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and he would do all this on the plea of the General that the South is still engaged in sacredness of self-government, forgetting in widespread conspiracies - called Historic the depth of his old Southern prejudices Societies,' and what not -- which, if they that the despotic government of one race could but get the opportunity of any foreign over another is not self-government in any war, would burst out again into a new sesense of the word. More than this, he not cession. They quote the speeches of the only would permit, but even demands, the Southern candidates for Congress, who do immediate admission of deputies from all the not scruple to advocate the repudiation of rebellious States to Congress, — deputies the national war debt. And they ask themselves disaffected to the Union, chosen whether it is the part of reasonable men to for that disaffection, and chosen, moreover, establish in supreme authority in the varion a constitutional law which greatly in- ous States, governments so hostile to the creases their number in virtue of the very only loyal — the negro — portion of the popnegro population whom they not only do ulation; and also to invite back into their not represent but whose interests they are full influence in Congress, men who will do chosen to oppose. Mr. Johnson wishes to their best to destroy the credit of the Union see the small party of Northern democrats or to foment its enmities with foreign re-enforced by the large party of Southern States. democrats, who would no sooner be in Con- We confess the logical position of the gress than any further protection by Con- Radicals seems to us quite unanswerable; gress of the freedmen of the South, - and and the sort of evidence on which they rely probably also of the interests of the Union is not doubtful or weak, but positively there, — would become impossible. And swarms. Let us just quote a little to show all this Mr. Johnson wishes, sincerely, we its nature rather than its strength, - which believe, on the formal ground that the old last we could not do if we devoted a wholu machinery prescribed by the Constitution paper to the task. Major-General Thomas, must be put in force as soon as States and the victor of Nashville, is a Conservative in representatives can be got to profess lip-loy- politics, and not a Radical. He has long . alty to the old régime. Such is the Presi- commanded in Kentucky, Tennessee, Geordent's view, - a view radically based upon gia, Alabama, and Mississippi. He wishes the idea that, as the Southern States' ma- the Tennessee deputies readmitted to Conchinery answered very decently before the gress, though he opposes, as in the highest rebellion, - for to Mr. Johnson's mind the degree dangerous, the recall of the troops existence of slavery was only a blot so far even from Tennessee. And the following as it endangered Únion, - it is not likely are his own words to the reconstruction to answer worse now, when the climax has Committee:come, the blow has been struck, and has failed.
“There is an understanding among the RebOn the other hand, the Radicals assert els, and perhaps organizations formed or formthat to reconstruct either the Southern ing, for the purpose of gaining as many advanState Legislatures or Congress by the mere tages for themselves as possible; and I have formal application of constitutional doctrine heard it also intimated that these men were to a society in a flame of hatred both against very anxious and would do all in their power its conquerors and its former victims, is to involve the United States in a foreign war, simply as mad as to heap up to dry near a they might turn against the United States. I
so that if a favourable opportunity should offer blazing fire gunpowder still wet with the do not think they will ever again attempt an very water which extinguished the powder outbreak on their own account, because they all mili's conflagration. They assert that it is admit that they had a fair trial in the late reidle first to lavish life and money on a gi- bellion and got thoroughly worsted. There is gantic war, and then to beg their opponents no doubt but what there is a universal disposition to take back their former advantages and among the rebels in the South to embarrass the Govbuild up the old rivalries strengthened by ernment in its administration, if they can, so as to the bitterness of defeat, once more. They gain as many advantages for themselves as possible.” appeal to the evidence given by all the new Southern ‘vagrant’laws, which are practi- His evidence is confirmed by witness after cally laws establishing a most oppressive witness as conservative and moderate as sertdom, that the spirit of caste is as viru- himself. General Grierson, who has been lent as ever in the South, and far more per- in the South, almost ever since Lee's surrensonally virulent against the negroes than der, not only confirms this, but says that, before, because their value as property is except in Tennessee, the feeling is far less lost. They cite the opinion of General after favourable, far more inclined to organize
new revolt, than at the time of General vice. At the time of the surrender, and even Lee's surrender. The sense of exhaustion after, they manifested a disposition rather to diis partly relieved; the hope of revenge is vide this thing, but that is entirely changed.” far stronger than before: -"I think that instead of growing more willing to accept
This is surely very remarkable evidence, the situation, they are showing a more in- and it is supported by the testimonies of tense feeling of bitterness toward the Gov- almost all the Unionists who know the ernment. I speak of leading men more par- South. Then as to the freedmen, we need ticularly.” “I think,” he adds, “ that every not rely on the numberless accounts of open Congressman elected in the State of Ala- murder, seizure and sale of them to Cuba, bama was elected by reason of his devotion re-enslavement under the vagrant laws, and to the cause of the rebellion. Some of them the rest; the open profession of the planters served at Richmond as Congressmen, and is that, while they will not admit the rights others as officers in the rebel army, but in of freedmen, they do feel themselves reno case that I know of was a loyal man lieved from all the responsibility they forelected. The truly loyal people of Ala- merly felt for them as their property, bama do not wish the present elected Con- Their language is now, “ Government freed gressmen and Senators from that State ad- you, and now let Government take care of mitted into Congress." Brevet Lieutenant- you,” their own part being avowedly to foil Colonel Hunter Brooke confirmed this by Government in taking care of them as comsaying that he did not know of “one loyal pletely as they can, — by persuading the newspaper" in all Alabama. General Grier- President where they can, by disobeying son also said that the attempt, so much fa- and defying him where they must. But voured by the President, to reorganize the apart from personal testimony as to feelings State militia, is nothing but the reorganiza- the facts are sufficient. In Louisiana, for tion of the Confederate Army, in State de- which with the other States the President tachments. He said that in Alabama the demands immediate admittance to Congress, State authorities had congratulated them- the Legislature just adjourned was all but selves greatly on their success in getting entirely composed of men who were a few General Thomas to withdraw the United months ago in arms against the GovernStates' troops, that the militia system was ment. The Courts charged the grand juimmediately organized by the provisional ries“ that it was treason to advocate equal governor to supplant them, that every offi- suffrage.” The militia force is officered cer who received commissions in the militia entirely by officers of the Confederate Arwas an officer of the old Confederate Army, my. The schools for the freedmen have and that no Northerner or Unionist had been shut up all over the State, but these the remotest chance of such an appointment. poor freedmen are being taxed to support Further, General Grierson has no doubt the mean white schools from which they are that an election now would produce men far excluded. Union men are openly taxed for more hostile to the Union than even four loyalty to the Union, and imprisoned for it. months ago. There was a disposition then The blacks are forbidden by law to move to pick out men for office as little objection- between plantation and plantation, and if able to the Unionists as possible, but since transgressing the law are re-enslaved under Mr. Johnson has headed the party, the old criminal statutes. fierce feeling has come out again uncon
Such is the state of things which Mr. trolled :
Johnson's policy has promoted, and the nat
ural development of which into either a new "I think that if another election were held secession, or a servile war, or both, his policy for Congressmen and Senators, they would is still promoting. Any one who considers elect men who are even stronger in their senti- the evidence carefully will not be surprised ments for the South and against the Govern- that in spite of those financial differences ment than those heretofore elected. They did which separate North-West and North-East, in some cases try to pick men who would not they should unite to resist the insanely conbe objectionable in every respect. They think stitutional course, - constitutional in form, that these men now would be objectionable to utterly urconstitutional in spirit, on the Southern people. I infer this from a great which the President, with his narrow demmany things. For instance, all employés of ocratic formula, is so firmly embarking: We who were loyal to the Government, are having believe that their verdict will in the end be their heads cut off and their places filled by distinct enough to over-ride even that ironsympathizers with the Rebellion. Many of minded, short-sighted, Southern Unionist them were heretofore officers in the Rebel ser-himself, and that England will have to conFOURTH SERIES. LIVING AGE. VOL. I. 13.
fess for about the dozenth time in the last | suffers a calamity or not, so self-absorbed few years that she has judged by hasty pre- that they cannot look for a moment beyond judices, instead of on a calm review of the questions about which they are at heart proreal evidence, what are the real aims and foundly indifferent, but the truth is they the real merits of the conflicting author- do not believe in the hubbub. They have ities at Washington. We do not speak as been so accustomed for fifty years to hear mere friends of the negro, - but as politi- German potentates express great purposes, cians, looking at the general issue. Fortu- and discuss wide plans, and make a resonant nately for the world the plain claims of jus- fuss about resources without doing anytice and of statesmanlike policy are usually thing, that they cannot believe anything is joined together by a power which men going to be done now. During the lifetime strive in vain to defeat when they would of this generation Prussia has always been willingly put them asunder.
announcing her intention of taking something or other, which Austria has always refused her permission to take, and after an immense tintamarre neither party has obtained what it professed so strongly to
desire. Twice the Powers have appeared From The Spectator, March 24. to be on the brink of war, once their armies
have been drawn out in battle array, once THE COMING STORM IN EUROPE.
both have seemed within a hairsbreadth of The dull, dumb, instinctive wisdom of the being absorbed in an organization which British people, the wisdom which, like the would have changed the face of Europe. swallow's flight southward instead of north- Nothing has come of it all, and nothing, ward, does not depend on intellect, was never says the English ten-pounder, the most more clearly shown than in their view of this sensible and the most stupid human being German quarrel. There never perhaps was now breathing, will come of this fanfaron, a great Continental danger which excited so any more than of those which have prelittle interest. If we may judge from out- ceded it. Some loophole will be found, side symptoms, or indeed from the anxiety some more or less absurd formula of words, with which some doctors of eminence and Germany will go on, and Lippe Detmold speculate on the character of the pustules, will think his estate a nation, and great Central Europe is very sick indeed, is in princes will make speeches like American the most imminent danger. It is not only orations from the stump, and Germans will possible, but probable, that before our next write matchless monographs and demand issue appears the German people, perhaps official permission to travel ten miles, as of of all existing races the one best able to ap- old. preciate and enjoy both the lives lived by For once we agree to the bottom of our mankind — the sensuous and the spiritual hearts with the ten-pounder. An instinct,
the race least moved by illusions, yet probably identical with his, though less most tenacious of ideas, the human family wise because less unconscious, compels us which of all others luxuriates in the simplest to believe that, despite all the fuss, and the pleasures and the deepest refinements of clanging of arms, and the waving of thought — will have commenced a civil feathers, and the careful intsruction in war. Nearly a million of Germans may be future words of command, Austria and in movement intent on killing each other Prussia will not go to war. Either Austria will scientifically, to secure an object which at at the last moment retreat, and taking a that price is not worth securing, which could heavy bribe as solatium, sing a Te Deum be secured quietly by arrangement, and for her victory over human pride; or Pruswhich if not secured now, nevertheless is as sia, at the twelfth hour dreading the penalsure to be secured as corn is to grow in an ties of conquest, will sing the “ Quare ordinary season. Englishmen do not care. Fremuerunt Gentes," and exult over her The majority of Englishmen are infinitely Christian moderation. When two prizemore interested in the question whether fighters can plead the weal of the FatherEarl Grosvenor is wise or foolish in his land as an excuse for not coming to time, a motion on Reform, is giving expression to a cross is very easily arranged. But while thought, or simply obeying an order passed sharing the instinct to the full, we are by the English substitute for a conseil de bound to admit that we do not share the famille. We will not .do our countrymen intellectual impression. It is hard to the injustice to suppose they are really in- realize the idea of Austria and Prussia at different, really careless whether mankind war, but still more hard to conceive the
path by which they are honourably to avoid things mean war, and we confess, — always ibe now threatening contest. The stake with the proviso that the lying is not unadmitted to be at issue is great, greater usually portentous,
no escape than Englishmen perceive, and the quarrel from the belief that sooner than suffer is very far advanced. The King and Prussian dictation in Holstein, sooner inMinister of Prussia have both pledged deed than see Northern Germany absorbed themselves very deeply to their people that in Prussia, the Hapsburgs will fight, will they will keep the Duchies. Both are men fight now, and will fight hard. If they are who, except under overpowering necessity, compelled to fight, we are in presence of will be apt to keep their word, the Premier another European war of which no man now because he is deliberately offering aggran- living can predict the end or the duration dizement as the preferable alternative of war which will probably engage freedom, the King because he has with the Italians and Danes, Frenchmen and Turks, capacity of a sergeant-major also his con- which will make widows in Sicily as well science, the conscience which repudiates as Zeeland, and leave as many children falsehood except when it serves a visible fatherless in France as in Hungary or Branmilitary end. They will retain the Duchies denburg. It is useless to talk of Austrian unless expelled by force, and if they re- weakness, and chatter about tariffs, and tain them will retain also the potential mutter about metalliques, and quote sophisms sovereignty of Northern Germany. Meck- about Hungary's opportunity and Venetia's lenburg and the Hesses do not intend to hatred. If we are in presence of war the fight. Hanover is saturated with Prussian Kaiser will issue an order which will be feeling. The Free Towns, and the Saxons, obeyed by six hundred thousand trained and the Wurtembergers are powerless in soldiers, whom he has the means to move the face of the Prussian army encamped and to feed, if the rest of his subjects among them, and if the Duchies are suc- starve ; and the movement of six hundred cessfully annexed Germany north of the thousand men to actual conflict is a calamity Maine is lost to the Kaiser for ever. That which it is not in the power of human is a heavy stake, and that is not all. The language to exaggerate. Emperor of Austria loses not only that But will the Kaiser be compelled to fight? visionary throne for which his race have There is one, and but one, pacific circumfor five centuries sacrificed all, their souls stance in the whole situation, and upon that included, but will have shaken his hold we try to base what is really only an inover his patrimonial domain, will have stinctive hope. Prussia must begin the shown to Hungary that resistance wins the contest, must actually strike a blow before concessions never granted to reason, and anything overt happens. The Kaiser need will have warned Italy that every hour now do nothing. He is not the offender; he lost is an hour of opportunity. He will not simply says the administration of Holstein risk so fearful a shock to the prestige of belongs by public law and solemn agreecenturies, will rather encounter the war ment to him, and as his troops are in which ever since 1815 bis family have ex- Holstein and his Commissioner rules the pected. Unlesss the Continental press is in Duchy, decrees and despatches to the con-' a conspiracy of lying, he has accepted the trary are singularly unimportant.
To comalternative, and is arming fast. A great mence the war the King of Prussia must army has been collected on the Northern do something very violent, say arrest Dr. frontier, with Marshal Benedek, a fighting May, editorial person in Holstein, who upsoldier, in command. An Archduke has holds the Duke of Augustenburg contrary been despatched to protect the Southern to Prussian decree, and the question is frontier. Croatia, Transylvania, and other whether he will do this. We feel that he provinces of the same kind, in which the will not, will rather enunciate some maggarrison is usually heavy, but which can be nanimous platitude as a reason for not doing left without soldiers, have been denuded of so, but we think he will. All Germany will troops, all on their march towards the understand if he does not that Prússian northern counties. The treasury is poor, threats have one limit, and that is Austrian but the needful commissariat has been pro- resistance; the Prussian people will undervided. All Southern Austria has been in- stand that they have not sacrificed their formed that a requisition for horses is within liberty to secure the future of Germany, the bounds of possibility. All furloughs but to be ruled by a person who dreads have been recalled, and all editors warned action; and the Prussian Army will underthat the movements of troops are now stand that its new organization and the among the closest secrets of State. These victory of Duppel have not made it the
supreme army upon the Continent. Finally, another, and indeed in everything, conthe Duchies will understand that in plead- nected with death, so that if an Englishman ing for their autonomy they have armed is by any misfortune charged with conductAustria at their back, and not merely an ing the last rites for a friend or a relation inactive, though friendly, public opinion. who has chanced to die in France, he will
The King can scarcely desire to let in so find it about the most annoying piece of much light upon the subject, more especial business he has ever had anything to do ly as by the latest accounts he is secure of with. It is nothing of this kind, however, the neutrality of the minor States, and if against which Dr. Cornol has petitioned, he gives himself the rein the war is as in- for in all probability a Frenchman accusevitable as it may be disastrous. Still tomed to paternal government may not feel there is the instinct by which we, as well as its solicitudes in season and out of season to the next green-grocer who reads these be so much a gene as a less profusely govlines, decide that this war can never be. erned man does. The law requires that
Fortunately, there is one point upon which twenty-four hours shall elapse between death instinct and reason cannot in this matter be and burial, and the minimum thus fixed Dr. at variance, and that is the action of our Cornol declares to be not nearly sufficient, own country. We have nothing whatever a declaration which he supports by numerto do with the quarrel. We opposed the ous instances of suspended animation, original robbery, and if the burglars choose showing that he has good ground for his to quarrel over the plate, so much the opinion that a large number of persons are better for the somewhat cowardly police. annually buried alive in France. No subIf peace comes a great calamity will be ject would provide a more ghastly theme for averted from the world. If war comes, the pen than this, and there is a fascination Italy, for which Englishmen care as they about it against which men like Edgar Poe will not care for Germany till Germany is have not been proof. free, will see that the hour has struck, and The whole question is in itself sufficiently we trust realize the proverb about the luck striking, but a dramatic effect was prothat comes to honest men when thieves fall duced in the Senate when the matter was out. If in the great contest Austria, losing brought before that body, such as very few Venetia, wins the general game, North assemblies in the world have had an opGermany will be free of Brummagem portunity of witnessing an effect which Cæsarism, and ready to commence a new might have appeared in one of the elder career; and if, on the other hand, Prussia Dumas's more dashing and improbable wins, Napoleon and the Czar will be face to novels, but would certainly up to this time face on the Continent with a new, and im- have been held to be scarcely legitimate in pregnable, and a conservative power. Inany ordinary works of fiction. M. de la Gueroncase the interest of this country is not to nière, in presenting the report, argued waste strength in a useless mediation, but against the petition, and proposed to shelve to watch keenly, and so legislaté at home it by the technical motion to proceed with that when the hour of our action strikes, the order of the day. Thereupon his we may not find that emigration to lands Eminence the Cardinal Archbishop of happier for the poor has too greatly reduced Bordeaux rose and expressed his dissent our fighting strength.
from the Viscomte's conclusion. In the first place, he declared that the precautionary regulations of the law were very frequently evaded in practice, but the strength of his argument was that even if strictly
carried out they were wholly insufficient. From The London Review. He had himself, while yet a cure, saved
several lives about to be sacrificed to the BURIED ALIVE.
indecent haste of survivors. He had seen THERE is something dreadfully uncom- a man taken from his coffin and refortable in the feeling with which one reads stored to perfect health. Another man, the debate in the French Senate last week of advanced years, had been already on the report of the committee on a petition put in the coffin, and yet lived for twelve by Dr. Cornol, for an extension of the hours after. Moreover, he had performed Code Civile in the matter of ante-burial in his own person a miracle such as would ceremonies. The French law is exceeding- have given him a good chance of becoming ily tiresome in all that relates to the con- a canonized saint had he lived in the veyance of corpses from one place to Middle Ages, when people believed in the