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continuance of miraculous power. He had speaker's manner which led them to supseen the body of a young lady laid out for pose that it was no ordinary tale that was dead, the attendants covering the face as he being told in their presence, and they hung entered, but allowing him to observe so upon his further words :much as convinced him that the maiden was priest, gentlemen, is the same who is now not dead but slept. Thereupon, with a speaking before you, and who, more than loud voice (how Scripturally it runs), he forty years after that event, implores those cried out that he was come to save her. in authority not merely to watch vigilantly He adjured her to feel convinced that by an over the careful execution of the legal preeffort she could shake of the lethargy scriptions with regard to interments, but to which oppressed her, and could return to enact fresh ones in order to prevent the relife. His voice reached her numbed sen- currence of irreparable misfortunes.” sations, she made the effort, and has lived It is satisfactory, really, to run such a to be a wife and mother. This very re- story to earth. We have never felt quite markable account throws light upon the clear about the truth of the dreadful stories miracles of early times. Thus when Em- that are told of facts observed, and the horpedocles, the philosopher, got the credit of rible suggestions of unknown terrors to restoring to life a deceased woman (see the which these facts give rise. Every one bas story told by Diogenes, Laertius, and others), heard of the lady whose ring tempted a there can be little doubt that the person servant to violate her tomb, and even to whom he saved was suffering under one of endeavour to bite off the finger from which the various forins of coma to which all it refused to be drawn, the shock of which nations have given so many different names, brought back the dead woman to life and conand to which we ourselves in common par- sciousness. And there is that ghastly scene lance, rightly or wongly, do the same. It is where corpses are laid out in full dress, as well to add, in passing, that although this with wires in their bands connected with remark might apply equally well to the case bells, so that the smallest motion of the of the damsel whom the words “ Talitha muscles would summon an attendant. And Kumi” brought back to life, that 'miracle a tale is told of a corpse suddenly rising up was only one out of a very large number, from the bed on which it was laid out, terto the majority of which no such explana- rifying the watcher so that she fled half-fainttion could apply.
ing, and the reanimated body was left withBut his Eminence had a more striking out assistance and once more died, this time instance to adduce. A young priest fell completely. The horrors of being buried down dead, as it was supposed, while alive are so manifest and manifold that it preaching in a crowded church on a sultry is almost unnecessary to point out how such a day, about forty years ago. The funeral death has been reserved as a punishment bell was tolled, the doctor came and ex- for the direst offences only. Vestal virgins amined him in the perfunctory official with broken vows and nuns convicted of style, much in the same way as the two unchastity are among the most ordinary inspectors at Hull examined the fatal 600 examples, their offence being held to be the head of diseased cattle in three hours and most henious conceivable under the pea half, and certified that he was dead, all in culiar circumstances of their position. And the dead man's full hearing. Then came the ancient Goths, teste Blackstone quotthe measuring for the coffin, the De Pro-ing Fleta, buried or burned alive indiscrimifundis recited by Episcopal lips, accompa- nately for a peculiar crime, peccatum illud nied by the intense agony of one who was horribile inter Christianos non nominandum, conscious of the preparations that were as the reticence of the English law styled it being made for his own burial. At length in indictments. Calmet, in his dictionary, some one present spoke, whose voice the states that so did the Jews, and in the dead man had known aná loved from very earliest edition of his work is an engraving early years. A chord was touched which of the procedure, among those horrible engalvanized the frame, the corpse rose up, gravings of ten or twelve sorts of punishand became once more a living soul. Such ment inflicted by that nation, of which stories are to be found in many story-books, many remain even in the latter editions, and probably few of the Archbishop's such as putting under harrows of iron, and audience were not familiar with something scraping with claws of iron, and hurling of the kind as the result of their reading at from the tops of towers. Nay, so lately, as an age when the marvellous and the hor- the year 1460, a very barbarous period, rible have a peculiar fascination for the the punishment of burying alive was inmind. But there was something in the flicted in France upon a woman named Perrete Mauger, who had been convicted there till he died, although his cries could of many larcenies and was buried alive, by be plainly heard by the attendants. He order of the Maire D'Estouteville, before was found, when they opened the sepulthe gibbet in Paris. So at least the chre, suis ipsius lacertis
, et caligis quas ges“Chronique Scandaleux says in one of tabat comestis. It is evident, from comits opening paragraphs, though an English paratively ancient and from modern version of that curious piece of history history alike, that the possibility of persons reads burned alive for enfouye toute vive. being buried alive has always been before And at Ensbury, in Dorset, there is a tradi- men's minds, and the French Senate has tion that many years ago a man was put wisely determined to consider the petition quick into the earth as a punishment, buried of Dr. Cornol. up to the neck, a guard preventing any from rescuing or feeding him till death relieved him. The Irish rebel, Shane O'Neil, used to get right after drinking himself drunk with usquebaugh by a like process, being placed upright in a pit and covered
From the Spectator. with earth to his shoulders, by which
BREAKFAST. means, says Holinshed, his body, being “extremely inflamed and distempered, was re- BREAKFAST has been a good deal negcovered to some temperature.”
lected in the literature of gastronomy. The There are
several very remarkable little publication just issued by Mr. Bentley, instances, or supposed instances, of burial and edited by some dreadful person who during suspended animation to be met with actually gives a receipt for dressed crab as in history. One of those which attracted a morning dish, is, we think, the first which great attention long ago was that of Duns bas appeared in English devoted exclusiveScotus, known as the subtle. Bacon has ly to the early meal. The true gourmand given the story of his death an existence indeed we fancy rather despises breakfast among us by stating that Scotus was buried as a mere arrangement for taking sustenwhile suffering from a fit to which he ance, lacking entirely that trace of science, was subject, in the absence of his servant and sub-flavour of art, and delicate aroma and of all who knew that such fits were of conviviality which, by the consent of periodical with him. The story, as told by civilized mankind in all countries, attach Abrahamus Bzovius, is to the effect that themselves to dinner. The contempt is prowhen his servant returned, he at once de- bably instinctive, for the Australian black clared that his master had been buried alive; in his natural state eats his early handful and on opening the vault, the corpse in of gum or fat insects standing, and squats gradibus mausolei devoratis manibus reper- at ease only when the half-raw opossum is tum fuisse, which it is as well not to construe. ready for the afternoon enjoyment, but it
The Brother Lucas Waddingus, in the third has been deepened by civilization till breakbook of his Annals, argues, much to his fast has passed out of the hands of the own satisfaction, that this could not pos- gastronome into those of the doctor. One sibly have been the case, and for the sake feeds oneself, and it is not on feeding that of the Subtle Doctor we are fain to agree literary cooks can be tempted to display the with him. The same sort of story is told full resources of their art. In France, inof Boniface VIII., the enemy of Philip of deed, where enjoyment is cultivated as a France, though, in the hands of the fiercer science, and the nasty compromise between Gbibellines, it took the form of determined breakfast and dinner called lunch, - a meal suicide. The old annals state that being where one has all the trouble of dining and buried alive extrema mauuum devorasse, et none of its compensations, where a chop caput ad parietem elisisse; but in Tosti's is considered meat, and housewives are not Lífe it is stated that, at the exhumation of ashamed of hash, and fat porter is substithe body, more than 300 years after (Boni- tuted for claret, — is unusual, breakfast has face VIII. died in 1303), it was found been the subject of some care. But then whole, without any marks of violence. The wine is taken at breakfast in France, and most dreadful story of all is that of the the faint odour of refined enjoyment which Emperor Zeno Isaurus, so famous by reason has always lingered around wine attaches of his Henoticon, who was subject to at- itself even to the breakfast with which it is tacks of coma, and while undergoing one of consumed. There is a possibility of art, of these attacks was put in the mausoleum an awakening of the mind, even in some by his wife, Ariadne, and kept shut up rare instances of a tepid good-fellowship. In India, where coolness is the one source omelettes in the frying pan which marks a of comfort, where sitting in a draught is refined mind, and he has the taste to place Elysium, and iced water raises your spirits, the true omelette before those over improved and coffee really stimulates, and the chance confections in which the first quality of the of cold meat is a separate and infrequent dish, its croquancy, is destroyed' by the luxury, and breakfast may be as elaborate intrusion of foreign and comparatively as dinner without costing a farthing or an gritty substances. exertion, social breakfasting is a recognized
Before breakfast can assume its proper habit. In England, however, the meal is place among the subjects of art it is neceseminently one of utility alone. In very sary to decide what its central idea should good houses you eat it in solitude, or with be, and not only the central idea, but the your wife, at the hour which suits yourself central idea applicable to England. Bear- an arrangement specially designed to ing in mind that such of our countrymen as make good-fellowship intrusive, and among are capable of distinguishing between eatthe middle classes business begins too early. ing and feeding, who would describe Half of us want to be doing something at skilley,” for instance, as food, but not as ten, and a meal at half-past nine, to be breakfast, are people who will not waste eaten while you are still chilled through, morning time, the idea of breakfast should, cannot therefore receive much attention. we think, be the provision which best fortiA cut of meat and a cup of coffee is con- fies men for the labour of a long day. Wosidered sufficient, and often too much, for men need not be considered, for they get a Englishmen rise too late really to enjoy good mid-day meal, which is to them not eating before mid-day. Not that we mean unpleasant, for the children are about, and to say anything in praise of early rising. there is an interval between household suThe man who asserts in a climate like this pervision and visiting, and by a beneficent that it is a virtue to get up at six, and looks provision of nature they are exempt from at you suspiciously, as doubting your moral the temptations of gourmandise. Few wofibre, because you get up at ten, ought to men worth a straw care a straw what they be made to wear a hair shirt, or shave with eat, and as few men do not care. To the cold water, or use" mottled” soap, or com- last day of their lives the best and cleverest plete his theory of life by some other need- women will eat the horrid imitations of less but self-exalting form of physical self- sponge called buns, and for those who can denial. But still the early riser, unpleasant eat buns with a relish gastronomy is an person as he usually is, has the compensa- impertinence. The object is to qualify men tion of hunger, which his more self-indul- for work, and breakfast therefore must congent friend has not. We have known sist mainly of eatable solids cold. Not to houses where simplicity was carried much speak of household convenience, hot meats, farther than this, where, though dinner was and in a less degree even hot fish, require good, breakfast was utterly neglected, the wine, or they leave an unpleasant film upon women ate bread and butter, and the men the palate, and early wine is, on the whole, were considered well fed if they got fresh among a race of industrials living in a eggs and little scraps of red meat, supposed chilly climate a mistake. If at all strong it by courtesy to be bacon. Such contempt slightly diminishes business keenness and for humanity is, however, we are happy to activity, and if very weak leaves neither say, becoming rare, and were the question the warmth which comes of fully satisfied of breakfast only studied with the keen- appetite, nor the keenness which slight ness, ardour, and purity of purpose dis- hunger fosters in city-bred men. The played on the greater question of dinner, French feel that, and qualify wine and wawould spee lily be extinct. Of course any ter by a petit verre of brandy, - the most real reform on the point must arise from a dangerous habit into which an Englishman development of the inward consciousness, can fall. For those who live habitually in a cultivation of the latent conscience of the the open air beer may possibly be healthy, stomach, but a good deal of external aid and it certainly did not hurt our ancestors, can be gained from Mr. Bentley's little but with the majority of their weakly debrochure. Its editor has made that one scendants the habit either produces corhuge mistake about crab - as if one should pulence or a permanent irritability and begin breakfast with soup – but we have sense of unrest. The instinct which has not discovered a second impiety of the led men to milder liquors swallowed hot is, kind, and his views upon omelettes are at we believe, sound, tea being injurious only once orthodox and expansive. There is a to the sedentary, cocoa only to the fat, and little hint about the impropriety of turning coffee in the morning to nobody, while the heat relieves the faint chill which in this the breakfast, eggs are the commonest, climate a man who has not walked before prawns, sardines, pickled palates, omelettes, breakfast is at breakfast sure to feel for nine cresses, and caviare are perhaps the best, months in the year. An instinct has in this and a great deal more might be done with matter come to the aid of science, but then the roes of different fish, the sounds of cod, people who respect their stomachs should and fish pickled in oil, than has yet been. draw the obvious deduction from their in- attempted. People are so unenterprising stincts, and taking mild liquors hot, should hat we doubt if dried mango fish, the Intake their solids cold. Fried bacon under dian delicacy, are procurable in London, that rule stands prohibited, and eggs are and American cranberries, the one “jam only allowed hot because no Englishman a man may consider it no disgrace to like, ever thinks of eating them cold – except never seem to pass through Liverpool. Hot when laid by plovers or has the faintest buttered toast, buttered rolls, and soft butidea of the kind of “ confection” into tered biscuits are all mistakes, partly for which the cold yolk of a hard-boiled egg the reasons which should exclude hot meat, could by a little art be turned. Of solids and partly from the fact that half-baked meat and bread are of course the best, vege- flour heated and drowned in butter makes tables being forbidden, first, because they the eater heavy for the day. Fruit is inought to be eaten the moment they are comparably better at breakfast than at ready, and punctuality at breakfast is an any other time, though so rarely seen in abominable oppression ; secondly, because England, where, having the best fruit in the smell of all vegetables haunts a house ; the world, we studiously preserve it for the and thirdly, because, except the potato, exact moment when we do not want it, and they do not really strengthen, and break- when its flavour spoils that of the wine. fast is the doctor's meal. Every variety of We have seen human beings eat strawbercold meat, cold game, potted meat, potted ries and cream with Lafitte. A little fresh game, potted fish, and those things which fruit is at breakfast a perfect digester, but though meats, are not usually called meat, in truth it. is useless writing about fruit. tongue, brawn, boar's head, pickled poultry Englishmen never will know anything
a luxury absurdly neglected - and ham, about it, except how to grow the best fruits are good for the higher objects of break- in the world. Nothing in the world comeş fast. The best are probably the potted near the brown greengage, but between the things, and meats which are not meat, be- perversity of public taste and the indiffercause they tempt men to eat bread, the best ence of the Duke of Bedford, who ought of all food, and for two reasons too much to be offered the alternative of quadrupavoided by the well-to-do. They learn to ling Covent Garden or attending the House like flavour, and bread by itself is very every night for a twelvemonth, a real dish flavourless, and it is the custom in England of greengages, a heaped dish, with six or to bake bread in the worst possible way, eight dozens of the fruit in it, costs as in such masses that the body of the loaf is much as half a dozen of champagne. Fruit a soft, spongy, white mass, very little more should not be eaten in ones, but in masses, edible than a bun. Very good wives will as the Americans eat it, and it would be, let their husbands “peel the loaf,” but even did not London set the fashion, while they will not let anybody else, and so the bouring under a monopoly which absolutely poor men who would eat crust, i. e., good forbids even reasonable competition. The wheat flour properly baked, are forced idea of breakfast in fact should be cold either to eat flour half raw or abandon solids and bread flavoured with prepared the bread for solid meat. Puddings of all meat, and within these limits it is possible, kind are an abomination, and Mr. Bentley's as Mr. Bentley's book shows, to secure an editor ought to be ashamed of himself for almost infinite variety, and to compose a inserting them in his list. Indeed he is breakfast almost as carefully as a dinner. ashamed of them, for the chapter headed With three or four alternatives
say ham, "Puddings" is filled with receipts for meat, cold chicken, potted fish, brawn, sardines, cheeses, and the peculiarly nasty agglomera- and perhaps mushrooms alone hot, the joint tion of chopped meat screwed in little bags cold, tea, coffee, and cocoa the last inof entrail called sausages. Cheese is ban- juriously neglected, owing chiefly to an idea ished from English breakfast-tables, though current among cooks that it can be made retained in Holland and some parts of Italy, with water, whereas water should never and its exclusion seems to be based upon go near it - even an Englishman may rise nothing more important than a passing to his opportunities, and perceive that fashion. Of lighter things the entrees of though the primary idea of breakfast must
always be the vulgar one of food, still due almost constantly ringing in my ears for the dignity may by art be secured to its posi- last fifteen months, for during the whole of tion among meals. If the alternatives seem this time I venture to say that they have too many, they can be reduced without in- not been hushed more than a fortnight jury to the great principle, and a slice of together. There is something horribly disthe joint, an egg, and a little potted meat mal in this boom and howl; sometimes it or anchovy paste will yield a breakfast makes my flesh creep to hear them, although sufficient to secure the last of the requisites I am now so well used to it. Had the rowe intend to suggest.
mantic admirers of this sort of thing been in This is the capacity for eating a consid- my place, I would have been thankful; and erable meal. There is no time at which they, I have no doubt, would have been the average Englishman really needs a good quite satisfied. I would not wish my greatsupply of food so much as at breakfast. At est enemy to have been similarly situated." dinner he is exhausted with the day, and But then it must be admitted that Captain wants succulent things and soups, and "Musgrave's desert island was not quite of above all wine — food which gets into the the sort that we used to wish for. In the blood quickly, yet which will not destroy first place it was a very wet desert island, his evening by sending him to sleep. But where it rained almost all the year round, at breakfast he has not eaten for fourteen and there is something exceedingly damphours, and if he shares the antipathy we ing, not only to the skin, but to the heroic have expressed to lunch, will not eat again imagination, about getting, wet through for dine more, and he has really to find babitually. In the next place, it was a fuel for the whole of his most active exist- very hungry desert island, where you could ence. He wants, or ought to want, a large gather nothing of importance to satisfy meal, and we believe great breakfast-eaters your hunger in the shape of fruits or roots, are invariably healthy men. Their frames and where seal-meat was the only nutriare never exhausted, or tempted to prey ment commonly procurable, and that by on themselves, and make the nerves do the no means in abundance when once the duty of the tissues, like the bodies of those seals got notice of the seal-eating habits of who considers it sound hygiene to fritter the new inhabitants. Now hunger become away an appetite on tea and toast. They habitual is a prosaic and disagreeable conare incurable, for at heart they regard dition of body, and seal-meat, except when gastronomy as Dr. Colenso regards the very young and tender, is coarse, oily, and Pentateuch, and must be given up, as rather rancid. In the third place, the Archbishops give up that unfortunate pre- mosquitoes, or rather sand-flies, bit intoleralate; but to the faithful we may still sug- bly all the year round, very nearly as badly gest that the hygienic meal of the day — when the thermometer was six or seven the one to be based most strictly on scienti- degrees below the freezing point as in the fic data, is the one which Englishmen so-called
Now the irritation hitherto have most neglected, and in which arising from the bites of sand-flies is a very perhaps only Scotchmen and Anglo-Indians great hindrance to romance, as anybody perfectly succeed.
who has lived on the sea shore in a tropical climate very well knows. Such were the positive hindrances to any of the joys of Crusoeism, if any such there are. On the other hand, there was the constant
craving to get away, to know how those at
From the Spectator. bome were bearing their anxiety, and THE REALISM OF DESERT ISLANDS.* whether they would send to succour them CAPTAIN MUSGRAVE, who has tried it, is
- (the destination of the shipwrecked party no admirer of desert-island romance.
was known, and Captain Musgrave had exdeed he speaks bitterly of it. When he pressly told his Australian friends, that he had been trying it for some fifteen months of the Auckland islands when he had reach
feared shipwreck much more on the coast he writes, “ The sea booms and the wind howls. These are sounds which have been
ed them for sealing purposes, than he did any mischance in the open sea) — and in
short, all those terrible searchings of *Castaway on the Auckland Isles. A Narrative of the Wreck of the Grafton, and of the Escape of heart” which constitute to imaginative the Crew after Twenty Months' Suffering; from the readers part of the romantic fascinations Private Journal of Captain Thomas Musgrave. of Crusoe stories, though we do not suppose Edited by John J. Shillinglaw, F. R. G. S. don: Lockwood and Co.
they are of the same nature to actual ad