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produce violent emesis, while without them they produce scarcely any vomiting at all.
The dose has gradually been reduced to four seeds (without the testa and the radicle). In this way a mild inflammation is produced, permitting one application per day and sufficient to heal granulations in a few days. The cotyledons were reduced to fine powder, then macerated, the liquid filtered, and finally applied to the conjunctiva with a brush.
The results obtained with the green principle (see above, were so surprising that the author thinks the jequirity will form an important agent in ophthalmic therapeutics, inasmuch as granulations which had for years resisted all other treatment, were cured by jequirity in from twenty to thirty days.
This is of the greatest consequence for science and humanity, particularly for countries in the north of Europe, where ophthalmic inflammations are very
To repeat, the form in which Dr. Moura Brazil uses the Abrus is either a solution of 0·2 gram (or ab. 3 grains) of the "greenish extractive" (above mentioned) in 10 grams (160 min.) of water, or an infusion or cold macerate of the seeds (deprived of their testa, radicle and gemmule), made in the proportion of 0.5 grams (ab. 8 grains) to 10 grams (160 min.) of water.
The microscopic examination made by Dr. Silva e Chanjo of a recently prepared solution and of one which was two months old, as well as an examination of the false membranes it produces, has furnished remarkable results.
In all fresh infusions of jequirity, Dr. Silva found large polyhedric cells filled with a granular protoplasm. He considers them to be the cells of the seed itself, separated by the bruising and the maceration. Besides these cells there were found granulations, which, under a higher power, presented themselves as round, spherical, very brilliant bodies, capable of movement either around their axis or in a forward direction. With a lower power, they looked liked a fine powder. Dr. Silva considers them to be gonidia, or organs of non-sexual propagation.
On examining an infusion of older date, the aspect is different. Besides the powder-the gonidia-there are now noticed the true cells and tubes of a microscopic plant, with spores and mycelium. The spores are large, ovoid, sometimes solitary, or in groups of two, three, or more. The tubes either bear spores, or are bare and are branched. Between the spores and the tubes the above mentioned powder (the gonidia) is noticed. The older the infusion the better are these elements developed.
On the other hand, the microscopic examination of a false membrane (the conjunctival surface of the upper eye-lid, for instance), treated with or produced by jequirity, has shown this to be of a true diphtheritic character. It was found to consist of an agglomeration of particles of pus, held together by a fibrous substance and covered with gonidia exactly like those noticed in the infusion of jequirity. On macerating the membrane in distilled water for forty-eight hours, the elements previously described were noticed to be much more developed. (For further details of the microscopic examination we must refer to the original.)*
Dr. L. de Wecker, of Paris, who appears to have made similar observations on jequirity at about the same time as Dr. Moura Brazil, confirms the latter's statements, and sums up his observations as follows:
1. There is no doubt that an infusion of jequirity produces a purulent ophthalmia of a croupous nature, the intensity of which can be regulated by the strength and number of risk during the development of
Bruxelles, December, 1822.
3. The "jequiritic" ophthalmia cures granulations rapidly.
Dr. Wecker also states that he has vainly tried, by a careful study of Dr. Moura Brazil's memoir, to ascertain how the "active principle of a greenish colour" should be prepared. Two eminent chemists were also consulted, who declared, as might have been expected, that it was impossible to say exactly what was meant by that principle. Mr. Rabinet, at Dr. Wecker's request, prepared an extract of the seeds, and obtained a product of a deep green colour, which dissolved without difficulty in water, but the solution of it produced no action whatever upon the conjunctiva. Hence Dr. Wecker fell back upon the seeds, making an infusion in the usual
Dr. Wecker also remarks that the preparation which has answered best in his hands, and which he is in the habit of using, is weaker than that used by Dr. Moura Brazil, being prepared from 10 grams (155 grains) of the decorticated and powdered seeds macerated for twenty-four hours in 500 grams (17 fluid ounces) of cold water and filtered.
From the April number of La Farmacia Moderna (Naples), we learn that Dr. G. Moyne, of Naples, has also used the infusion prepared as follows:-Thirty-two of the seeds were thoroughly triturated and pulverized; the powder was macerated for twenty-four hours in 500 grams of cold water, and then 500 grams of hot water added. After the infusion was cold, it was filtered and preserved in well-stopped, dark-coloured vials. When freshly prepared, the infusion is transparent and clear; after a few days, however, it becomes opalescent. At the same time it becomes less irritating. According to Dr. Moyne, it is useless to increase the amount of jequirity, since the effects will not be so satisfactory. The best proportion is 3.20 grams of the seeds (equally on an average thirty-two in number).
Finally, the Editor of the Restaurador Farmaceutico, of Barcelona, D. Juan Texidor, states in his journal (1883, 74) that Dr. D. José Maria Alcon has used the drug in thirty-nine cases, and found that effects were only produced with an infusion made from 4 grams of the seeds in 500 grams of boiling water. These discrepant statements are not calculated to create a great reliance upon the drug.
TEST FOR ARSENIC IN DOMESTIC FABRICS.* REPORT OF A COMMITTEE APPOINTED BY THE NATIONAL
Chemical Report on the Test to be employed for the Detection of Arsenic.-It was found that, on the Continent, Acts or decrees exist, forbidding the sale of wall-papers, curtains, carpets and textile fabrics generally, if they contain arsenic. We had before us the decrees in force in Germany and Sweden. In the former, the prohibition of the sale of goods containing arsenic is absolute; in Sweden, a concession is made to manufacturers to this extent, that a paper or textile fabric shall be considered practically free from arsenic if an opaque black or brown arsenical mirror cannot be obtained from 68 square inches of paper, or 34 inches of a textile fabric, in a tube of 2 mm. (078 inch) internal diameter. In the printed certificates issued by the Government, to be filled up by the chemist making the analysis, it is stated that the method known as the Von Babo and Fresenius test should be employed. The process is then minutely described, so as to insure uniformity of results. We ascertained from the Government analyst, in Stockholm, that the fact of the mirror being opaque is determined by observing whether or not a black line on a white ground could be seen through. it. The fact that the presence of arsenic in domestic fabrics is injurious to health having been already ascertained by the Committee, the question for our consideration is simply that of the mode of testing. The first point for consideration is whether the From the British Medical Journal, June 23, 1883.
prohibition of arsenic must be absolute, extending to the most minute trace, or whether such minute quantities may be allowed as arise from accidental and unavoidable contamination. A very large proportion of fabrics of all kinds are found absolutely free from arsenic, no known test discovering the slightest trace; but, again, with regard to many fabrics, some traces are unavoidable in consequence of the very wide diffusion of small quantities of arsenic in natural products. The consideration consequently arises: first, as to what amount of arsenic it is requisite to allow as unavoidable and accidental contamination, in order that trade may not be hampered or interfered with to any undue extent; and next, whether that allowance may be permitted with due consideration to health. There are manufacturers of wall-papers (the principal articles in question) who have, on principle, abjured the use of all arsenical colours; the result of their work affords, therefore, an excellent guide for what may be demanded without unreasonable interference with the freedom of trade. An examination of a very large number of papers, supplied by these manufacturers, leads to the conclusion that an allowance of half a grain of arsenic per "piece of paper"-a piece being 12 yards in da length and 21 inches wide-would be ample for accidental and unavoidable contamination; and this quantity, it is considered, would not be injurious to health. It is found that a suitable size for a sample to be tested is 16 square inches, to be cut from one part; or, if thought well, from several parts of the pattern, so as to include all the colours. The proposed limit of half a grain per piece gives 001 grain per sample of 16 square inches. For ordinary uniform materials, a square of 4 inches by 4 inches may, therefore, be taken as the portion to be tested. We may remark, that the quantity of arsenic which we allow to pass by these tests is more than four times as much as would be permitted by the Swedish decree. We were at first of opinion that Reinsch's process, carefully conducted so as to insure uniformity of results, might be employed; but several wall-papers and many textile fabrics having been found which gave no arsenical reaction with Reinsch's test, however carefully conducted, but which, nevertheless, were subsequently proved to contain notable quantities of arsenic, this method was proved not to be an absolutely reliable test. A modification of Marsh's test is recommended as the
most reliable, and as most suitable for a standard test to be inserted in an Act of Parliament. Detailed instruc. tions are subjoined for both tests, in order that those who still desire to use Reinsch's method may get results comparable with the prescribed test by the modification of Marsh's process where arsenic is found. STANDARD TEST.
No paper should be passed as "non-arsenical," unless, when treated as hereafter described, it fails to yield a mirror in a tube inch internal diameter, sufficient to cut off at any point a black line on a white ground, technically known as thick rule (eight to pica). Specimen Line.
In a three-necked bottle of the form 4, Fig. 1, of about 10 ounces capacity, place 200 grains of pure zinc.† To the centre neck, fit a tube funnel and stop-cock, B, and to one of the side necks a right-angled tube, and stop-cock, C. The third neck should be closed with a ground stopper. Connect with C a chloride of calcium tube, D, and with this a tube of hard glass, E, 4-inch internal diameter, and about 04 inch thick in the glass, if the paper or other material to be tested does not con tain sulphur; but if, on being treated with hydrochloric acid, it yields sulphuretted hydrogen, the modification of this tube E, hereafter mentioned, must be adopted. Let this tube traverse a clay chimney, F, 1-inch diameter, and 6 inches high, in the top edges of which two slots have been filed to admit E, to the depth of 1 inch, and let E be supported on a thin bridge of the same material as the chimney, 4-inch wide and 3-inch thick slightly
*This form is recommended, as, in case of frothing, which frequently occurs, the froth is not driven into the tubes.
+Zinc sufficiently pure for this purpose can only be prepared by dissolving the purest commercial zinc in pure acid, so as to expel any arsenic as arsenuretted hydrogen; precipitating the zinc with pure carbonate of soda, washing the precipitate, and, when dry, reducing it. Messrs. Johnin this manner, and supply it in bars, guaranteed free from son and Matthey, of Hatton Garden, prepare zinc exactly arsenic. This zinc gives off hydrogen so freely that it is desirable to have the requisite quantity in one piece in the bottle so as not to expose too great a surface to the action of the acid.
notched, to rest on the sides of the chimney. This chimney surrounds a Bunsen's burner, G, of diameter. Over the top of the chimney, place an arched cover, H. Round E, at 3-inch from the chimney,* roll a strip of thick blotting-paper or calico, 4-inch wide, secured by a thread as at I. This should go at least twice round the tube, and hang down, as shown in Fig. 1; on to this, water is dropped from the bottle, K, at the rate of about 120 drops per minute (in very hot weather even faster). When the apparatus is thus arranged, pour through B 2 ounces of dilute hydrochloric acid, 1 part acid to 8 water. If any sample of zinc do not yield hydrogen with sufficient rapidity with this acid, slightly stronger must be employed. The hydrogen should be evolved with sufficient rapidity to keep alight at the end of the tube when fired. Close stop-cock on B, and let hydrogen escape through C, D, E, till all air is expelled. Now light G, and when E is quite red hot, close C, and introduce through the stoppered neck the 16 square inches of paper, cut into strips of 1 inch by 2 inches, and rolled up, so as to pass readily through the neck. This must include within the 16 square inches of paper portions of every part of the pattern, so that all the colours may be tested. Replace the stopper, open stop-cock C, and let the action continue for one hour. Now, extinguish G, and observe if a brown or black mirror be formed in E, between 1 and the chimney. If no mirror be formed, the paper is absolutely free from arsenic; if a mirror be formed, which, if the operation be properly conducted, will occupy about inch in the tube, lay E along the black line before spoken of, in front of and pointing towards a window, and obser with one eye exactly over the tube, whether at any point the mirror be thick enough to obscure the line. Should this not be the case the paper may be passed as containing no more arsenic than may have got into it from unavoidable causes; should the line be at any point obscured it only remains to make sure that the mirror is arsenical. If, when sublimed with access of air, the mirror yield octahedral crystals it is arsenical. This operation is best performed as follows: The portion of the -inch tube containing the mirror being cut out, take a thin hard glass tube, 4-inch internal diameter and 18-inch long, sealed at one end, and lipped like a test tube at the other. Suspend this by dropping it through a hole cut in a piece of stout sheet-brass or copper, not less than four by two inches, so that the lip just supports the tube, and place the brass or copper plate on the ring of a retort stand. Heat the tube nearly to redness to expel the last trace of moisture; when cold insert the portion of the 4-inch tube containing the mirror, and place, over the mouth of the tube and resting on it, a microscopic slide, warmed in a spirit lamp till all the moisture at first deposited has disappeared. Now heat the tube with the spirit-lamp, letting the flame play on the under side of the brass plate. In few seconds a sublimate will appear on the slide. Watch this till it begins to shrink from the edges, and form a patch just the size of the bere of the tube. Remove the lamp, allow the slide to cool, and examine the sublimate with a magnifying power of not less than 220 diameters. If the sublimate is found to consist of octahedal crystals, it is arsenical. Such crystals are well shown on the photographs taken by Mr. J. H. Jennings, of 14, Beach Avenue, Nottingham.
If, on being treated with hydrochloric acid, a paper or other substance yield sulphuretted hydrogen, as before mentioned, or if, on being treated as above described, a yellow or whitish-yellow sublimate be found instead of a mirror the following modification must be adopted.
Substitute for the tube E a tube of 1-inch diameter, having the tube sealed on to its end (Fig. 2); at a, the
The chimney is conveniently made by cutting the bottom off a Daniell's porous cell, and the cover by cutting a piece 14 inch off a similar cell and splitting it into three. The bridge also is best made of the same material.
junction of the two, place a small plug of asbestos; fill the portion which traverses the chimney with a mixture of dry carbonate of soda and charcoal; and behind this, at b, place another plug of asbestos. The rest of the arrangement is the same as in Fig. 1. The red-hot carbonate of soda and charcoal retain any sulphur, etc., but permit the arsenic to pass. In this case, a little water is formed, and carried forward with the arsenic, which prevents the mirror having such well-defined limits as when it is perfectly dry; but a few experiments, made with known quantities of arsenic, will enable the operator to say with accuracy if a paper contain more than the permitted maximum of arsenic. It is remarkable how small a quantity of sulphur will completely mask a considerable amount of arsenic. Thus, sufficient ultramarine, mixed with a white pigment to give it a greyish tint, will quite prevent the formation of an arsenical mirror with four times the maximum quantity of arsenic permitted.
In the case of textile fabrics to be worn next the skin (as gloves, socks, or vests), experience has shown us that no trace of arsenic, however small, should be permitted. Curtains, carpets, etc., come under the same rule as wallpapers. In the case of carpets, it is better to remove the hempen backing on which they are frequently made up, and only to put the wool into the bottle. Some textile fabrics will not yield up their arsenic without previous maceration in strong acid. It is, therefore, desirable in all cases to submit the material to the action of pure hydrochloric acid, sufficient thoroughly to saturate it for a period of at least twelve hours previous to testing. When commencing to tes water should be added to dilute the acid. Textile fabrics should also be submitted to the action of zinc and acid for a longer time than papers; and it is safer, when the first portion of acid has nearly ceased to act, to add a quarter of an ounce strong acid through B, and let the action proceed for a second hour. The only novelties that are claimed in this process are, first, the chimney of a non-conducting material, which confines the intense heat to 1 inches of the tube; and, secondly, the sharp condensing action of the water pass ing over the strip of blotting paper or calico. By these means, the arsenical mirror is concentrated, and not permitted to be carried off as arsenuretted hydrogen, as we have found to be the case when these precautions are not insisted on.
We recommend the Society to adopt and publish the proposed test, as a standard test according to which wall papers and other materials described in Appendix A, may be classed as "arsenical or non-arsenical," and their manufacture or importation be regulated accordingly.— H. C. BARTLETT; CHAS. HEISCH; F. DE CHAUMONT.
Articles in which Arsenical Pigments, Dyes, or Mordants are used within the Knowledge of the Sub-Committee.Paper, fancy and surface coloured; in sheets; for covering cardboard boxes; for labels of all kinds; for advertisement cards; for playing cards; for wrappers and cases for sweetmeats, cosaques, etc.; for the ornamentation of children's toys; for covering children's and other books; for lamp shades; paperhangings, for wall and other purposes; artificial leaves and flowers; wax ornaments for Christmas trees and other purposes; printed or woven fabrics intended for use as curtains or coverings for furniture; children's toys, particularly inflated indiarubber balls with dry colour inside, painted indiarubber dolls, stands and rockers of rocking-horses and the like, glass balls (hollow); distemper colour for decorative purposes; oil paint for the same; lithographic colour printing; decorated tin plates, including painted labels used by butchers and others to advertise the prices of provisions; japanned goods generally; Venetian and other blinds; American or leather cloth; printed table baizes; carpets; floorcloth; linoleum; book cloth and fancy bindings.
Although the Committee are of opinion that Marsh's test alone gives results of sufficient delicacy and accuracy to justify the taking of legal proceedings thereon, and have therefore adopted it in a modified form as the standard test to be appended to the proposed Bill, they are fully aware of the insuperable difficulties that stand in the way of its general employment in ordinary business transactions. It can only be practised by experts, and the fee which they would very properly require would, in the great majority of cases, deter the public from availing themselves of their assistance, although when a prosecution was contemplated it would be otherwise. Reinsch's test, though less delicate and, indeed, not absolutely free from the possibility of error, has been proved in hundreds of comparative trials to be, when carried out as they direct, accurate enough for all ordinary practical purposes, i.e., for indicating the presence of a dangerous amount of arsenic, and when no graver consequences are involved than the acceptance or rejection of a particular paper.
Its advantages are that it could be undertaken by any professed chemist at a fee within the means of everyone, no small consideration when a large number of papers have to be examined; indeed, with the apparatus provided at the suggestion of the Society by Messrs. Griffin, of 22, Garrick Street, London, manufacturers, tradesmen, and intelligent householders might use it for themselves.
They thus hope that the end they have in view, the discouragement of the employment of arsenical colours, would be more speedily attained by the education of the public generally than by a few isolated cases of prosecution.
They, therefore, give directions for the performance of Reinsch's test.
Testing by Reinsch's Process.-The following is the mode in which this test should be used:-Sixteen square inches of the paper, either in one piece or several so as to include all parts of the pattern, to be cut up and put in a test-tube or flask with two ounces of dilute hydrochloric acid (4 distilled water to 1 of acid), and brought to the boiling point, a vertical condenser being used, if convenient; it is, however, not essential. A piece of copper foil, 1 inch by inch, clean and bright, is now placed in the flask suspended by a thin platinum wire, by means of which it can be withdrawn, from time to time, for examination. After boiling gently for half an hour the copper must be rinsed repeatedly in water, and finally held under a tap, in a pair of forceps, to remove all traces of acid, etc. On no account is the copper to be touched with the fingers, as, even when wet, the grease of the finger interferes with the subsequent operations. No great stress can be laid on the amount of discoloration, as it varies very much, even with the same amount of arsenic, in the presence of other substances, such as sulphur, mercury, etc. The copper must then be treated as follows:-Dry it between two pieces of clean blottingpaper, and, holding it in the forceps, warm it very gently over a spirit-lamp; then, still holding it in the forceps, cut it into strips. Take a thin glass tube, 4-inch internal diameter and 1-inch long, sealed at one end and lipped like a test tube at the other. Suspend this by dropping it through a hole cut in a piece of stout sheet-brass or copper, not less than 4 by 1 inches, so that the lip just supports the tube, and place the brass or copper plate on the ring of a retort-stand. Heat the tube nearly to redness to expel the last trace of moisture; and, when cold, put the copper strips within, and place over it, resting on the mouth of the tube, a microscopic slide, warmed in a spirit-lamp till all the moisture at first deposited has disappeared. Now heat the tube with the spirit-lamp, letting the flame play on the under side of the brass plate. In a few seconds a sublimate will appear on the slide. Watch this until it begins to shrink from the edges and form a patch just the size of the bore of the tube. Remove the lamp, allow the slide to cool, and
examine the sublimate with a magnifying power of 220 diameters. If the sublimate consist of octahedral crystals the discoloration of the copper is due to arsenic.
It is of course essential that the copper and hydrochloric acid used for this test be free from arsenic.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF NITRO-GLYCERINE.*
of nitro-glycerine in therapeutics, it may be desirable to
Nitro-glycerine is perfectly colourless, and not of a the chemistry of this body. The colour is due to the clear yellow colour as is stated in most of the papers on imperfect removal of the acid, or to the use of soda composes it with the production of a reddish-brown colour. which is commonly used for washing it, and which deodour when heated. Its taste is sweet, and not unlike It has no odour when cold, but has a sharp pungent that of glycerine, but is more pungent. As regards its solubility:-1 gram dissolves in about 800 cubic centimetres of water; with difficulty in 3 c.c. of absolute alcohol, easily in 4 c.c.; in 105 c.c. of rectified spirit (sp. gr. 0.846); in 1 c.c. of methylic alcohol (sp. gr. 18 c.c. of amylic alcohol; in every proportion in ether; 0.814); in 4 c.c. of methylated spirit (sp. gr. 0.830); in bolic acid; in less than 1 c.c. of benzol; in 120 c.c. of so also in chloroform, in glacial acetic acid, and in carcarbon bisulphide; and to a very limited extent, if at have kept for nearly four months without their exhiall, in glycerine. Its solutions in water and alcohol I have no reason for believing that they will not remain biting the slighest evidence of decomposition; and I undecomposed for a much longer time.
NOTE ON GALANGAL.+
brought over from Haian on the peninsula of Lei-chou, Galangal, which is the Rhizoma of Alpina Galanga, is and from How Sui and Tam-chou on the west coast of this island. superior to that grown on Hainan. The former is cultiThe article from the peninsula is far from Haian, while the latter grows in a state bordering vated on the slopes of hills about thirty miles distant upon wildness, and is quite unsuited for the home market. The quality of galangal depends upon the age of the plant and the care which has been taken in drying the roots. Roots of ten years' growth are considered the best, but of late years, owing to a good demand for the article both at home and in the Hankow market, such qualities are rarely obtainable. The galangal now placed on the market prices have consequently declined. When taken out of is seldom of more than four or five years' growth, and the ground the root measures from 3 to 4 feet in length, and 2 to 3 inches in thickness; it is cut at once into small pieces and dried by exposure to the air. To give it earth for colouring purposes. Even the best roots lose a good appearance for the market, the Chinese use red considerably in weight in course of transport. A deand of 20 per cent. for Europe is generally allowed on duction of 10 per cent. for conveyance to Hong Kong, this account. In former years the crop was nearly all shipped in junks to Macao, but since the opening of Kiungchow the trade has been diverted to this port. The total annual production does not average more than 8000 piculs, the bulk of which goes to Europe, where, and tanning purposes. besides finding favour as a spice, it is used for medicinal
Physiological Action of Nitro-Glycerine" in the Practi*Extract from a paper on the "Chemical Nature and
tioner for June.
Trade of Kiungchow.
The Pharmaceutical Journal. estuary of the Ribble, where a large expanse of sand
stretches for some miles along the coast, forming a foreshore, which, it is needless to say, is not unknown to Her Majesty's Government. It is distant about eighteen miles from Liverpool, thirty-six miles from Manchester and sixteen miles from Preston, and is in connection with the railway systems of the London and North Western, Lancashire and Yorkshire and West Lancashire Railway Companies. Of course, like all watering places of any pretension now-a-day, it possesses an aquarium, a pier (built of iron and nearly a mile in length), a promenade and baths, besides which it boasts of the only real glaciarium in the world, a park, and winter and botanic gardens.
SATURDAY, JULY 7, 1883.
Communications for the Editorial department of the Journal, books for review, etc., should be addressed to the EDITOR, 17, Bloomsbury Square.
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THE BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE.
The business meetings of the Conference are to be held in the Assembly Rooms of the Prince of Wales Hotel, beginning and ending each day at the usual time; as usual, also, there is to be an interval for luncheon, which we understand will be provided by the Local Committee in one of the rooms of the Hotel. On Tuesday, at any time during the day, members will be able to visit the Winter Gardens and Aquarium, for which tickets will be provided. Immediately after the close of the meeting on this day those who feel disposed will be invited to ad
THE hospitable invitation issued this week to the members the British Pharmaceutical Conference by the Local Committee at Southport will bring home to many pharmacists the welcome fact that sessions and seasons have an end, and that the time is once more approaching when they may hope to shake off the cares of business for a few days at least and join their brethren of the pestle and mortar in one of the most pleasant réunions of the year. Naturally there will be those who are looking with some curiosity for any information as to the nature of the local intentions in respect to the entertainment of the Conference, and therefore, although the pro-journ to the Baths for a short time, where a special gramme is at present necessarily one of possibilities entertainment will be provided. On Wednesday, the rather than certainties, we are glad to be able at so Committee intend to invite the members to visit the early a date to mention some arrangements that have Glaciarium, where some of them may feel disposed been completed as well as others that are contem- to disport themselves on skates; but it is hoped that plated, purposing to revert to the subject when more it will be possible to provide other recreation as positive statements can be made. well, more in keeping with the scientific instincts of the company, and to make arrangements for a demonstration of the process followed in making the ice for the Glaciarium by GAMGEE'S method. On Thursday it is proposed that the company shall leave by an early train for St. Helen's, in order to visit one or more of the large manufactories in that town, but at present the negotiations are not sufficiently advanced to allow of any definite statement being made as to which. At any rate, it is intended that the company shall leave St. Helen's and return to Southport in time for a Garden Party, to which they will be invited by the Local Committee; this is to be held in the Botanical Gardens, which are to be specially reserved for the purpose on Thursday afternoon.
As is generally known, the meeting of the British Pharmaceutical Conference is to be held this year at Southport, in Lancashire, on Tuesday and Wednesday, the 18th and 19th of September. Unlike most of the places in which the Conference has met in recent years, Southport is neither an ancient city nor the seat of a manufacturing industry, neither does it boast of docks or arsenal. If the truth must be told it is somewhat of the butterfly order, and to find its nearest similitude amongst the entertainers of the Conference it would be necessary to turn back eleven years to the meeting in Brighton. Indeed, if Brighton be esteemed a London-super-Mare, Southport may be described as a place by the side of the Irish Sea where hard-headed north countrymen resort to find respite from the moil of money-making in the busy towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire. "It is essentially a health resort and seaside watering place;" but that in this respect it must be very attractive in its character is shown by its unusually rapid development, the number of inhabitants having increased from just over five thousand in the year 1851 to more than thirty-two thousand at the time of the last census in 1881. It may be added for the benefit of those who are weak in topography, that Southport is situated on the south shore at the mouth of the
The "head-quarters" of the Conference during its visit to Southport will be at the Prince of Wales Hotel, which is pleasantly situated, and in which the Local Committee has secured a number of beds; we are glad to learn, further, that it has been stipulated that the ordinary tariff shall be adhered to. We hope, therefore, that under these circumstances, intending visitors who may wish to have accommodation secured for them will communicate their wishes at the earliest possible date to the Local Secretary of the Conference, Mr. WILLIAM ASHTON, 77, Lord Street, Southport