Page images

left an illustrious testimony.

He appears by some of his verses to have been a zealous royalist; and, as was in those times the common reward of loyalty, he lived and died neglected.' -His dramatic writings are nine in number; the most admired are, The Orphan, and Venice Preserved. He also made some translations, and wrote several miscellaneous poems. His whole works are printed in two pocket volumes. He wrote four acts of a play, which are lost. OUACHITTA, or WACHITA, or WASHITA, a river of North America, which rises in the Missouri Territory, enters Louisiana, and, pursuing a S. S. E. course, joins Red River, about twentythree miles from its mouth. About thirty miles by the course of the river above its junction with Red River, it is joined by the Tensaw and Ocatahoola, and after its junction it usually takes the name of Black River.

QUACHITTA (False), is a branch of Red River, which it joins between long. 98° and 99° west. O'VAL, adj. & n. s. Fr. oval; of Lat. ovum, an egg. Of an egg shape.

The mouth is low and narrow, but, after having entered pretty far in the grotto, opens itself on both sides in an oval figure of an hundred yards. Addison.

Mercurius, nearest to the central sun, Does in an oval orbit circling run;

But rarely is the object of our sight
In solar glory sunk.


A triangle is that which hath three angles, or an oval is that which has the shape of an egg,

Watts's Logick. OVAL is an oblong curvilinear figure, other wise called ellipsis. See ELLIPSIS. However, the proper oval, or egg shape, differs consider ably from that of the ellipsis, being an irregular figure, narrower at one end than at another: whereas the ellipsis, or mathematical oval, is equally broad at each end; though, it must be owned, these two are commonly confounded together; even geometricians calling the oval a false ellipsis.

QUAQUAPHENOGAW, or OKEFONOCO, or EKAMFANOKA, or ØKERFONOKE, a marshy lake in the state of Georgia, between the Oakmulgee and Flint Rivers. It is about 280 miles in circumference. In wet seasons it appears like an inland sea with several fertile islands.

OVAR, a brisk trading town of the central part of Portugal, near the coast, stands on a small river which flows through an inland lake, and afterwards into the Vouga. Inhabitants 5000. Twenty-two miles S. S. W. of Oporto.

OVARIUM, in botany, the germen or seedbud, containing the rudiments of the future seed. See BOTANY.

OVA'RIOUS, adj. Į Latin ovum, ovarium. O'VARY, N. S. Consisting of eggs: part of the human matrix. The OVATION generally began at the Albanian mountain, whence the general with his retinue made his entry into the city on foot, with many flutes or pipes sounding in concert as he passed along, and wearing a garland of myrtle as a token of peace. The term ovation, according to Servius, is derived from ovis, a sheep; because on this occasion the conqueror sacrificed a sheep, as in triumph Le sacrificed a bull. The senate,


knights, and principal plebeians, assisted at the procession; which concluded at the capital, where rams were sacrificed to Jupiter. The first ovation was granted to Publius Posthumus the consul, for his victory over the Sabines, A. U. C. 253.

OUCH, n.s. An ornament of gold or jewels. Ouches or spangs, as they are of no great cost, so they are of most glory.


OUDE, a fertile province of Hindostan, situated between 26° and 28° of N. lat., is bounded on the north by Nepaul, on the east by Bahar, on the south by Allahabad, and on the west by Delhy and Agra. It is 250 miles in length, by 100 in breadth. The whole surface is flat, and well watered by large rivers, or their copious tributary streams. The land yields fine crops of wheat, barley, rice, and other grains, cotton, sugar-cane, indigo, and poppies. It is celebrated for its grapes, mangoes, and other fruits. In some of the districts saltpetre and lapis lazuli are found; and a variety of cotton cloths and a coarse kind of flannel, is made here; also bows, arrows, shields, matchlocks, and swords. The rains are not so violent, nor of so long a duration here as in Bengal, and the four cold months of the year are delightful.

The Gogra and Goompty rivers are here both navigable by boats at all seasons of the year; and the Ganges runs along the western boundary of this province. To the north-east are extensive woods and plains covered with grass, which abound in game. The principal towns are Lucknow, Fyzabad, Oude, Khyrabad, Goorackpore, and Balireich. The inhabitants are about onethird Mahometans, the remainder are Hindoos of a fine handsome race. Great numbers of them enlist in the British service.

Oude, or Ayodhya, was the kingdom of the famous demigod Rama, said to have extended his empire through the whole south of India, and to have conquered the island of Ceylon. It was conquered by the Mahometan kings of Delhy in the thirteenth century, with little opposition, and was long held as a dependent province by one of the chiefs of that court. It was not till the ancestor of the present nabob's family obtained the government, and the invasion of Nadir Shah in 1739, that it became hereditary. Saadit Khan died at this time by poison, taken in consequence of the humiliating treatment he experienced from Nadir Shah; and his son-in-law, having possession of all his treasure, was confirmed in the government of Oude. Suffder Jung proved an excellent and brave officer, and in 1747 repulsed the Afghauns; in recompense for which service he was honored with the title of Abul Munsur (the victorious), and appointed prime minister. From this period, Abul Munsur Suffder Jung took a leading part in all the measures of the court; and, in addition to the government of Oude, he obtained that of the province of Allahabad. At length, finding his influence begin to decline, he retired to Oude, where he died in the year 1753, Shujaa ad Dowleh succeeded to his father without opposition, till the year 1764, when he took part with Cossim Aly Khan against the British, and was defeated at the battle of Buxar; in consequence of which he was compelled to throw

had not some successes of the enemy made it imperative on him to come to close action. The result, after several fluctuations, was, that at night fall the allies had driven in and surrounded all the posts of the French army. The total loss of the latter was 15,000 men, of whom nearly half were prisoners; that of the allies 5000. The town is unfortified, but well built, and contains 5100 inhabitants, who carry on manufactures of woollen and linen. Fifteen miles south by west of Ghent, and thirty-two west of Brussels.

OUDIN (Casimir), a French monk, born at Mezieres in 1638. He published a Supplement to Bellarmine, containing an account of the ecclesiastical writers omitted by him. He went to Leyden in 1693, became a protestant, was made librarian to the university, and died there in


himself on their clemency. He died in 1775, and was tranquilly succeeded by his eldest son, a weak prince, who died in the year 1797. Durng his government the seat of authority was transferred from Fyzabad to Lucknow, and Benares ceded to the British. He nominated vizier Aly his successor, but, the illegitimacy of this youth having been proved, he was dethroned by the British, and the eldest brother of the deceased nabob, named Saadet Aly, called to the musnud. This was a shrewd prince; but the government of Oude had now been so mismanaged that the British found it requisite to dismember his territory, and, in lieu of a subsidy for the payment of the army, to take from him a number of districts. Saadut Aly died in the year 1814, and left a treasure of several millions, nominating his second son, Mirza Ahmed, his successor; but the British elevated the eldest son Ghazee addeen Hyder to that honor. This prince, in gratitude to the British, immediately offered a present of £1,000,000 sterling in specie to the governor-general. The donation was refused; but, during the Nepaul war, the sum of £2,000,000 was accepted as a loan; and, on the conclusion of the war, a portion of the conquered territories which adjoined Oude were made over to him in discharge of the loan. A battalion of British infantry is also always stationed at Lucknow.

OUDE, OF AYODHYA, the capital of the abovementioned province, long the residence of a Hindoo dynasty, is situated on the south bank of the Dewah or Grogra River, and said once to have been of an incredible extent. In the Ayeen Akberry, which was compiled in the end of the sixteenth century, we are told that it was situated only two miles below the confluence of the rivers Soorjew and Gogra, whereas the present town is at the distance of nearly forty miles. In the vicinity are two remarkably large tombs of great antiquity, which the Mahometans believe are the tombs of Seth and Job. It is related in the history of this place, that the Afghaun emperor Balin, about the year 1280, ordered the governor to be hanged at the city gate for having been defeated by the rebel governor of Bengal. After the battle of Buxar, in 1764, Shugaa ad Dowleh founded the city of Fyzabad, on the ruins of the ancient capital, at the distance of two miles from the modern town, which is now in a ruinous state. Long. 82° 10′ E., lat. 26° 45′ N.

OUDE, a small river of Scotland, in Argyle shire, which falls into the head of Loch Melfort. OUDE HASLE, a village in the north-east of the Netherlands, province of Friesland, with 900 inhabitants. Eighteen miles south by east of Leeuwarden.

OUDENARDE, or AUDENARDE, a manufacturing town of the Netherlands on the Scheldt, by which it is divided into two parts. It has sustained several well known sieges, but is best known in history from the victory gained over the French here, in 1708, by prince Eugene and the duke of Marlborough. The battle took place on 11th of July, in the afternoon, the allies having to make a very long previous march, and the position of the French was so favorable, that the duke of Marlborough would have declined it

OUDRI (John Baptist), a painter, born in Paris. He acquired the principles of his art under the celebrated Largilieres, and evinced superior talent for painting animals. He painted several hunting-pieces for the king of France, which adorn some of the royal castles. Oudri was so well acquainted with the magic of his art, that he frequently pleased himself with painting white objects on white grounds, which have a fine effect. He superintended the manufactory of Beauvais, where pieces of tapestry were produced equally brilliant with the pictures which had served for their model. The king gave him a pension and apartments in the Louvre. He died at Paris, May 1st, 1755, aged seventy-four.

OVEN, n. s. Sax. open; Goth. ofon; Teut. ofen; Isl. and Swed. ofn (Goth fon, is fire, Mr. Thomson observes: but the Sax. ofɲe, a bank or mount, is not an improbable etymology of this word). An enclosed cavity or utensil heated by fire, for baking, &c.

He loudly brayed that like was never heard, And from his wide devouring even sent

A flake of fire, that, flashing in his beard, Him all amazed. Spenser. Here's yet in the world hereafter, the kneading, the making of the cake, the heat of the oven, and the baking. Shakspeare. Bats have been found in ovens and other hollow close places, matted one upon another; and therefore it is likely that they sleep in the winter and eat nothing.

Bacon. An OVEN is a kind of domestic furnace, used for baking, of a circular structure, with a very low roof, well lined, on the top, bottom, and sides, with stone; it has a small entrance in the front, which is exactly fitted by a kind of door. It appears from the kiln-burnt pottery which has been discovered in the British sepulchres, and from the British appellation of an odyn or oven, that furnaces for baking were generally known among the original Britons. An odyn was generally erected at the mansion of each British baron, for the use of himself and his retainers.

O'VER, prep. & adv. Saxon oƑne; Gothic ufar, ofar; Swed. ofwer; Teut. obvre. Above; across, as applied to a stream; upon; diffused; opposed both to below and under; and applied to place, time (when it sometimes signifies before as in over night'). Station in life; rule, or au

Over and

thority; &c. As an adverb, beyond measure, or an assigned quantity; above the top; (hence, extraordinary); from side to side; throughout; completely on the whole surface; from beyond sea; past in point of time; and, repeated, another time; as in over and over.' above,' means besides; beyond a first supposition or intention: over against,' opposite: to give over,' to cease from; also to help or attempt to benefit no longer. Over is used so variously and extensively in composition that we can only refer to the extracts as generally expressive of more than enough, too much, and to the more regular and established compounds that follow. The first came out red all over, like an hairy gar Genesis. When they did mete it, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no



Exodus, xvi. 18.
On their intended journey to proceed,
And over night whatso thereto did need.

Hubberd. Even here likewise the laws of nature and reason be of necessary use; yet somewhat over and besides them is necessary, namely, human and positive law. Hooker.

Soliman pausing upon the matter, the heat of his fury being something over, suffered himself to be in


Knolles. The street should see as she walkt over head. Shakspeare. Well, Have you read o'er the letters I sent you? He over and over divides him,

"Twixt his unkindness and his kindness.


[ocr errors]


Devilish Macbeth

By many of these strains hath sought to win me
Into his power; and modest wisdom plucks me
From or-credulous haste.
Id. Macbeth.

Certain lakes and pits, such as that of Avennes, poison birds which fly over them.


It hath a white berry, but is not brought over with the coral. Bacon's Natural History. Wise governors have as great a watch over fames, as they have of the actions and designs. Bacon.

This golden cluster the herald delivereth to the Tirsan, who delivereth it over to that son that he had chosen. Id.

Meditate upon the effects of anger; and the best time to do this is to look back upon anger when the

fit is over.


[blocks in formation]

Thou, my Hector, art thyself alone, My parents, brothers, and my lord in one; O kill not all my kindred o'er again, Nor tempt the dangers of the dusty plain; But in this tower for our defence remain. Id. Captain, yourself are the fittest to live and reign, but next and immediately under the people.

not over,



[blocks in formation]

Let them argue over all the topics of divine goodness and human weakness, yet how trifling must be their plea! South's Sermons. The church has over her bishops, able to silence the factious, no less by their preaching than by their South. authority. Over against this church stands a large hospital, erected by a shoemaker. Addison on Italy.

If this miracle, of Christ's rising from the dead, be not sufficient to convince a resolved libertine, neither would the rising of one now from the dead be suffcient for that purpose; since it would only be the doing that over again which hath been done already. Atterbury.

He will, as soon as his first surprise is over, begin to wonder how such a favour came to be bestowed on him. Id.

The eastern people determined their digit by the breadth of barley corns, six making a digit, and twenty-four a hand's breadth: a small matter over or



These, when they praise, the world believes no


Than when they promise to give scribbling o'er.


The commentary which attends this poem will have one advantage over most commentaries, that it is not made upon conjectures. Id.

It will afford field enough for a divine to enlarge on, by showing the advantages which the Christian world has over the heathen. Swift.

The most learned will never find occasion to act over again what is fabled of Alexander the Great, that when he had conquered the eastern world, he wept for want of more worlds to conquer. Waits.

They brought new customs and new vices o'er; Taught us more arts than honest men require.

He crammed his pockets with the precious store,
And every night reviewed it o'er and o'er. Harte.
Throw the broad ditch behind you; o'er the hedge,
High bound, resistless; nor the deep morass
Refuse, but through the shaking wilderness
Pick your nice way.

Forced from home and all its pleasures,
Afric's coast I left forlorn;


To increase a stranger's treasures,

O'er the raging billows borne.


Oh! who can tell? save he whose heart hath tried And danced in triumph o'er the waters wide, The exulting sense-the pulses maddening play, That thrills the wanderer o'er that trackless way. Byront.

Drenched each smart garb, and clogged each struggling limb, Far o'er the stream the cockneys sink or swim.

your ears the empty title which inspired you with
presumption, and over-awed my daughter to comply.
Addison's Guardian.
A thousand fears

Still over-awe when she appears.
Granville's Poems.
Thus free from censure, over-awed by fear,
And praised for virtues that they scorn to wear,
The fleeting forms of majesty engage
Respect, while stalking o'er life's narrow stage,
And ask with busy scorn, Was this the man?"
Then leave their crimes for history to scan,

Cowper. OVER-BAL'ANCE, v. a. & n. s. To weigh down; to preponderate. Something more than equivalent.

OVER-ABOUND', v. n. Over and abound. To
abound more than enough.
Both imbibe

Fitting congenial juice, so rich the soil,
So much does fructuous moisture o'er-abound.


The learned, never over-abounding in transitory coin, should not be discontented. Pope's Letters. OVER-ACT, v. a. Over and act. To act more than enough.

You over-act, when you should underdo: A little call yourself again, and think.

Ben Jonson.

Princes courts may over-act their reverence, and make themselves laughed at for their foolishness and extravagant relative worship. Stilling fleet. Good men often blemish the reputation of their piety, by over-acting some things in religion; by an indiscreet zeal about things wherein religion is not concerned. Tillotson. He over-acted his part; his passions, when once let loose, were too impetuous to be managed.

Atterbury. OVERALL (John), a celebrated English bishop, born in 1559, educated at St. John's College, Cambridge; but, removing to Trinity, was chosen fellow of that college. In 1596 he was made regius professor of divinity and D. D., and elected master of Catherine-hall. In 1601 he was made dean of St. Paul's, London, by the recommendation of Sir Fulk Greville and queen Elizabeth; and in king James's reign he was chosen prolocutor of the lower house of convocation. In 1612 he was appointed one of the first governors of the Charter-house hospital, and in April 1614 he was made bishop of Litchfield and Coventry; and in 1618 was translated to Norwich where he died in May 1619, aged sixty. He was buried in that cathedral, where after the restoration, Cosin, bishop of Durham, who had been his secretary, erected a monument to him, with this inscription, Vir undequaque doctissiwas the best scholastic divine in England. He mus, et omni encomio major. Wood says, he is also celebrated by Smith for his distinguished wisdom, erudition, and piety. In the controversy about predestination and grace, he held a middle opinion inclining to Arminianism. He seems indeed to have paved the way for the reception of that doctrine in England. The bishop is known in England chiefly by his Convocation Book.

OVER-ARCH', v. a. Over and arch. To cover as with an arch.

Where high Ithaca o'erlooks the floods,
Brown with o'er-arching shades and pendent woods,
OVER-AWE', v. a. Over and awe. To keep in
awe by superior influence.

The king was present in person to overlook the magistrates, and to over-awe those subjects with the terror of his sword. Spenser.

Her graceful innocence, her every air
Of gesture, or least action, over-awed
His malice.
Milton's Paradise Lost.

I could be content to be your chief tormentor, ever paying you mock reverence, and sounding in

Not doubting but by the weight of reason I should counterpoise the over-balancings of any factions. King Charles. Our exported commodities would, by the return, encrease the treasure of this kingdom above what it can ever be by other means, than a mighy over-balance of our exported to our imported commodities. Temple. The mind should be kept in a perfect indifference, not inclining to either side, any further thin the overbalance of probability gives it the turn of assent and belief. Locke. The hundred thousand pounds per annum, wherein we over-balance them in trade, must be paid us in money. Id.

When these important consideratiors are set before a rational being, acknowledging the truth of every article, should a bare single possibility be of weight enough to averbalance them? Rogers. OVER-BATTLE, adj. From over and battle. Too fruitful; exuberant.

In the church of God sometimes i cometh to pass, as in over-battle grounds; the fertile disposition whereof is good, yet, because it exceedeth due proportion, it bringeth abundantly, through too much rankness, things less profitable, whereby that which principally it should yield, either prevented in place or defrauded of nourishment, faileth. Hooker. To

OVER-BEAR', v. a. Over and bear. repress: to subdue; to whelm; to lear down.

able by fraud to over-reach, or by power to over-bear What more .savage than man, if he see himself the laws?

Hooker. The Turkish commanders, with al their forces, assailed the city, thrusting their nen into the breaches by heaps, as if they would, wih very multitude, have discouraged or over-born the Christians.


[blocks in formation]

Take care that the memory of the learner be not too much crowded by a tumultuous heap, or over-bearing multitude of documents at one time.

Watts. The horror or loathsomeness of an object may overbear the pleasure which results from its greatness, novelty, or beauty. Over and bid. To offer


OVER-BID', v. a. more than equivalent.

You have o'er-bid all my past sufferings,
And all my future too. Dryden's Spanish Friar.
OVER-BLOW', v. n. & v. a. Over and blow.
To be past its violence.

Led with delight, they thus beguile the way,
Until the blustering storm is over-blown.
This ague fit of fear is over-blown,
Ar easy task it is to win our own.



Seized with secret joy,
When storms are over-blown.
Dryden's Virgils.
OVERBOARD, adj. Over and board. See
BOARD. Off the ship, out of the ship,

The great assembly met again; and now he that was the cause of the tempest being thrown overboard, there vere hopes a calm should ensue.

Some argel that beholds her there, Instruct us to record what she was here; And when this cloud of sorrow's over-blown,



Through the wide world we'll make her graces succeed; by reason whereof his natural affection and He was the king's uncle, but yet of no capacity to duty was less easy to be over-carried by ambition. Hayward. OVER-CAST', v. a. & part, overcast. Over and cast. To cloud; to darken; to cover with gloom. To cover. This sense is hardly retained but by needle women, who call that which is encircled with a thread, overcast; to rate too high.

Their arms abroad with gray moss over-east,
And their green leaves trembling with every blast.

As they past,
The day with clouds was sudden over-cast.
When malice would work that which is evil, and
in working avoid the suspicion of an evil intent, the
color wherewith it over-custeth itself is always a fair
and plausible pretence of seeking to further that
which is good.



The trenbling dotard to the deck he drew, And hoisel up and over-board he threw ; This done he seized the helm.

Dryden. He obtairel liberty to give them only one song before he leapal over-board, which he did, and then plunged into he sea. L'Estrange.

A merchan having a vessel richly fraught at sea in a storm, there is but one certain way to save it, which is, by throwing its rich lading over-board.


Though geat ships were commonly bad sea-boats, they had a superior force in a sea engagement: the shock of them being sometimes so violent, that it would throw the crew on the upper deck of lesser ships over-board. Arbuthnot. Then rose rom sea to sky the wild farewell, Then shrieked the timid, and stood still the brave, Then some leaped over-board with dreadful yell, As eager to anticipate their grave. Byron. OVER-BULK, v. a. Over and bulk. Tooppress by bulk.

Essex, of which Sir Thomas disapproved in so plain terms, that the viscount treacherously used his influence with the king to inspire him with unjust suspicions of the baronet, who was thrown into the tower, where, in the course of a few months, he was poisoned, in 1613. The treacheary was afterwards discovered, but the murderers were only punished with a temporary banishment from court. He published an account of his travels on the continent, and several poems.

Over and buy. To buy

The feeding pride,

In rank chilles, must or now be cropt,
Or shedding, breed a nursery of like evils,
To over-bulk us all.

Shakspeare. Troilus and Cressida. OVER-BUR'DEN, v. a. Over and burden. To load with 00 great weight.

If she were tot cloyed with his company, and that she thought not the earth over-burdened with him, she Sidney. would cool his iery grief. OVERBUEY (Sir Thomas), a learned and accomplished English gentleman, was born in 1581, and studied at Oxford. His intimacy with Sir Robert Carr procured him the honor of knighthood, and also occasioned his death. When Sir Robert became viscount Rochester, he contracted an intimacy with the countess of

OVER-BUY', v. a. too dear.

He, when want requires, is only wise, Who slights not foreign aids, nor over-buys; But on our native strength, in time of need, relies. Dryden. OVER-CARRY, v. a. Over and carry. To hurry too far; to be urged to any thing violent or dangerous.

Hie, Robin, over-cast the night;
The starry welkin cover thou anon,
With drooping fogs as black as Acheron.

Shakspeare. Our days of act are sad and over-cast, in which we find that all of our vain passions and affections past, the sorrow only abideth." Raleigh.

The king, in his accompt of peace and calms, did much over-cast his fortunes, which proved full of broken scas, tides, and tempests.


I of fumes and humid vapors made,
No cloud in so serene a mansion find,

To over-cast her ever-shining mind. Waller.
Those clouds that orer-cast our morn shall fly,
Dispelled to farthest corners of the sky.


The dawn is over-cast, the morning lours,
And heavily in clouds brings on the day.

Addison. OVER-CHARGE', v. a. Over and charge. To burden; to overrate; to fill too full; to oppress; to cloy; to surcharge.

Here's Gloster, a foe to citizens, O'er-charging your free purses with large fines.

Shakspeare. They were As cann is over-charged with double cracks. Id. On air we feed in every instant, and on meats but at times; and yet the heavy load of abundance, wherewith we oppress and overcharge nature, maketh her to sink unawares in the mid-way. Raleigh's History of the World.

« PreviousContinue »