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300 and 400 students: it has a library of 30,000 volumes, | be of Etruscan construction, but called the arch of Auguswith some valuable MSS., among others a Stephanus By- tus. The church S. Angelo is built on the site and with zantinus, a botanical garden, a collection of minerals, and a the materials of an antient temple. For the Etruscan recabinet of antiquities rich in Etruscan inscriptions, bronzes, mains at Perugia, see ETRURIA (Antiquities). vases, and medals. The academy of the fine arts has a col- Some interesting excavations are now going on at Perugia lection of paintings by natives of Perugia and of the territory, and many objects of antiquity have just been discovered ir. Several noblemen have also galleries of paintings in their the immediate vicinity of the city wbile making a new road. palaces, such as the Marquis Monaldi, Baron della Penna, (Communication from Perugia, Jan., 1840.) Count Staffa, Odui, &c. Perugia has a school of music, Perusia was one of the principal cities of antient Etruria, two theatres, a dramatic academy, a casino, or assembly- but it seems to have been built before the Etruscan domirooms of the nobility, and a literary cabinet or club. Pe- nion by a colony of Umbri from Sarsina. (Servius, x. 201.) rugia has long been distinguished among the provincial In an Etruscan inscription in the Museum Oddi it is called towns of the Papal State for its love of learning. A bio- Perusei. Perusia acted a principal part in the wars of the graphical list of authors natives of Perugia has been com- Etruscans against Rome; its troops were defeated by the menced by Professor Vermiglioli, " Biographia degli Scrittori consul L. Fabius Maximus, and then Perusia, together with Perugini,' but not completed. Vermiglioli has also pub- Arretium, sued for peace, and paid tribute to Rome, 294 lished a catalogue of writers who have illustrated the history B.C. (Livy, x. 31, 37.) In the second Punic war, Perusia of his native city: Biblioteca Storica Perugina, 4to., Pe- was one of the allied towns that sent timber and provisions rugia, 1823. Oldoni has written Athenæum Augustum to Scipio to fit out his armament against Africa. During in quo Perusinorum Scripta publice exponuntur, 1678. the second triumvirate, the consul Lucius Antonius, brother Passeri has written the lives of the native artists: Vite dei of Marcus the Triumvir, stimulated by Fulvia, his sisterPittori, Scultori, ed Architetti Perugini,' 4to., 1732. Bran-in-law, having quarrelled with Octavian, and being defeated, dolesi has given an account of the works published at shut himself up in the town of Perusia, where he sustained Perugia in the first century of the invention of printing: a long siege, and at last, through famine, was obliged to ‘La Tipographia Perugina del Secolo XV. illustrata,' &vo., surrender to Octarian, who put to death 300 of the principal 1807. Vermiglioli has written on the mint of Perugia : citizens of Perusia, and gave up the town to plunder. De• Memorie della Zecca e delle Moneti Perugine,' 8vo., 1816. rusia was on that occasion nearly destroyed by fire. The antiquities of Perugia, both Etruscan and Roman, have It was afterwards rebuilt under the name of Perusia been illustrated by Orsini, Vermiglioli, and Bianchini; and Augusta. At the fall of the Western Empire, it was devasthe modern works of art by Mariotti and Morelli, Pitture tated by the Goths under Tolila. It passed afterwards e Sculture della Città di Perugia,' 1683, besides the com- through the same vicissitudes as most other towns of Italy: mon guide-books. Among the contemporary learned men it ruled itself for a time as a free municipality, had its facof Perugia, the antiquarian Vermiglioli, Mezzanotte (the tions of Guelphs and Guibelines, its own tyrants, and at translator of Pindar and professor of Greek literature), last submitted voluntarily to the rule of Braccio da MonCanali (professor of physics and rector of the university), tone, one of the best and wisest chieftains of the middle Colizzi (professor of law), and Antinori (a poet and professor ages. After his death, the government passed through the of Italian literature), deserve notice. Perugia has produced hands of several of his relatives, and from them to that of two burlesque poets, Coppetta and Caporali

, the latter of the family of Baglioni. Giovani Paolo Baglioni, being whom is considered by many as equal to Berni.

seized at Rome by Pope Leo X., was beheaded on some poThe population of Perugia, including the suburbs, is litical charge. His descendants however gorerned Perugia 15,000 (Calindri); in the time of its independence, in the for some years after, until Pope Paul III. united it to the sixteenth century, the population was reckoned at 40,000. Papal State and built the citadel. (Ciatti, Memorie di Pe. The circumference of the walls is above six miles, but much rugia; Mariotti, Saggio di Memorie Istoriche dellu Città of the area within is open and unbuilt upon. The citadel, from di Perugia.) which there is a splendid view, extending on one side along Twelve miles north of Perugia, in a romantic situation the valley of the Tiber, and on the other over the basin of among the Apennines, is the monastery of Monte Corona, the lake, the plains beyond it, and the long chain of the belonging to ihe order of Camaldoli, the monks of which Apennines, was built by Pope Paul III., to keep the city in have cultivated and planted with trees the surrounding terawe, and it occupies a considerable space. Perugia has ritory. This monastery was one of the few that was spared some manufactories of silks, woollens, and soap, but the by the French during their occupation of the Papal State. principal trade consists in the products of its fertile terri- The monks have an hospice at the foot of the mountain for the tory, corn, oil, wool, and cattle.

reception of travellers. (Premuda, La Istoria Romoaldina, Among the many churches of Perugia, said to be above ovvero Eremitica di Monte Corona, Venice, 1590.) one hundred, the most remarkable are-1, the Duomo, or PERUGI'NO, PIETRO, or PIETRO VANNUCCI cathedral, in the Gothic style, with some good paintings by DELLA PIEVE, · DE CASTRO PLEBIS,' was the son Signorelli, Baroccio, and others. A painting by Perugino, of a certain Cristofano, a poor man of Castello della Pieve, representing the marriage of the Virgin, which adorned where Pietro was born, in the year 1446. His father is this church, was taken away at the first invasion of Bona- said to have placed liim as a shop-boy (fattorino) with a parte, and it is not known what has become of it. The number painter of Perugia. When about twenty-five years of ago of masterpieces of paintings taken from Perugia by the he visited Florence, and, according to Vasari, became a pupil French amounts to about thirty. Some were restored at of Andrea Verocchio, the master of Lorenzo di Credi' and the peace, but it seems that, instead of returning to Perugia, Leonardo da Vinci; but this fact seems very doubtful. In they have been placed in the Vatican gallery at Rome. 2. the course of a few years he attained considerable reputaThe church of S. Francesco was plundered of the 'De- tion, and his works were so much esteemed as to be exported. scent from the Cross,' by Raphael, at an earlier date, by In 1475 we find him employed by the magistrates of Perugia, Paul V., and this picture is now in the Borghese Gallery. and the order for a payment to him in that year appears 3, The vast Benedictine convent of S. Pietro, one of the on the public records of the town. In 1480 he executed wealthiest in the Papal State, has several paintings by Va- some frescoes for Sixtus IV. in the Sistine chapel at Rome: sari. 4, The church of S. Domenico has a fine coloured only one or two of these now remain, the greater part having glass window in the choir, and the tomb of Pope Benedict been destroyed to make room for the Last Judgment of XI., who died at Perugia in 1304, is remarkable for its M. Angelo in the time of Paul III. The Dead Christ, and sculptures. Descriptions of each of these churches are other figures so much praised by Vasari, were painted for the published.

nuns of Santa Chiara at Florence in 1485. Francesco del The town-house, ' Palazzo dei Priori,' a vast Gothic build-Pugliese is said to have bid for this picture three times the ing, and the residence of the delegate and of the municipal original price, and a duplicate by Perugino, but the offer authorities, contains the archives of Perugia, among which was refused. In the year 1500 Pietro executed the frescoes are some curious documents of the middle ages. The old in the Cambio at Perugia. He afterwards visited Florence exchange, ‘Sala del Cambio,' is adorned with beautiful again, but, in consequence of a quarrel with the artists there, frescoes by Perugino. The square before the cathedral returned to the city whence he derives his name. He died contains a beautiful fountain, with sculptures by Giovanni at Castello della Pieve, in 1524. da Pisa. In the square ‘Del Papa’ is the bronze statue of The fame of Perugino has certainly been widely spread, Julius III. seated in a chair, cast by Vincenzo Danti of from the circumstance of his having been the teacher of Perugia. The Place Grimana has a handsome gate, said to | Raphael; but, at the same time, the superior genius of the



Vasari says


pupil has thrown into comparative obscurity the real merit | most original and tasteful edifices of its class in that city. of the master. Perugino was a most unequal painter : his Instead of being perplexed by the awkwardness of the early works are far better than those executed after 1500. site, he availed himself of it to curve the front of the buildThe popularity of his pictures, and the facility which he ing, and thereby produce so happy an effect that such form had acquired, produced repetition and mechanical execution. seems to have been entirely the result of choice, and inde

- he gave all his figures one and the same air;' pendent of other circumstances. The loggia and small it must however be admitted that that air' is far superior inner court are singularly beautiful, and the whole edifice to the contortions of Vasari himself and his fellow-pupils in deserves the attention it has received in a folio work, by the school of M. Angelo. Perugino lived to see the contlict Suys and Haudebourt, expressly devoted to it, and containbetween the old and simple style and the very different prin- ing outline engravings of all its parts and details (Paris, ciples of the great master just named. With M. Angelo 1818). himself he is reported to have had a public quarrel: Va- Peruzzi made a design for St. Peter's on the plan of a sari's account therefore of his moral character must be Greek cross, which, had it been executed, would have surreceived with some little suspicion. He says that Perugino passed the present structure; also two different designs for was an infidel, who could never be brought to believe in the the facade of S. Petronio at Bologna. On Rome being immortality of the soul, and who would do anything for taken and sacked by the Constable Bourbon, it was with money. At the same time he gives him great credit for extreme difficulty that Baldassare escaped from the bands his technical skill, especially in colouring.

of the soldiery, and after being pillaged of everything, Among the best pictures of Perugino now extant are:- reached Siena, where he was most kindly received, and An Infant Christ, Virgin, and Angels, painted in 1480, and employed on various buildings. He returned however to preserved in the Albani Palace at Rome; a Fresco in Santa Rome, and it was then that he built the Palazzo Massimi, M. Maddalena dei Pazzi at Florence, executed at a later but did not live to see it quite completed. He died in 1536, period; the Dead Christ, before alluded to (now in the Pitti not without suspicion of having been poisoned by a rival Palace, No. 164); one or two pictures in the Accademia at who sought to obtain the appointment which he held as Florence; and his frescoes in the Cambio at Perugia. Mr. architect of St. Peter's. He was buried in the Pantheon, Beckford, in this country, possesses a work of Perugino's near Raphael. best time.

PE'SÅRO E URBI'NO, LEGAZIONE DI, a proRaphael was a pupil of Perugino, and his early works, vince of the Papal State, is bounded on the east by the prosuch as the Marriage of the Virgin, greatly resemble those vince of Ancona, on the north and north-east by the Adriatic of his master. [RAPHAEL.]

Sea, on the west by the province of Forli and the grandThe following painters were among the most eminent duchy of Tuscany, and on the south by the province of Pescholars of Perugino :-Pinturicchio of Perugia; Andrea rugia. The area is estimated at 1749 square miles. (NeigeLuigi d'Ascesi, called l'Ingegno; Giovanni Spagnuolo, sur- baur.) The central ridge of the Apennines, which divides named Lo Spagna; and Rocco Zoppo of Florence.

the province of Pesaro e Urbino from Tuscany, projects (Vasari, Vite dei Pittori; Rumohr, Italienische For- eastward towards the Adriatic in the neighbourhood of schungen; Lanzi, Storia Pittoricu.)

Urbino, and sends off several offsets, which run to the seaPERU'SIA. (PERUGIA.]

coast, forming the natural boundary between Northern and PERUVIAN ARCHITECTURE. [PERU.]

Southern Italy. The mountain on which San Marino stands PERUVIAN BARK. (CINCHONA.]

forms part of one of these offsets. (San Marino.] Several PERUZZI, BALDASSARE, an architect of less cele- streams run in a north-east direction from the Apennines to brity than many greatly inferior to him in design, was born the sea. The first of these streams, reckoning from the north, in 1481, at Volterra, to which city his father Antonio had is the Conca, which runs along the boundary between the removed, in order to avoid the civil dissensions which agi. province of Forli and that of Pesaro, and after a course oť tated Florence. A few years afterwards Volterra itself was about twenty-five miles enters the sea near La Cattolica. besieged and sacked, and Antonio fled to Siena, where The next is the Foglia, the antient Pisaurus, which rises in the family lived in reduced circumstances, having lost the Apennines of Carpegna on the Tuscan border, and after nearly all their property. On his father's death, Baldassare, a course of forty-six miles enters the sea at the town of who had enjoyed opportunities of access to many artists and Pesaro. Farther south is the Metauro, the largest river in their works, determined to apply himself to painting, which the province, which rises near Borgo Pace on the east side he did with so much assiduity, both from his natural incli- of the Apennines that bound the valley of the upper Tiber: nation and from his wish to aid his mother and sister, that it runs first due east, passing by the towns of St. Angelo and he made extraordinary progress. After executing some sub- Urbania, receives the united stream of the Cantiano and jects in a chapel at Volterra, he accompanied a painter of Candigliano, which comes from the south from the mounthat city, named Piero, to Rome, where the latter was em- tains of Gubbio, then turning to the north-east passes by ployed by Alexander VI. The death of that pope frus- Fossombrone, and enters the sea by the town of Fano, after frated their scheme of working in concert at the Vatican; a course of nearly sixty miles. According to a tradition however Baldassare remained for awhile at Rome, where among the country-people, the spot in which Hasdrubal was he painted some frescoes in the church of S. Onofrio, and defeated and killed is a plain called Piano di San Silvestro, in that of San Rocco à Ripa, and distinguished himself by above the confluence of the Cantiano, and about six miles some others at Ostia, particularly by one in chiaro-scuro, south of the town of Urbino. A tower on a hill called representing a siege by Roman warriors, and remarkable Monte d'Elce, on the right bank of the Metaurus, is called for the strict fidelity of the antient military costume, which the sepulchre of Hasdrubal. The Flaminian road from Fano he derived from bas-reliefs and other existing monuments. crosses the Metaurus above Fossombrone, and follows the

On returning to Rome he found a liberal patron in the course of the Cantiano, ascending the Apennines above the celebrated Agostino Chigi (a native of Siena), by whom source of the latter river, and afterwards descending by he was enabled to continue at Rome for the purpose of de- Gualdo to Nocera. The next river in the province of Pesaro voting himself chiefly to the study of architecture. The is the Césano, which rises in the mountains of Avellana, acquirements he thus made soon displayed themselves in passes the town of Pérgola and the site of the antient town what was then quite a new career of art, namely architec- of Suasa, of which some remains are still visible, and enters tural perspectives and scene-painting; and the science of the sea north-west of Sinigaglia, after a course of about thirty perspective and its application to pictorial illusion and miles. South-east of the Césano is the Misa, which enters effect. To what perfection he brought this branch of art the sea at Sinigaglia, after a course of about twenty-five miles. may be judged from what Vasari relates, who says that on The surface of the province of Pesaro e Urbino is hilly; his taking Titian to see some of Peruzzi's works, that great some parts of it are very fertile, but the mountains are painter could hardly believe at first that the objects were generally barren. The lower hills are planted with vines, not real. Of his astonishing performances in scene paint- olive, and mulberry-trees. Good pasture is also abundant. ing there is now no evidence, but some idea of his extraor- The province is divided into five districts—Urbino, Pesaro, dinary ability in it may still be formed from the painted | Fano, Sinigaglia, and Gubbio, containing altogether 226,000 architecture, &c. with which he decorated a gallery in the inhabitants. (Serristori.) The principal towns are-URBINO, Farnesina. It was not however in scenic and fictitious which is the old capital of the province and the residence architecture alone that he displayed his talent for that art; of the former dukes. 2. Pésaro, the antient Pisaurum, a he designed many elegant façades at Rome, and gave proof well-built town and a bishop's see, has several fine churches of his superior ability in the Palazzo Massimi, one of the with some good paintings, a fine market-place, several




palaces of the nobility, and the palace of the former dukes a most expert swimmer and diver, and that he could remain della Rovere, who were once sovereigns of this little state, a longer under water than any other person on record. Ho public library of 15,000 volumes, with a museum and a cabinet had been accustomed from his boyhood to dive for oysters of models bequeathed by Olivieri, a learned man of Pesaro, to and coral along the coast of his native country. It is rehis townsmen. Pesaro has a small harbour, several manufac- ported that_king Frederic once asked him to dive into the tories of silks, pottery and glass, and leather, and about 11,000 sea off the Point of Faro, where the current forms a whirlinhabitants. (Calindri.) The surrounding territory, which pool known by the name of Charybdis; and as Pesce hesiis very fruitful, produces, among other things, excellent figs. tated, the king threw a golden cup into the sea, when Pesce and is covered with pleasant country-houses. Pesaro car- plunged in, and after remaining a considerable time under ries on a considerable trade in the agricultural products of water, brought up the cup, to which the king added a purse the province. A bed of coal has been discovered in the of gold as a gift. Pesce was induced to repeat the experineighbourhood. Pesaro has a civil and criminal court, and ment, but he never rose again from the sea. (Kircher, a commercial tribunal, a college, and a clerical seminary. Mundus Subterraneus, b. i.) We know now that the whirlIt is the birth-place of Pandolfo Collenuccio, a chronicler pool of Charybdis is not so fearful as it was once represented and poet of the fifteenth century; of Count Perticari, a phi- to be, and that at times there is very little agitation in the Jologist and son-in-law of Monti; and of the musical com- water. poser Rossini. 3. Fano, the antient Fanum Fortunæ, is a Mariotti, in his Riflessioni' on the lake of Perugia, town with about 7000 inhabitants. It has a triumphal speaks of a fisherman called Nonno di San Feliciano, who arch dedicated to Augustus, which has been badly restored, was • a great swimmer and diver, like Pesce Cola of Sicily and therefore spoiled (Poletti, Ragionamento intorno all' and lived almost entirely in the water. He lived till past Arco d'Augusto in Fano), several churches with paintings ninety years of age.' It must be observed however that the by Guido and Guercino, a handsome theatre, some silk | lake of Perugia is not very deep. manufactories, and a public library. On the coast near PESHAWER. [AFGHANISTAN.) Fano are taken great quantities of a small fish called “cavallo PESTH, the greatest commercial town and the most marino,' the head of which resembles that of a horse, and populous city in Hungary, is situated in 47° 30' N. lat. and has a sort of mane attached to it. 4. Sinigaglia, the an- i9° 4' E. long., on the left or east bank of the Danube, tient Sena Gallica, is a bustling town with a small harbour, about 20 miles from the spot where the course of the river, several churches and convents, and about 8000 inhabitants. till then nearly from west to east, makes a sudden bend to It is chiefly remarkable on account of its great fair, one of the south. On the other side of the Danube, which is here the largest in Italy, which is held in the month of July, and about 1500 feet broad, is the city of Ofen. (BUDA) The is frequented by tradespeople from all parts of Italy, and two cities are connected by a bridge of boats, which, inalso from other countries. About 200 vessels, mostly of cluding the fixed portion on the two banks, is 1500 paces small burthen, of the various nations which trade in the in length. The city of Pesth is about seven miles in circumMediterranean, arrive at Sinigaglia at that time, and bring ference. It consists of five principal parts – 1, the old town, colonial and other produce, and also French, English, and which, though antiquated and irregularly built, contains German manufactures. The celebrated singer Madame some fine buildings; 2, the Leopoldstadt, or new town; Catalani, was a native of Sinigaglia. 5. Fossombrone, situ- 3, the Theresienstadt; 4, the Josephstadt; and 5, the ated on a hill about a mile and a half from the ruins of Franzstadt - so named after the sovereigns in whose Forum Sempronii, which are lower down the banks of the reigns they were built. Leopoldstadt is now joined to the Metaurus, is a bishop's see, has several churches and con- old town, the walls which formerly surrounded the latter vents, a bridge on the Metaurus, and about 4000 inhabitants. having been levelled to make room for new buildings The silk spun at Fossombrone is considered the best in Italy. Leopoldstadt is built on a very regular plan. The other three 6. Gubbio, the antient Iguvium, a city of the Umbri, is situ- parts or suburbs are separated from these two by a very broad ated out of the high road on the southern slope of the Apen street. Among the fifteen churches, that of ihe university nines near the sources of the Chiascio, an affluent of the is distinguished by its fine steeple and excellent fresco Tiber: it has several churches and other buildings worthy of paintings. The other Roman Catholic churches, 11 in numnotice, and about 4500 inhabitants. Oid Iguvium was in a ber, are not remarkable; but the Greek church on the Dalower situation than the present town; the amphitheatre is nube is one of the finest buildings in the city. The two still in tolerable preservation ; eighteen of the lower arches Protestant churches are very plain edifices. Of the other are remaining, as well as three of the upper row. There is public buildings, the following deserve notice: the great also an antient tomb, with other remains of antiquity. No barracks built by Charles VI.; the hospital of invalids, au traces of the temple of Jupiter Apenninus, an old deity of immense edifice begun in 1786 under Joseph II., the the Umbri, are visible at Gubbio, but according to Micali, building of which was interrupted by the Turkish war they are to be seen three miles from Chiascerna, the antient (it is not known to what use it was destined by that Clavernium, not far from the post station of La Scheggia emperor; at present it serves as barracks for a regiment in the Apennines, on the high road called the Furlo. In of artillery); the theatre, a very handsome edifice, capable this neighbourhood also were found, about the middle of of containing 3000 spectators; the national museum, and the fifteenth century, the seven bronze tablets written partly the university. The university was founded in 1635 at in Etruscan and partly in Latin characters, and known Tyrnau. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it by the name of the Eugubine tables, which are now in exercised, through the powerful agency of the Jesuits, great the museum of Gubbio. According to the interpretation of intluence over the people. In the year 1777 it was Lanzi, they relate entirely to the religious rites of the an- transferred by Maria Theresa to Ofen, and in 1784 by tient Umbri. 7. Cagli, the antient Callis, a Roman colony, Joseph II. to Pesth. The branches of learning taught are on the Flaminian road, has about 3000 inhabitants, and theology, law, medicine, philosophy, philology, and masome remains of antiquity. 8. Urbania, a modern town, thematics. There are 49 professors and above 1000 students. which derives its name from pope Urban VIII., is situated | The university has a library of 60,000 volumes, a cabinet of on the banks of the Metaurus, has a collegiate church, a natural history, a collection of medals, a chemical laboratory, manufactory of majolica, or Delft ware, and about 4400 in- and an anatomical and pathological collection. Dependhabitants. 9. Pérgola, on the Césano, has 2500 inhabitants. ent on it are the botanic garden, the veterinary school, the [Calindri.)

university hospital, and the observatory at Ofen, which The province of Pesaro e Urbino is very interesting for its stands on the Blocksberg. 278 feet above the Danube, and romantic scenery, its classical recolleciions, and the nu- is well furnished with good instruments. The National Mumerous remains of antiqnity which are scattered about it. seum, which is independent of the university, was founded

PESCE, NICOLA, or COLA, a famous Sicilian swim- by Count Szecsenyi, who gave his fine library and a valuamer and diver, who lived towards the end of the fourteenth ble collection of Hungarian coins and medals, and induced century. His name was Nicholas, and he was surnamed the Diet in 1808 to endow it. It would take a volume to de* Pesce' (the fislı) on account of his expertness in diving. scribe this museum. The collection of coins and medals Frederic II., king of the Two Sicilies, employed him, and contains above 60,000 specimens, of which the Greek, encouraged his feats. The most incredible stories are told Roman, and other antique silver medals amount to above of him; it is said that he passed whole hours under water, 12,000. The gymnasium of the Piarists has 800 scholars; and whole days in the water; that he used to swim from and the city normal school (likewise in the convent of the Sicily to the Lipari Islands, carrying letters and despatches Piarists), above 400. There are eight other Catholic schools, in a leathern bag, &c. The truth seems to be that he was two Greek, and two Protestant schools. The Roman Catholic girls' school of the English ladies, as it is called, has 400 | the præcordia, are among the first symptoms of the disease. day-scholars and 40 boarders.

These are succeeded by a burning pain about the pit of the Though Buda is the residence of the viceroy and the stomach; by a peculiar muddiness of the eyes; by coma, capital of the kingdom, Pesth is the seat of the high court delirium, and other affections of the sensorium, which terof justice, and of the supreme court of appeal and other minate by death in some cases on the second or third day, tribunals, and also of the government of the three united before the pathognomic symptoms, buboes and carbuncles, counties of Pesth, Pils, and Solther, which contains a popu- have appeared. In other cases these last-mentioned symptoms lation of 400,000 inhabitants. The manufactures are of silk, are present, together with purple spots and ecchymoses, which cotton, leather, jewellery, and musical instruments, but on belong to the plague in common with other malignant a small scale; that of iobacco is a government monopoly. fevers. Though these are the ordinary symptoms of plague, Pesth however has, next to Vienna, the greatest trade of any they are not all invariably observed in the same individual; city on the Danube. It has four fairs, each of which lasts a but many varieties occur, which chiefly have reference to fortnight. The principal articles sold are manufactures and the greater or less virulence of the disease, and the absence colonial produce, and the natural productions of the country, or presence of some particular symptoms. Thus, we are such as cattle, wine, wool, tobacco, and raw hides, honey, wax, informed by Sydenham that in the infancy of the great &c. Above 14,000 waggons and 8000 ships are employed in plague of London scarce a day passed but some of those conveying goods to and from the fairs, the value of which at who were seized with it died suddenly in the streets, without each of them is from 16 to 17 millions of tlorins. The environs having had any previous sickness; ihe purple spots, which of Pesth are not picturesque, the city being situated on a sandy denote immediate death, coming out all over the body, even plain, but there are some fine promenades, such as the Grove, when persons were abroad about their business; whereas a mile and a half from the city; the gardens of Baron after it had continued for some time, it destroyed none, Orczy; and the Palatine, or Margaret Island, in the Danube, unless a fever and other symptoms had preceded. Dr. which is laid out in walks and gardens with great taste. Russell describes six classes or varieties of plague, in some Among the inhabitants are many noblemen, country gentle- of which the fever appears to have been very violent, while men, professors, judges, and lawyers. The population of in others it was proportionally mild. The most destructive Pesth consisted (1833) of 62,850 inhabitants, of whom forms of the disease, according to this author, were marked about 54,000 were Roman Catholics, 3000 Protestants, 817 | by severe febrile symptoms; and the infected of this class Greeks, and 5000 Jews. With the addition of the garrison seldom or never had buboes or carbuncles. The bubo how(9133 men) and the numerous strangers, the population ever was the most frequent concomitant afterwards; caramounts to 75,000. Pesth, though an antient town, is in buncles, on the contrary, were remarked in one-third of the its present form comparatively recent. It has been fre- infected only, and were seldom observed at Aleppo earlier quently laid waste by war, and was in the possession of the than the month of May, near three months after the disease Turks for nearly 160 years, who were not finally expelled began to spread. The carbuncle increased in the summer, till 1686. Civil war followed, and at the beginning of the was less common in the autumn, and very rarely was observed eighteenth century Pesth was one of the most inconsider- in the winter. The absence of bubo and carbuncle at the able towns in the kingdom. Its improvement may be dated commencement of the plague has been one of the grounds from the reign of Maria Theresa, and it has since been of contention among writers as to the real nature of the progressive and rapid. In 1793 there were only 2580 houses : disease. Diemerbroech and some others assure us that no there were in 1837, 4500. The winter of 1838 was disastrous one symptom is pathognomonic of plague, and Dr. Russell tu Pesthi, above 1200 houses being destroyed by the overflow- concludes that the plague, under a form of all others the ing of the Danube. They were however, for the most part, most destructive, exists without its characteristic symptoms, the worst buildings in the city, and there is little doubt that can admit of no doubt.' From all the evidence upon this the spirit of the inhabitants, aided by the munificent con- subject that we have been able to collect, it plainly appears tributions sent to them from all parts of the empire, will in that authors are by no means agreed on the existence of the a few years efface all traces of the devastation.

plague as a distinct disease. The symptoms, morbid changes, (J. v. Thiele, Das Königreich Ungarn, vol. vi.; Oester- history, and more of propagation of plague, bear so close reichische National Encyclopädie; R. E. v. Jenny, Hand- a resemblance to those of the malignant typhus of this counbuch für Reisende in Oesterreich; Blumenbach, Gemälde try, that it is difficult to regard them otherwise than as types der Oesterreichischen Monarchie.)

of the same disease. This opinion is strengthened by the PESTILENCE, or PLAGUE, is a disease of so fatal authority of Dr. Mackenzie, who resided thirty years at and malignant a nature, that to this very circumstance it Constantinople. •The annual pestilential fever of that probably owes its nomenclature; but some misapprehen- | place,' he observes,' very much resembles that of our gaols sion exists as to its definite character, and this has originated and crowded hospitals, and is only called plague when atfrom writers having applied the terms pestilential and pesti- tended with buboes and carbuncles. Sir John Pringle lent in a generic sense to diseases specifically different; too observes, 'that though the hospital or gaol fever may hence we read of pestilential small-pox, pestilential cholera, differ in species from the true plague, yet it may be accounted &c. In fact every virulent and contagious disease may be of the same genus, as it seems to proceed from a like cause, called pestilent, but every pestilential disease is not plague. and is attended with similar symptoms.' The buboes which In casting a glance over the histories of these epidemics, it characterise plague consist of inflammatory swellings of is obvious that many things are involved in obscurity: the glands in the groin and armpits; the parotid, maxillary, Numerous facts have however been collected, and are agreed and cervical glands sometimes, but less frequently, become upon by all parties, and we shall endeavour, by a comparison affected. These buboes may either suppurate or gradually of these, to arrive at some definite conclusion as to the na-disperse: when suppuration occurs, it is seldom till the fever ture of plague. The nosological definition of this disease has begun to abate, and is manifestly on the decline, as by Dr. Cullen is perhaps as correct as can be given in few about the eighth or ninth day. Carbuncles consist of inwords:-A typhius fever, in the highest degree contagious, tlamed pustules or angry pimples, which, instead of supand accompanied with extreme debility. On an uncertain purating, frequently terminate in mortification. They may day of the disease, there is an eruption of buboes or car- be seated on any part of the body. The morbid changes buncles.' Dr. Patrick Russell, who practised at Aleppo that are met with in the bodies of those who die from plague during the plague of 1760-1-2, informs us that its progress are very similar to what we find in typhus, yellow fever, and at its commencement is much the same in the several parts in the carcasses of animals that have died in consequence of the Levant as in the cities of Europe. It advances of a putrid matter injected into their veins. The vessels of slowly, fluctuating perhaps for two or three weeks; and the brain and its membranes are gorged with a dark coloured although at that period it generally proves fatal, yet it is blood; the lungs and liver present traces of inflammation often unattended by its characteristic eruptions. Indeed or of gangrene; patches of intlammation and ulceration are the cases in which the eruption is wanting constitute the met with in the stomach and intestines; the heart is of a most rapidly fatal type of the disease. The general de- pale red colour, easily torn, and full of black blood, which, rangement of the system which ushers in an attack of the according to M. Magendie, never coagulates. These changes plague, is much like that which commences the course of however are not always found, and the same absence of apordinary fever. A sense of cold, with some shivering, which preciable organic lesion is sometimes observed in typhus and is soon followed by heat and acceleration of the pulse, with other diseases which prove rapidly fatal. No age, sex, or giddiness, headache, depression of strength and spirits, white profession appears to enjoy an immunity from plague, nor jongue, vomiting or diarrhæa, and great oppression about | does one attack secure the individual froin future infection;


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but it has been observed that old persons, women, and remarkable plagues of the last two centuries have been prechildren suffer less frequently and severely from its attacks ceded by malignant fevers. The increased number of than robust adults. Some persons also, who exercise deaths from this source will be seen by an examination of particular trades, as knackers, tanners, water-carriers, the London Bills of Mortality at the three last plague bakers, and oilmen, seem to share this advantage; while epochs in this country, an abstract from which we here smiths and cooks were noticed, during the campaign present, showing the number of deaths from other diseases in Egypt, to be more particularly liable to it. One law besides the plague, in 1625, 1636, and 1665, with that of the appears to be universal in all plagues, namely, that the year before and after respectively: poor are the first and chief sufferers. In Grand Cairo, Constantinople, and Aleppo, it is in the low, crowded, and filthy


Plagua. parts of those cities, occupied by the poorest people, that

1624 12,199 the plague commits its greatest ravages. The celebrated

1625 18,848 35,417 plague of Marseille, in the year 1720, first appeared in a part


of the city noted for the sordid filth, crowded state, and
wretchedness of the poor inhabitants. This was likewise

1635 10,651 true of London, where, from the same circumstance, it ob

1636 12,959 10,400 tained the appellation of the Poors' Plague. Like many


8,681 3,082 other diseases, plague is observed in two forms: first, as an indigenous and local disease, peculiar to the inhabitants of

1664 18,291 certain countries, and from which they are never entirely

28,710 68,596 free; and secondly, as a raging and fatal epidemic, not

10,840 1,998 confined to its original seat, although exhibiting itself there in its most intense forms. It is the epidemic variety of The season of the year in which pestilence commits its this fatal malady that has engrossed so much attention from greatest ravages differs in different countries. In Europe it the earliest times down to the present; and we shall therefore has invariably raged most violently and fatally in the briefly pass in review some of the principal circumstances summer and autumnal months, especially in September. which attend its origin, progress, and termination.

Thus, in the plague of London in 1665, the deaths from the It has been observed that nearly all plagues have been pre- plague were: in June, 590; in July, 4129; in August, ceded by certain natural signs, and by a greater mortality from 20,046; in September, 26,230; in October, 14,373; in malignant diseases generally than at other times. Among November, 3449; and in December they were under 1000. these precursory signals great and sudden atmospheric In Egypt it commences in the autumn, and prevails till the vicissitudes have been noted. Livy (v. 13) attributes the beginning of June, and the vernal equinox is the period of origin of a pestilence to this cause. *The year was remark- the greatest fatality. Extremes of heat and cold generally able,' he observes, ‘for a cold and snowy winter, so that the check and not unfrequently entirely arrest its progress.

In roads were impassable and the Tiber completely frozen. This tropical climates the disease is unknown, and in Egypt, deplorable winter, whether it was from the unseasonable state according to Alpinus, to whatever degree pestilence may be of the air, which suddenly changed to an opposite state, or from raging, as soon as the sun enters Cancer it entirely ceases. some other cause, was succeeded by intense heat, pestilential The cold weather of northern climates has been observed to and destructive to all kinds of animals.' Butin the great plague check the ravages of plague; and in these countries when it of Athens, of which Thucydides has given so minute a descrip- has broken out in the autumn, its course has been arrested tion (ii. 48, &c.), he observes that the year of the plague during the winter months. With respect to the progress was particularly free from all other diseases; and he men- and termination of plague, the disease appears to be tions nothing unusual as having occurred in preceding subject to the same laws as regulate the course and teryears. The city however was then greatly over-crowded mination of other epidemics: it is most fatal at its first with inhabitants, a great part of the population having outbreak, and becomes less virulent as it increases in extent. taken refuge within the walls of Athens (ii

. 16), in conse- The increased mortality which occurs during the advance of quence of the war. [Pericles.] Russell informs us that the plague, and which we have before shown to be at its height in winter of 1756-7, which preceded the petechial fever of 1758 the month of September, arises from the increased extension at Aleppo, and the plague of 1759-60-1-2 in different parts and not from the greater malignancy of the disease. With of Syria, was excessively severe. Olive-trees which had its progress and decline there has usually been observed a withstood the weather for fifty years were killed. In the progressive increase and decrease in the whole train of disfollowing summer a dearth ensued from the failure of the eases, and those which had immediately preceded plague, crops, and so severe a fam that parents devoured their on its decline reappeared. The former faci will be seen by own children, and the poor from the mountains offered their a reference to the table we have given above. wives for sale in the markets to buy food. The connection The causes of pestilence have been referred by some to a between famine and pestilence has been noticed in all ages vitiated atmosphere, engendered by epidemic and endemic of the world. An enormous increase of insects has fre- causes, and wholly independent of contagion; while others quently been observed to precedé a pestilence. We are have attributed it solely to the latter influence. The truth informed by Short, that in 1610 Constantinople was infested probably lies between these extremes, and we have little with crowds of grasshoppers of great size that devoured doubt, from an examination of the evidence on both sides of every green thing, and the next year (1613) the plague the question, that both these causes do occasionally operate carried off 200,000 inhabitants of that city. In 1612, swarms in the propagation of plague. As the foundation of quaof locusts laid waste the vegetable kingdom in Provence; rantine establishments rests entirely on the supposition of and 1613 the plague appeared in different parts of France. the contagious nature of plague, we shall examine how far Locusts and pestilence are frequently mentioned together this can be supported by a reference to facts. It is asserted in the sacred writings; and we find that the plagues of by the contagionists that plague is transferred from indiEgypt exhibited a series of phenomena, rising in progression vidual to individual in all the ascertained modes in which from corruption of the rivers and fountains, swarms of in- diseases are thus communicated-by contact, by inoculation sects, murrain among cattle, thunder and thick darkness, with the matter of buboes, through the atmosphere, and by and a tribe of inferior diseases, to that fatal pestilence which fomites. According to them, its appearance in Western swept away the first-born of the Egyptians. In fine, Europe has been always owing to imported contagion; and dearth or unwholesome provisions, pestilence among cattle, where strict isolation from all infected individuals and great abundance of insects, absence or death of birds, blight articles has been observed, there it has never appeared. It and mildew, appear, with few exceptions, to have separately is admitted however by several, among whom may be menor conjointly preceded or attended all such calamities

. tioned the respected names of Sydenham, Russell, and Mead, Plague is usually preceded by other diseases which occa- that a peculiar atmospheric condition is essential to the sion great mortality. Lord Bacon has observed that the spread of pestilence ; yet they maintain that this is inadelesser infections of small-pox, purple fever, agues, &c., in quate to its production without importation by fomites, or the preceding summer and hovering all winter, do portend the arrival of a diseased person from an infected district

. a great pestilence the summer following; for putrefaction In support of this opinion, they refer to the histories of the rises not to its height at once ;' and Dr. Mead states, as a different plagues that have visited Europe, and above all to general fact, that fevers of extraordinary malignity are the that which ravaged Marseille in the year 1720. Its introusual forerunners of plague. Indeed nearly all the most : duction into this city was traced to the arrival of three ships

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