. Various opinions are entertained among the learned respecting the real situation of the Otodini; and it is even doubtful whether their country was in England or in Scotland. The celebrated Drummond of Hathornden contends for the latter. From Dr. Henry's description, above quoted, it appears to have been in part of both.

OTRANTO, or TERRA D'OIRANTO, a province of Naples, forming the south-east extremity of Italy, having the gulf of Taranto on the west, and the Adriatic on the east. It has a superficial extent of 2600 square miles; and, though mountainous, is very fertile. It suffers, however severely from a want of water. The chief product is olives, whole forests of which grow wild cotton, tobacco, vines, and fruits. On the hills is found noble pasturage; and, on the sea-coast, abundant encouragement to fishing. Otranto is divided into the three districts of Lecce (the capital), Taranto, and Messagna. Population 292,000.

OTRANTO, a fortified town in the Neapolitan province to which it gives name, on the Adriatic.

It is miserably built and decayed; and its inhabitants do not amount to more than 2400. They carry on some trade in olive-oil. In 1810 Fouche, Buonaparte's minister of police, received the title of duke of Otranto. Thirty-three miles east by north of Gallipoli, and eighty east by south of Taranto.

OTRANTO, CAPO DI, a cape of Italy, on the coast of the Adriatic, a few miles south of the town of Otranto.

OTRAR, or Farab, a town of independent Tartary, on the Arsch, formerly a place of considerable extent. It is stated that Timur died at this place; but other accounts represent his death to have taken place at Samarcand. 110 miles north-west of Toncat. OTTER, n. s. Sax. oten; Goth. otr; Teut. otter; Dan. odder; Sans. ood. An amphibious animal. See below.

The toes of the otter's hinder feet, for the better swimming, are joined together with a membrane, as in the bevir; from which he differs principally in his teeth, which are canin; and in his tail which is felin, or a long taper: so that he may not be unfitly called putoreus aquaticus, or the water polecat. He makes himself burrows on the water side as a bevir; is sometimes tamed, and taught, by nimbly surrounding the fishes, to drive them into the net.


At the lower end of the hall is a large otter's skin stuffed with hay.

Addison's Spectator.
Would you preserve a numerous finny race?
Let your fierce dogs the ravenous otter chase;
The amphibous monster ranges all the shores,
Darts through the waves, and 'every haunt explores.

OTTER, in zoology. See MUSTELA. OTTER CREEK, a river of Vermont, United States, which rises near Dorset, and runs west of north, passes by Rutland, Pittsford, Brandon, Middlebury, New Haven, Vergennes, besides other towns, and flows into Lake Champlain, at Basin Harbour, in Ferrisburg. It is navigable for sloops to Vergennes, six miles. Length eighty-five miles.

OTTER CREEK, a river of Kentucky, which runs into the Ohio, long. 86° 24′ W., lat. 37° 45' N. Also a river of Vermont.

OTTERBURN, a town of Northumberland, near Ellesdon. It was the field of battle between the English and Scots in 1388, wherein Henry Percy, called Hotspur, was taken prisoner, and Douglas the Scotch general was killed. On this battle was founded the old ballad of Chevychase; the village being situated by the river Rhead, on the south side of the Cheviot Hills. The entrenchments are still visible; and a number of tumuli scattered over the adjacent ground mark the slaughter made there. It lies twentyone miles from Morpeth.

church of St. Mary at Rouen in Normandy; but was afterwards bought by Grandison bishop of Exeter, who made of it a quarter college in the reign of Edward III., and therein placed secular priests, with other ministers, to whom he gave the whole manor, parish, tythes, fines, spiritual profits, &c., which amounted to £304 2s. 10d. yearly.

OTTERY, ST. MARY'S, a market town in Devonshire, 159 miles west of London, and ten miles east of Exeter. Its market is on Tuesday, and it has two fairs. The church is very ancient, and resembles a cathedral. A very extensive woollen manufactory was established here by Sir George Yonge and Sir John Duntze, barts. It derived its name from the Otter, and that from the otters formerly found in it. This town was given by king Edward the Confessor to the

OTTOGANO, or ОTTAGANO, a fine old town of Italy, Naples, situated at the eastern base of Mount Vesuvius, about twelve miles east of Naples. The town is understood to owe its name and origin to the ancient Roman villa of Octavianum. It contains three churches, and a castle on the top of an adjacent hill. A large proportion of the inhabitants, about 14,000, support themselves by cultivating gardens.

OTTOMAN PORTE, a title given by Europeans to the grand signior, or the Turkish emperor; from Othoman, the first emperor of the Turks. It is also used metaphorically for the Turkish power, and often simply for the Porte by way of emphasis.

He was

OTWAY (Thomas), an eminent tragic poet, the son of Mr. Humphry Otway, rector of Wolbeding in Sussex; was born at Trottin in that county on the 3d of March 1651. educated at Oxford; but went to London, where he became a player, with but indifferent success. However, the sprightliness of his conversation gained him the favor of Charles Fitz-Charles, earl of Plymouth, who procured him a cornet's commission in one of the regiments sent into Flanders; but he returned in very necessitous circumstances, and applied himself to writing for the stage. In comedy he has been deemed too licentious; which, however, was no great objection to his pieces in the profligate days of Charles II. But, in tragedy, few English poets have ever equalled him; and perhaps none ever excelled him in touching the tender passions. There is generally something familiar and domestic in the fable of his tragedies, and there is amazing energy in his expression. But though Otway possessed in so eminent a degree the rare talent of writing to the heart, yet he was not always successful in his dramatic compositions. Dr. Johnson gives this account of his death: 'He died in a manner which I am unwilling to mention. Having been compelled by his necessities to contract debts, and haunted, as is supposed, by terriers of the law, he retired to a public-house on Tower Hill, where he died of want; or, as it is related by one of his biographers, by swallowing, after a long fast, a piece of bread which charity had supplied. He went out, as is reported, almost naked, in the rage of hunger, and finding a gentleman in a neighbouring coffee-house, asked him for a shilling. The gentleman gave him a guinea; and Otway going away bought a roll, and was choked with the first mouthful. All this, I hope, is not true; but that indigence, and its concomitants sorrow and despondency, brought him to the grave, has never been denied.' The doctor adds, that Otway had not much cultivated versification, nor much replenished his mind with general knowledge. His principal power was in moving the passions, to which Dryden in his latter years

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