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Geometrical and Arched tracery were in use transepts, and so forth, which they throw when the brick style came into use, and out in every direction. The tall aiseless to Geometrical and Arched tracery the apse, so characteristic of German Gothic, brick style adhered throughout. The such as we see at Bern, Freiburg, DortArched tracery, as the simpler of the mund, and, in its highest development, at two, was the favourite. Flowing tracery, Per- Aachen, is exchanged, in the greater pendicular, and Flamboyant are unknown; churches, for elaborate groupings of apsidal even the Katharinenkirche at Lübeck, where chapels, more in the French style, though the tracery is so much more elaborate than with distinct arrangements of their own. usual, does not get beyond Geometrical Nothing can be more striking in this way forms. One almost wonders, when one than the two great churches at Lübeck. remembers the constant intercourse be- The Friars churches, however, even bere, tween England and the Hanse Towns, sometimes cleave, as in St. John's at Brethat some observant man did not introduce men, to their characteristically simple forms, a little English Perpendicular. The stiff- and, by the oddest caprice of all, several ness and regularity of its form would, one very fine churches, including two of those would have thought, have quite suited them. at Rostock, have flat east ends. But the But though a stray Perpendicular window grouping of chapels at the east end and or two does turn up at Zürich and at the addition of chapels to all sort of unother places where nobody would have usual places is distinctly the rule. In point looked for it, at Lübeck, where one would of height, the larger churches positively have looked for something of the kind, it revel. Few interiors anywhere surpass in is not to be found.
general effect either the Marienkirche at It follows therefore that there is not Lübeck or its namesake at Wismar. much to be learned from these churches in It is curious that, while variety of outline the way of architectural detail or of the is so carefully sought in this way it is not succession of architectural styles. They sought at all in the way most fertile of it, may be said roughly to be all in one style. and most characteristic of other parts of Even where there is manifest difference of Germany — namely, the grouping of towers. date, where a building has undergone mani- A single western tower, with perhaps a fest changes or additions, there is common- dachreiter or louvre over the junction of ly nothing that can be called difference of nave and choir is the rule, and the great style between the earlier and the later Lübeck churches depart from it only so work. The exceptions to this rule are to far as to substitute a pair of western towers. be found in the few examples where any Central towers, eastern towers, slide towers part of the brickwork goes back to Roman- donble choirs like Hildesheim, are all unesque times, as in Lübeck Cathedral and known. The single western tower, as at in the very curious church of St. Nicholas Moissac and Alby, seems also the Aquitanat Rostock. There is nothing analogous ian rule, though some of the churches of to that juxtaposition and substitution of Toulouse have very fine single side towers. different varieties of Gothic with which Some of these single western towers, com; we are so familiar in England.
monly crowded with tall spires of wood and Indeed, the architects of these buildings lead, are magnificent structures, and the vaseem quite to have understood that the sim- riety in design is very great. Such are St. plicity and monotony of detail which ap- John at Lüneberg and St. Nicholas at Rospears inseparable from the material must tock. The west front of the Marienkirche be made up for in some other way. And at Rostock is an indescribable vagary, made up it truly is in the general majesty, which, though the opposite to beautiful, it the amazing height, the varied and elab- is worth going to Rostock to see.
The orate outlines, of these churches. In this Marienkirche at Wismar has a saddleback ; last respect they differ in a marked way the tower of St. Giles in the same city, like from the brick churches of Aquitaine. that of Schwerin Cathedral, is unfinished. These, with Alby at their head, affect a Doberan has no tower at all. certain simplicity of conception which The houses present a greater variety of would make them admirable models for external ornament than the churches. But modern town churches. Alby has neither this variety consists almost wholly in the aisles nor transepts, and therefore no pil- repetition of various Geometrical patterns, lars or arcades; it is one gigantic body wrought commonly in bricks of different with mere chapels between the buttresses. colours. The fronts of the houses are gen But the brick churches of Lower Saxony erally finished towards the street with what revel in the variety of subordinate chapels, is locally called a schultergabel, answering to the corbie-steps of Scotland. This, in part of England and France is a trifle comsome of the richest examples, swells into a pared with what in this respect seems to be series of small gables and pinnacles ; in the utter barbarism of the North-German others, there are no corbie-steps, but one cities. large gable of the natural shape. But, in all cases, the design rises to a central point, so as to allow a series of blank arcades rising one above the other. A more effective form of street architecture could hardly be devised; still there is something not
From The Spectator. wholly satisfactory about it. It is unreal;
THE ANGLO-SAXON LET LOOSE. go round the corner and look at the roof, and the schultergabel is at once seen to be We have no need now to justify the a sham, no less than the west fronts of course we pursued in regard to the JamaiWells, Lincoln, and Salisbury Cathedrals. ca cruelties. As in the matter of the
These noble buildings, both churches and American war, so in this, the “audacity houses, are very little known to English of the Spectator in facing public opinion antiquaries, and it strikes us that they are has been justified by the result. Slowly not valued as they should be by their own and unwillingly, but decisively, the House possessors. In England the study of mediæ- of Commons, the journals, and even the val architecture has fairly made its way; it is middle class, have swung round to the side established that the buildings of a country originally, so unpopular, have renounced are an essential part of its history. Those their Philistine belief that the Englishman who do not care for the study themselves ful- abroad can do no wrong, and have admitly recognise that there are other people who ted that there is a principle higher even do, and that those who do so are engaged in than the defence of the divine right of a rational pursuit. But very well-inforned white authority, There is still evidence of men in North Germany seem in a manner the feeling that a murder committed by a puzzfed that an historical inquirer should half civilized black is a crime infinitely take any interest at all in the ecclesiastical worse than a murder committed by a highand domestic architecture of their cities. ly civilized white, of the belief that ignoAnd certainly the pursuit of architectural rance, and squalor, and savagery increase knowledge in those regions is in some re- the moral responsibility for crime. There is spects a pursuit of knowledge under diffi- still of course a great talk about the exagculties. A most perverse habit prevails of gerations of negro evidence, as if the eduplanting trees close up against the churches, cated Europeans of India had not sent as if on purpose to stand in the way of home monstrous stories of mutilations, or any one who wishes to draw them. And as if a reign of terror were a régime calin no part of the world does the appear- culated to elicit truthfulness, and there will ance of an architectural student arouse yet be a determined attempt to shield Mr. such amazement. The unlucky artist is Eyre from the consequences of his abuse of surrounded by a mob of unruly children, authority, but the substantial object has whom there seems no law or police to re- been attained. No colonial Governor in strain. One hears much of the police in this generation will ever again venture to the German States, but just when they let loose the dominant race upon an intemight be useful they keep themselves hid- rior people, or surrender his claim to guide den. In the Prussian dominions the ed- and moderate that irresistible and almost ucational system of which we hear so inexplicable energy which, in Jamaica as in much seems to provide an everlasting sup- India, enables a few thousand half organply of idle urchins, who are always coming ized Englishmen not only to defeat advercut of school and never going in. At Lü- saries who outnumber them as forty to one, beck things are rather better, at Bremen but to move among hostile multitudes like rather worse.
At Wismar a kind of mar- the knights of the middle ages among peastyrdom has to be endured in the form of ants, slaughtering till they are weary, but actual pelting, which makes one think that without a wound themselves. It remains the local discipline of the cudgel might in only to discuss a fact which Englishmen at some cases not come amiss. An artist home often deny, but which to all who have must in any part of the world be prepared lived either in Asia or South America is for a certain amount of annoyance, which patent, though still puzzling, the terrible he easily learns to put up with. But any ferocity which the Anglo-Saxon — a bad annoyance which he may meet with in any word, but no other includes even roughly the whole English speaking family — when has ever achieved domination, lies the inonce released from the conventional bonds stinct of masterfulness, the thought seldom almost invariably displays. That ferocity formulated, but never absent, that he has is not of course exceptional among man- by innate right, by a privilege beyond or kind. The Athenian slaughtered more pit- above all human and most divine laws, the ilessly than the Englishman has ever done prerogative of sway. Alone among manor will do, Frenchmen did acts both under kind the Anglo-Saxon has never consented the Red and the White Terror which in to settle in any land ruled by another law their sustained cruelty were almost without or administered through another language pagan parallel, and the Spanish treatment than his own. Spread abroad over the of subject Indians called forth the indignant whole world, he settles nowhere where he remonstrances of men who deemed the has not dominion, and there is not on earth Holy Inquisition a tribunal acceptable to at this moment a group of five thousand God. But the Athenian had no article in English-speaking men who obey a foreign his creed teaching respect for human life, the rule. They cannot do it. Sooner or later Spaniard believed he was slaying soulless they and the native authority clash, and men, and the Frenchman admits that there is then, bickering eternally among themselves, in him an element of the tiger. But the the haughty insular people, whose one idea Englishman is at bottom good-natured, is is to create an England or a New England at home a law-abiding man, credits himself in every land, stand back to back as organjustly enough with an instinctive prefer- ized as an army, and in their cold deterence for fair play: No race seems to have mination to be at the top conquerable only overcome so completely the love of cruelty by extermination. The sergeant
who when for its own sake, none, except perhaps the ordered to kotow to a Chinese Prince unArab in his best aspect, has ever admitted der penalty of death quietly took the death so fully in theory and practice the duty of as a preferable injury, expressed the feeling benevolence towards the whole animated of his entire people. The root of the frightcreation, foxes alone excepted. None ful massacres of Englishmen in India was stands up so steadily and persistently against the native conviction that while there was official oppression, or pleads so earnestly a white man alive he would want to be at for the "rights” of the weaker in a dis- the top, and that sooner or later, by wile or pute. What makes him of all mankind, force, he would get there. This instinct of this good-humoured, just, and law-bound dominion, in itself the most valuable of individual, once let loose against a race he qualities, for without it we could not do our intends to rule, so exceptionally ferocious ? destined work of ploughing up the sunRace hatred ? Partly perhaps, but that only baked civilizations of the East, produces pushes the analysis one step back, and the naturally an overwhelming impatience of records of his action in Ireland and the resistance. Rebellion to such a race is an Highlands are too deeply stained for that insult. We would ask any Anglo-Indian explanation to be accepted as complete. whether, during the entire mutiny, the Nothing related even of this last exhibition ' struggle was not embittered by the intense in Jamaica exceeds in horror the little feeling of every member of his caste, that known but demonstrable atrocities commit- he was insulted by the rising of a subordited under the Duke of Cumberland after nate race, insulted much more than alarmed Culloden, atrocities which but for a strange by the menace of massacre ? . It is that concurrence of favourable circumstances feeling, and not race hatred, which produced would have fixed a deep gulf between the the horrible incident recorded this week by Highlander and the Englishman. The hor- the Jamaica correspondent of the Daily rors committed in the great Irish Rebellion News, a white man treading down the new were almost surpassed by the horrors com- earth above Gordon's grave, avowedly that mitted in its repression, and all that genius he might enjoy the feeling of “trampling and popular sympathy can effect have that fellow under his feet.
Taken togethfailed to efface from the character of Crom- er, the two feelings make the Englishman well the terrible stain of Drogheda. The in time of rebellion the most logically pitimotive must be sought deeper yet in the less of human beings. He will go any national character even than that strange length rather than hear of compromise, pride which, with a cool contempt for ethno- would, we believe, have depopulated India logical facts, we term the sentiment of race, rather than surrendered a province or a and we believe it will be found in this. district. Those who have risen must bend
Deep in the Anglo-Saxon heart, as in the again, be the consequences what they may. heart of every people, save the Arab, which Our principal motive in supporting Government in its recent exercise of power in over some men in action — a mad crave to Ireland, - an exercise on many points, such destroy, an anger which nothing except as the seizure of the Irish People, at vari- slaughter can appease, a lust of bloodthirstiance with Liberal principles – was the ness such as towards the end of a battle it fear lest, if Fenians once descended into the has often perplexed English Generals to streets, we should witness one of those aw. control. They are then just as dangerous ful bursts of fury with which Anglo-Saxons as wild beasts, and almost, we trust, as irrespond to insurrection against themselves. responsible. Nothing but discipline, or its We all know, who know ourselves, that to equivalent, the strong control of the only retain Ireland the nation would in the long man they will obey, the representative of run stop at nothing, would, if the insurrec- the national authority, will then hold them tion began with massacre, sweep the Celt in, and it is for letting the reins go, as from the face of earth sooner then yield. much as for what he did himself, that Mr. Anything, even a sentence to Pentonville Eyre is responsible to the country. for keeping a green coat, is better than to This is, we believe, the true explanation let loose that awful passion of domination of the slaughter; for the flogging there is which has over and over again written such a different one. Something is probably records against the English people. Bad due in Jamaica to the old slaveholding traenough even in Europe, that passion is dition — the astounding case of the planter, among inferior races exasperated by the for example, who is said to have flogged all pride of colour, by the necessity for energy his creditors — but many of the chief acinvolved in excessive disproportion of num- tors, Ramsay included, had no connection bers, and by the belief that it is morally with slavery, had probably never seen the better for the dark man to be ruled by the institution at work. The ready resort to white, into a Berserkar frenzy, producing the lash is due, we fear, to the tinge of barat once the noblest heroism and the most barism which still infects our discipline. hideous cruelty. One man will contend to Men who have seen fifty lashes given for an the death against a thousand, and then af- insolent expression, as in Ireland this week, ter conquering slay on, as if Heaven had cannot realize the full barbarity of the punissued, as the Jews imagined, a degree ishment as men realize it who, like Frenchagainst the Canaanites. Numbers, weap- men and the English cultivated classes, ons, circumstances make no difference. have absolutely surrendered its use, object The Englishman so situated would fight on to its inflection even on the most violent if the spirits of the air were visibly assail. class of criminals. Failing prisons, such ing him, aye, and feel while fighting that a men fall back on the lash by the instinct of warlike nation of thirty millions were inso- custom, and inflict it with a recklessness lent in daring to try conclusions of battle which suggests the strange doubt whether with eighteen thousand of the hereditary they do not secretly deem the punishment nobility of mankind,” and after winning as a merciful alternative to death.
The floghe invariably wins, would scatter death as ging of women was exceptional, and is perif he were still fighting. The cry against haps the very worst feature of the frightful Lord Canning's clemency was bitterest from scenes in Jamaica, as being the one of which men who were hourly engaged in combat, the executioners best knew the horror. and in Jamaica it was the actual fighting Not one such case occurred in India, men, men who like Ramsay had seen service, and indeed the very opinion which or like Mr. Ford turned out from civil life was hungering for slaughter condemned to the conflict, who were most relentless. every form of torture as unwarranted even This very man Ramsay, whom even Jamai- by recent massacre, and to be defended ca condemns, would, we doubt not, have only by demonstrable military necessity. stood up alone against a parish of armed There was cruelty in those acts, cruelty in blacks sooner than acknowledge for a sec- the use of wire, cruelty in using human .ond that his race was not entitled to rule. beings as targets which was foreign to the The axiom which associates cruelty with English Berserkar rage, and explicable only cowardice is as false now as it was in the by the existence in the colony of an abso days of Alva, or Tilly, or Claverhouse, each lutely bad feeling, that ulceration of hate of them monsters of cruelty, who yet which arises when hatred has been indulged knew no fear. Fearless, insulted, and piti- for years. That hate was pe-uliar to Jalessly logical in his resolve to rule, the Eng- maica, but everywhere in the world, in Irelishman in the struggle is apt, as the Sep- land as in India, among Cheyenne Indians tembrisers said, to get blood in his eyes,” as among Tasmanians, the most awful reto yield to that horrible feeling which comes sponsibility a governing man can incur is to
let loose, loose from conventional bonds and the Daily News of five years ago, has been external discipline, the Anglo-Saxon lust for deliberately adopted by it this week as aca dominion which, when acknowledged, he counting in great part for the Republican can use more leniently than any other race hostility to the President's policy of reconon earth.
struction, -- the motive being of course that it is the interest of the Eastern States, which are all violently Protectionist, to keep out the Southern States, which are nearly unanimous for free traile, until the financial pol
icy of the future Union has been once firmFrom The Spectator, 24th March.
ly fixed. We confess that we are surprised
to find this argument in the Daily News, THE CONFLICT AT WASHINGTON. when the truth unquestionably, is that the
Western States are quite as averse to the The view taken in England of President policy of Protection as the South, and for Johnson and bis recent quarrel with the ma- the same obvious reason, that they have no jority in Congress, is probably wider astray manufactures, and are great producers of from that warranted by the facts of the case the raw materials whicl¥ Europe needs, -than that of any critical American event and yet that nowhere, not even in Massasince the outbreak of the war. There are chusetts, have the Radical party in Conseveral reasons for this, - one, that the vul- gress been so warmly supported in their opgar and inflammatory speech in which the position to the Pres dent as in Wisconsin President denounced the Radicals and ac- and Iowa, where the State Legislatures cused them of intending his assassination have gone so far as to pass votes condemnwas never printed in full in any English pa- ing the President's policy by enormous maper, was panegyrized most by those who did jorities, — majorities of two to one, - and not dare to print it at all, and but faintly supporting those of their own Congressmen rebuked even by the most Liberal of all the who have remained firm to their principles. English journals, which only published We are persuaded that as a rule this plausiabout half
, and that not containing a full ble trick of accounting for the deeper differhalf of the wildest and most unworthy mat- ences on high political questions by selfish ter; another, that the Daily News, which motives is founded in a complete misconcephitherto has been far the wisest, soundest, tion of the weight of political feeling. Bad and most thoroughly informed of all the tariffs cause revolutions sometimes no doubt, English critics of American politics, has be- but where they do, their advocates do not come, for some intellectual crotchet which try to disguise their motives under the form we cannot explain, almost the mere advo- of a battle against slavery, or their oppocate of the President, — though of course an nents to plead State rights instead of Free advocate profoundly convinced of the truth Trade. The hatred of slavery now heartily of its own case,
- and has ceased to our unites the North-West and North-East, mind to square its judgments with the facts while the minor tariff question tends to di
Add to this that Mr. Johnson's vide them, and, — so much greater is the policy has in it a first appearance of gener- cementing power of the higher principle, – osity to a vanquished foe, that Mr. Stevens fails. and the other Radical leaders, though far
The real issue between the President and fairer and less violent in their language the Radical Republicans is, we believe, a than Mr. Johnson, have been often silly and vital one. The
President, under the influintemperate, that the full evidence as to the ence of his old Democratic principles, wishes condition of the South and the condition of to let both the South and the Union reconopinion in the Western States is never re- struct itself. He desires to see the Southern produced in the English journals, and we State Legislatures --- all, excepting only are not surprised to find the public mind that of Tennessee (?) consisting of men hosmore prejudiced, because more completely tile, without exception, to the North, and still uninformed, upon the present political crisis more hostile to the civil rights of the negro in America than it has been on any of the freedmen – restored at once to their full American embarrassments of the last six powers ; he would permit them, unopposed years.
Indeed the false issue so pertina- except by the feeble machinery of the presciously asserted to be the true one by Eng- ent Freedmen's Bureau, to enact formally lishmen at the commencement of the war, the most stringent negro vagrant laws, and
-the issue of Protection versus Free to refuse the education to the negroes which Trade, -- and never better exposed than by the Freedmen's Bureau has hitberto given ;
of the case.