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or lazarettos, which, by some means or other, for we learn medical department in Egypt, and has treated thousands o: not how, communicated the disease to a woman living in cases, says, that removed from malaria or miasm, he has the Rue de l'Escale. This person being received into the never known the plague to be communicated by contact. Hôtel Dieu, two of the nurses who assisted at her reception, He has twice inoculated himself with the pus and blood of and the matron who changed the linen, were taken ill the those affected with plague, but without producing the next day, and died after a few hours. In a short time it disease. destroyed physicians, surgeons, apothecaries, confessors, and This fully agrees with the evidence tnat was given before all tlie other officers and servants, with the whole of ihe a select committee of the House of Commons, on the con. poor in the liospital, including above 300 foundlings. The tagion of plague in 1819. It appears from the Custom-house priests and monks who attended the infected, suffered in Returns, that none of the expurgators of goods in Great the same manner as the medical assistants: and lastly, of Britain, at the quarantine establishments, have ever taken 230 galley-slaves, employed in going into the infected houses the plague. What then are we to regard as the cause of and burying the dead, 220 perished in the space of ten or pestilence, and whence is it to be sought? Undoubtedly in twelve days. Many of these facts however may be not in- ihe miasm of pestiferous soils; or of crowded, ill-ventilated, aptly termed false facts; and some, of undoubted existence, and filthy localities. When plague has at any time become that are brought forward as examples of contagion, may be epidemic, these are the spots in which it has first planted explained on another hypoi hesis. It is admitted by all ihat itself, and in which it has committed the greatest devastaanimal effluvia, from a number of persons crowded into a tion. Notwithstanding the obviousness of this fact, it is a small space, and surrounded by their own filih, acquire a remarkable circumstance in connection with the history of high degree of virulence, even without the morbid action of plague, that no people in the world have been willing to a febrile affection. If then, to the circumstances above acknowledge their own country to be the first or indigenous noticed, are superadded corrupt food and the influence of a seat of pestilence. The doctrine that it is imported and not sickly season, is it surprising that miasmata endowed with indigenous, is as prevalent in Turkey as it is in Egypt. a most pestilential coniagious power should be generated ? The Egyptian Levantines insist that it has never been an But this rapid transit of plague from one individual to an- | Egyptian endemic, but has been imported by travellers or other is only what we know to take place in other epidemic goods; while the Turks contend that it is from Egypt. diseases. To illustrate this position by a familiar and well- | In the eloquent language of Dr. Hancock, · Egypt disowns known disease-epidemic catarrh, or influenza: what is it; Ethiopia has no such progeny; Syria is too genial for its more common than for all the members of a family living, production; and Constantinople harbours it througla neglect together, the clerks in the same office, and the artisans of or sufferance. As to the north, how could the temperate the same workshop, to be successively or almost simultane- climate of Britain generate a principle so terribly destrucously attacked ? Yet nobody attributes the circumstance tive?' Facts however are too numerous and weighty to to contagion: certainly, if one had a motive for so doing, allow us a moment's hesitation on this point. Wherever nothing would be easier than to accumulate examples with civilization has advanced, there plague has receded, till it out number in support of this position. Whatever share is now only to be found lurking among the swamps of then contagion may have in the propagation of the plague, Egypt or revelling in the filth of Constantinople. It is the it is quite certain that its power has been greatly overrated. spring, we have seen, that is so fatal to the Egyptians, about According to the most staunch supporters of this doctrine, which time south winds prevail, loaded with putrid emanaa particular state of the air is essential to its action; and tions from animal and vegetable substances in the lakes they all admit that whenever the plague has been excited formed by the retiring waters of the Nile. In June, the out of its proper season, it has not spread. Without being wind is in the north, passing over the Mediterranean, and understood to advocate the contagious origin of plague, we this is the most healihy and salubrious season. In Confully agree with Dr. Bancroft that it is fortunate for man- stantinople, the month of August is most fatal, and this is kind that the communication of the contagion of the plague the season of the year when decomposition goes on with depends upon the co-operation of so many favourable cir- greatest rapidity. The exemption of the city of Oxford, in cumstances, and particularly upon that of a suitable tempe- the plague of 1665, is a strong proof of the correctness of rature, and of certain aptitudes and susceptibilities in ihe these opinions. The following words from Quincy are much human subject; for without such requisites, or such ob- to the purpose: •Dr. Plott observes, the reasons why Oxstacles to its propagation, the earth might have long since ford is now much more healthful than formerly, to be, the become desolate. Those who contend for the non-conta- enlargement of the city, whereby the inhabitants, who are giousness of plague, and therefore for the abolition of the not proportionately increased, are not so close crowded toquarantine laws, maintain that these laws, however strictly gether; and the care of the magistrates in keeping the streets enforced, have not succeeded in shutting out the plague clear from filth. For “ formerly," he says,
they used from pestilential districts; and that countries not possess- to kill all manner of cattle within the walls, and suffer their ing indigenous sources of pestilence are not visited with dung and offals to lie in the streets. Moreover about those this disease, although unprotected by quarantine establish-times, the Isis and Cherwell, through the carelessness of ments. They likewise adduce numerous instances of persons the townsmen, being filled with mud, and the commonin constant communication with plague patients, and even shores by such means stopped, did cause the ascent of maligwearing their clothes, escaping the disease. Odessa hasnant vapours whenever there happened to be a flood. But one of the best organised quarantine establishments in since that, by the care and at the charge of Richard Fox, the world; yet not long ago the plague broke out in it, bishop of Winchester, in the year 1517, those rivers were entered the town, destroyed a number of inhabitants, and cleansed, and more trenches cut for the water's free passage, ceased at a particular season. In 1835 the harem of the town has continued in a very healthful condition, and the pasha of Egypt consisted of about 300 persons; but not in a particular manner so free from pestilential diseases, withstanding the severest cordon, the plague entered, and that the sickness in 1665, which raged in most parts of the seven died within. The cordon was composed of 500 men, who kingdom, never visited any person there, although the terms were in constant contact with the town, where the disease were there kept, and the court and both houses of parliawas raging violently; of these only three died, so that the ment did there reside.'' Now what was done in Oxford, as proportion of those who perished within to those without was early as 1517, to remedy its unhealthiness, has since been nearly as 4 to 1. The plague of 1665, which ravaged most done in all the principal cities of this country and on the parts of this kingdom, never visited Oxford, although the Continent. Accordingly we find that the plague has not terms were kept there, and the court and both houses of visited us since 1665. Holland, which has no system of parliament were held there; a close correspondence too was quarantine, has experienced an exemption corresponding to maintained between this city and the metropolis, where it that of our own country. Paris has not been attacked since was raging. The Persians, although their country is every 1668, and a century has elapsed since the plague of Maryear surrounded by the plague, seldom suffer anything by seille. it themselves. The Turks and Moors,' says Bruce, 'im- Treatment of Plaguc.—The preventive treatment of mediately after St. John's day, expose in the market-places plague will be gathered from what we have said respecting the clothes of the many thousands that have died of the the causes of this disease, and the most effectual barriers plague during its late continuance; and though these con that can be opposed to its future introduction into Europe, sist of furs, cotton, silk, and woollen cloths, which are stuffs are, to adopt again the language of Dr. Hancock,' the barthe most retentive of the infection, no accident happens to rier of cleanliness in our towns and villages against filth those who wear them.' Clot Bey, who is at the head of the and crowded habitations; the barrier of Christian charity P. C., No. 1105.
towards our poor against famine and distress; the barrier 1625. London and various parts of Europe. Short. of peace against the desolating evils of war; and the barrier 1635 and 1636. London, Nimeguen, and several other of industry against the vice of sloth. With regard to reme- places in Europe. Dieinerbroeck, Tractatus de Peste. dial measures, it appears little can be done towards arrest- 1655 and 1656. Most of Europe. Naples suffered very ing the progress of plague after it has once declared itself severely, three-fourths of its inhabitants having in an individual. Our efforts therefore are limited to remov- perished. Univ. Hist., vol. xxviii., 318. ing the patient from those sources of miasm which gave 1563-65. London and most parts of England and Holorigin to his disease, and in placing him in those conditions land. Sydenham; City Remembrancer; Hodge's which are most favourable for his recovery. Free exposure
Loimologia. to fresh air, supporting the strength, and regulating the 1702-11. North of Europe. Described, especially as it secretions, are the only means which promise much chance appeared in Danzig, by Dr. Gottwald; and Univ. of success. When this plan is adopted, we have the authority Hist., vol. xxxv. of our latest writers on this subject for declaring that the 1720. Of Marseille. Chicoyneau's Traité de la Peste; mortality of the disease may be considerably diminished. Bertrand's Relation Hist. de la Peste de Marseille. Thirty per cent. only, of those attacked, die under this
1743. Aleppo. Its Natural History, by Dr. Alex. Russell. mode of treatment; while in the lazaretto at Alexandria, 90 1751. Constantinople. Chenier's Marocco, vol. ii., 275. per cent. died in 1833, and 77 in 1836.
With respect to
1760-62. Aleppo, Jerusalem, and Damascus. A Treatise the management of buboes and carbuncles, they must be of the Plugue, foc., by Dr. Patrick Russell. treated in the way which is found eflicacious in their removal 1770 and 1771. Consiantinople, Poland, and Russia. when uncomplicated with plague, and if by these means we Described, especially as it appeared in Moscow, by are unable to effect their dispersion, suppuration may be Mertens; and Ann. Regist., 1772, p. 155. promoted by the employment of emollient cataplasins or 1783-85. Egypt, Dalmatia, Constantinople, &c. Volney's any other mild stimulant.
Travels, vol. i., 19:2; Courant, October 28, 1783, and In the following chronological table of some of the princi- October 27, 1785. pal plagues upon record, we have purposely omitted the 1799. In the French army in Egypt. Sotira, Mémoire mention of many which, alıhough described under that sur la Peste observée en Egypte pendant le Sejour de name, are obviously a different disease; even among those l'Armée d'Orient dans cette Contrée; Baron Larrey, we have selected, the vagueness with which the symptoms Description d'Egypte, fc. of some are described, leave us in doubt whether the disease
For further accounts of the plague, as it has appeared was the same as that which at present goes under the name more recently, see Tully’s Hist. of the Plugue in the Islands of plague:
of Malta, Gozo, Corfu, Cephalonia, Sc., 1821; also Dr.
Bowring's Observations on the Oriental Plugue und on 1491. The plague of Egypt. Exodus, xii. 1490. in the Wilderness. Numbers, xi.
Quarantine, 8c., 1838. 1250. of Ægina. Ovid's Melam., lib. vii. 523.
PESTILENTIAL, EPIDEMIC, OR Asiatic CHOLERA is a
disease not less fatal than that described in the preceding 1190.
in the Grecian camp at the siege of article; and in its endemic origin, its occasional epiTroy. Homer's Iliad, book i.
demic eruptions, its selection of victims, and the localities 1141.
among the Philistines. 1 Sum., v. and vi. which it ravages, it bears a striking resemblance to plague. 1017.
in Canaan. 2 Sam., xxiv. 733. of Rome. Plutarch’s Life of Romulus. be seen by the following account of the symptoms of cholera.
Its essential character is however perfectly distinct, as will 464.
Livy, 11. 6; Dion. Halicar., lib.x. The disease has two well-marked stages: the cold or choleric, 2:54. Livy, iii. 32.
called also the stage of collapse; and the hot or febrile 4:7.
Livy, iv. 21, 25. 430. of Athens. Thucydides, ii. 48, &c.
stage, or that in which reaction takes place. The first is of Carthage. Justin, xix. 2; Diod. The most promineni of which is diarrhea, accompanied
generally preceded by certain premonitory symptoms, among Sic., X111., xiv.
usually with languor and some degree of nausea; ihe de366.
of Rome. Livy, vii. 1; Short On Air. jections are fæcal and bilious, and often very copious. The 296. Livy, X. 31, &c.; Orosius,
commencement of the purging may precede the accession
ii. 21. 213. In the Cathaginian and Roman armies before of the febrile stage for several days, or only a few hours Syracuse. Live, xxv. 26.
may elapse. It is important not to think lightly of this
disorder during the prevalence of epidernic cholera, for many 182-177. Rome and all Italy. Livy, xli. 21. 126. Numidia and Carthage. Livy, Epit., 60; Orosius, taken, and appropriate treatment adopted for removing it,
a life might have been preserved if timely warning had been
before the accession of the symptoms about to be described. 64. Rome. Tacitus, Annals, xv. 47; xvi. 13; Orosius, is, in the majority of instances, from two to four o'clock in
Symptoms of the Cold Stuge.-The time of its invasion lib. vii.; Univers. Hist., vol. xiv., 139. 167 and few following years. Rome and a large part of the morning. The patient is attacked with uneasiness of
the known world. Am. Marcellinus, lib. xxiii.; the stomach, to which speedily succeed vomiting and purgEchard's Rom. Hist., vol. ii., 315, &c.
ing of a watery, colourless, and inodorous thuid, similar to 187. Rome and Italy. Herodian, lib. i.
barley.water, or more frequently to rice-water : sometimes 252-270. Rome and a large portion of the globe. Zon- it is like milk, and occasionally yellowish; but the conjeearas, lib. xii.; Gibbon, vol. i., 10.
stools,' as tl:ey are termed, which consist of albuminous 407. Most of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Nicephorus, flakes tloating in serum, or discharges of pure serum, are xii. 6 and 36; Magdeburg, cent. v. 13.
of ihe most frequent occurrence. These discharges are at542-590. A plague raging, with intermissions, in most
tended with severe cramps in the extremities, especially in parts of the world. Niceph., xvii. 18; Eccles. Hist., the calves of the legs, and are succeeded by exhaustion, gidlib. iv., 29.
divess, and sinking of the pulse; the pulse is small, weak,
a 1315-1350. Europe, and most parts of the world. Boccac- and accelerated; and after a certain interval, becomes in
cio, Decameron, ‘Prima Giornata ;' Muratori, iii. 588, perceptible. The skin is cold from the commencement; &c.; Villari; Short On Air, vol. 1.
, 165; Univ. Hist., and as the disease advances, it becomes gradually colder, vol. xxxii.
and is covered either with a profuse sweat or a clammy 1562 ar.d 1663. London and most of the principal cities moisture. The features are shrunk and anxious: there is of Europe. Short, vol. i. ; Thuanus.
restlessness and agitation, with great thirst, heartburn, and 1575 and 1576. Italy and most parts of Europe. Thuanus, hurried respiration. Notwithstanding the coldness of the
lib. lxii.; Short, vol. i.; Mercurialis On the Plague body externally, the patient complains of heat, and throws of Venice.
off his bed-clothes. As the cold increases, the skin fre1580 and 1531. Grand Cairo and different parts of France. quently becomes blue; the eyes, which are dull and suffused, Thuanus.
seem drawn into and fixed at the bottom of their sockeis; 1600 and 1603. London and various parts of Europe. the tongue is cold, but moist; the voice is feeble, holloir,
Maitland's Hist. of London; Mignot, Hist. of the hoarse, and interrupted; but the mental functions remain Turkish Empire, p. 256.
undisturbed to ihe last. At this advanced period the col1611 and 1613. Constantinople, France. Riverius, lib. lapse is compleie, the respiration very slow, and the patient, xvii.; Short, vol. i.; Mignot.
who suffers liile or no pain, presents the appearance of a
person who has been dead for some time. The urine is ! districts placed between its lines of movement. Its progress usually suppressed throughout the whole of this stage; but along the lines selected was wonderfully uniform, being, for the dejections, becoming Thinner and thinner, continue to some successive months, at the rate of about one degree in the last. Some patients, although blue, cold, and pulseless, a month. As early as 1818, it extended itself beyond the have sufficient strength to go about: many however die of boundaries of Hindustan into the Burmese empire and other exhaustion before all these symptoms have declared them- parts of Eastern Asia, and making gradual progress through selves. In the majority of cases the spasmodic symptoms these countries, reached China in 1820, and in the followare first observed, and afterwards the collapse: the former ing year visited the numerous and populous islands of are characterised by pain, evacuations, and moans; the the Indian Archipelago. The Isle of France suffered its second, by the suppression of voice, urine, and heat. If invasion in 1819, and some cases occurred in the same year however the patient get over the cold stage, that of reac- at one point in Bourbon. In 1821 it extended along the tion commences. The coldness and blueness gradually dis- shores of the Persian Gulf, and, during ihis and the folappear; the pulse returns, increasing in force and frequency; lowing year, spread through parts of Arabia, Persia, and to the pale or blue cheek succeeds the flush; the eve Syria, and closely threatened Europe. It appeared in brightens; the tongue, which was of a dirty white, becomes the Russian territories in 1823, at Teillis, Orenburg, cleaner and dry; vomitings are less frequent, but diarrhea and Astrakan; but its farther northern and western procontinues; and there some tenderness of the abdomen, gress was stopped for a time. It however re-appeared in with thirst, great disgust of food, and intense headache. Orenburg in 1828, and again in 1829, and in 1830 advanced The urine however is secretel; and if all goes on well, at through the southern provinces of the Russian empire, ull the end of two or three days the features assume their usual it reached Moscow on the 28th of Sep:ember of ihat year, expression ; the stools are less frequent and more natural; and Petersburg the year following. Warsaw was attacked the strength and appetite begin to return; the pulse re- in March, 1831 ; Danzig in May; Berlin, in August; Hainsumes its ordinary character; and the patient is convales- burg and Sunderland in October; and London and Paris in cent. Several varieties occur in the duration and intensity of 1892. At the end of 1833 it had reached Mexico and cholera, and complications are sometimes produced of a cha- several other parts of America. We see that the course of racter not less fatal than the disease itself. We are informed the epidemic was principally from east to west, and it was by M. Dalmas, that soldiers attacked in full march will observed that prior to its appearance in many countries, retire from the ranks, lay down their arms by the road side, and during its continuance, easterly winds were uncomand expire in two hours. During the prevalence of the last monly prevalent; but most accurate and extensive meteoroepidemic in India, several instances were heard of at Houbley logical observations, mare daily during the continuance of and other places in that country, of natives being struck the disease, prove that neither variations of temperature, with the disease while walking in the open air; they fell Hluctuations of the barometer, change of wind, nor the predown, retched a little, complained of veriigo, deafness, and valence nor absence of moisture, affect in the slightest blindness, and expired in a few minutes. This rapidly fatal | degree its duration or intensity. Bowel complaints appear form of cholera has not been observed in this country. The to have preceded the cholera in most places, and to have most severe cases that we have met with generally lasted continued for some months after its cessation. In many five or six hours; but the average duration of the fatal localities the disease existed only for a few weeks, while in cases, when they did not terminate in consecutive fever, was others it lingered for several months. In the first case, the from twelve to fourteen hours. When reaction was esta mortality was invariably high; in the last, the malignancy blished, and fever supervened, the duration of fatal cases of the disease generally diminished as its stay was prowas from four to ten days. As a general rule to guide us longed. Into whatever country or town the disease advanced, in forming a prognosis, it may be stated that the more com- its first and most deadly fury was expended upon the poorest plete is the coliapse, the greater is the danger; and if the and most miserable of the population, and upon those who patient survive it, the more violent and malignant is the inhabited crowded districts, or low humid localities bordersubsequent fever. The cases in which spasms and vomitinging on a port or river. Among this class of individuals are most violent are by no means the most dangerous. whole families were sometimes cut off by it; indeed it
Morbid Anatomy of Cholera.—Dissection presents us with is a peculiar feature of epidemic cholera that its ravages nothing satisfactory by which we can judge of the nature of are confined almost exclusively to the poor. When the the disease. There is general venous congestion of all the disease has appeared in a family occupying a station in life important organs in the body; but it is rare that any traces above the labouring class, we have the authority of Dr. of intlammation are discovered. The gall-bladder is mostly Brown for declaring that in every case it has been confined distended with bile, and its ducts are constricted. In the to the individual first attacked, and has not in any instance stomach and intestines is found either a transparent or a spread to the other members of the family. The mortality turbid serous fluid, mixed with a white opake substance in the from this disease is very great; but it varies somewhat in form of flakes, and similar in all respects to the matters different countries and at different stages of its epidemic ejected during life. The mucous membrane lining the in- career. During its early prevalence in India, in 1817 and testinal canal is most frequently of a pale white colour, and 1818, we learn, from the Report to the Medical Board at somewhat more soft and pulpy than in its natural condition; Bombay,' that there is reason to believe that of 1294 cases but occasionally some degree of vascularity is observed. which received no medical assistance, every individual The urinary bladder is empty and contracted. With respect perished; and it is added, that it is not ascertained that any to the blood, it is found to be more viscid, and darker person has recovered to whom medicine had not been adcoloured than natural, which arises from a deficiency of its ministered. This appalling statement however is without saline and watery components, and a relative increase parallel, and it is gratifying to know that where the premoniof its solid constituents. In 1000 parts of serum, Dr. tory symptoms have been combated by early and judicious O'Shaugnessy found 133 of albumen, whereas healthy treatment, the mortality has always been diminished. This serum contains only 78 parts. On comparing the blood is strikingly exemplified by the statistical records kept at with the matter found in the intestines, it is manifest that our different military stations in various parts of the world. the latter contains all the ingredients of the blood, except in all situations and under all modes of treatment, about the red globules; and that ihe aqueous and saline parts one in two died of the cases in civil, and one in three of pass out of the circulation more rapidly than the albumi- those in the military hospitals; a result doubtless to be atnous.
tributed to the strict surveillance exercised over the troops, History and Statistics of Cholera.-The last outbreak of by which nearly one-half of the cases among them were pestilential cholera, which commenced in India and tra- noticed in the premonitory stage, and consequently could versed successively nearly every country in the world, was be treated with a greater prospect of success than those in perhaps the most diffused and best observed of any similar the civil hospitals, where the great majority of the patients visitation: the observations we shall have to make will were far advanced in the disease before they applied for therefore chiefly relate to this epidemic. It originated in medical aid. Of the severe cases however the mortality is the district of Nuddeah and in some other parts of the delta probably nearly the same in all, being about 60 per cent. of the Ganges, about the end of May or the beginning of One of the most extraordinary features of this epidemic, June, 1817. During that year it did not extend beyond the observes Major Tulloch, is that the proportion of deaths to territory of Lower Bengal; but in 1818 and the early part of the number attacked has been very nearly alıke in all the 1819 it diffused itself throughout the extremo lengih and military commands of which the medical records have been breadth of the Indian peninsula, yet leaving untouched many investigated: for instance-In the United Kingdom, the deaths were 1 in 34; in Gibraltar, 1 in 3}; in Nova Scotia, / party. Of fifteen medical reporters in India who had ob1 in 3}; in Canada, 1 in 3; in Honduras, 1 in 3; in the served the disease, two only thought it contagious, eight were Mauritius, 1 in 84. The Mauritius appears to be the only of a contrary opinion, and five were doubtful. The medical exception to this; so that either the epidemic was less severe officers at Gibraltar seem to have been almost unanimous in its character, or the remedies employed were more suc. in their opinion that the disease was not contagious. In the cess
same ward with the cholera patients in the civil hospital The influence of age on the mortality by this disease were several persons labouring under other diseases, who, among the troops of the line serving in Canada is exemplified although in constant communication with and frequently in in the following table:
attendance on those suffering under the epidemic, were in Ratio of Deaths at each Age, per 1000 no instance affected by it. In the military hospital too it Age.
of strength, by Epidemic Cholera. Under 18
was observed that the orderlies employed in attendance on
the sick were not attacked in a greater proportion than 18 to 25
others who were not so employed; and of thirty medical offi25 to 33
cers in constant attendance on the sick during the prevalence 33 to 40
of the epidemic, all of whom, from the nature of their duties, 40 to 50
were subject to great fatigue and anxiety, only one or two It appears from the authority to which we are indebted exhibited any symptoms of the disease, and their cases were for the foregoing table, that females were attacked in very comparatively slight. Nevertheless it is probable that under nearly the same proportion as males, but that the cases some circumstances cholera may be contagious, and this proved more generally fatal. Children were in a great opinion derives support from the great mortality which was measure oxempt, though, when attacked, they rapidly sunk always observed under the operation of the quarantine laws, under it. The greater mortality of the disease in females on the inutility of which, in this disease at least, all medical has also been observed in this country. Dr. Ogden informs men are agreed. The predisposing causes of cholera may be us that of 145 fatal cases of cholera at Sunderland, 63 were gathered from its history. The poor, the old, the infirm, and males and 82 females. The information which we possess the dissipated were the principal sufferers. In the north of on the relative mortality of the disease in the different races Germany, Tuesday was always the day of the greatest morof mankind is rather meagre. The native Indians of North tality, owing, it was supposed, to the excesses committed on America suffered from it in an equal degree with the white the two or three preceding days. Hence every circumpopulation; and the same was observed with regard to the stance which tends to debilitate ihe system generally, wheSepoys in our Indian army. In the Mauritius, whose popu- ther occasioned by atmospheric vicissitudes, by reside in lation in 1831 was 90,000, of which 25,000 were whites and an unhealthy locality, by unwholesome or insufficient the rest coloured, the total number of deaths recorded in the food, by the abuse of spiriiuous liquors, or by debauchery, civil and military hospitals was 1327. Of these 168 were acts as a predisposing cause in the production of cholera. whites, 162 coloured, and 997 blacks, principally negroes, who Treatment of Cholera.- Premising, in a prophylactic seemed peculiarly subject to the disease. This great suscep point of view, the superiority of avoiding all the predisposing tibility of negroes to the invasion of disease, when absent causes of cholera to the absurd practice of swallowing spefrom their native land, we have had occasion to notice in the cifics against the disease, our treatment must be regulated article Phthisis; and that time seems to have had little according to the state in which we find the patient. If the effect in weakening this susceptibility, appears from a com- premonitory symptoms only are present, the stomach should parison of the mortality among them in the present epide- be unloaded by an emetic, and a table-spoonful of good musmic with that which took place during a similar epidemic | tard constitutes a very efficient one. The diarrhea may be in this island in the year 1775. At this date, more than 2000 treated by a full dose of calomel and opium, combined with out of 4300 slaves belonging to government were cut off by some aromatic, and a blister should be applied to the abdoit, and of those belonging to the planters nearly as many.
Bleeding also has been recommended at this period Causes of Cholera.-Tnat the whole series of phenomena of the disorder. If the patient is already in a state of colresults from the action of a morbific poison on the body, lapse, the various modes of treatment which have been there can be no doubt; that this morbific matter is indi. adopted prove how little is to be effected when the disease genous to some countries, and apparently has its origin in has advanced to this stage. Major Tulloch informs us that certain peculiar conditions of the soil, is supposed to be true the principal remedy of the American aborigines consisted from the effects which we find to be produced upon animal in merely swallowing large quantities of charcoal mixed with bodies living in these districts. But why the miasın arising lard; yet very nearly the same proportion recovered as among from the overflow of the Nile should produce plague; that the white inhabitants of the towns who had the advantage of the Ganges, cholera; that of the parts situated in the of the best medical science. In this country, blood-letting, tropics, yellow fever; or our own marshes, simple inter-cold affusion, hot-baths, emetics, purges, astringents, sedamittent—we are entirely ignorant; nor can we, in the pre- tives, and stimulants of the most powerful kind, have been sent state of our knowledge, at all account for the epidemic successively tried with very doubtful advantage. The plan spread of some of these endemic diseases. The doctrine of however which has excited most attention is that by salines. contagion has been had recourse to in cholera, as in many Medical men, guided by chemical analysis, conceived the other diseases, in order to explain its diffusion, and it has project of supplying by artificial ineans the serum which been asserted by the advocates of the exclusive operation of was found wanting in the blood. With this view lavements this principle, that the disease has always been found to and potions of an alkaline solution, resembling serum in move in the line of human intercourse; and it must be ac- composition, were administered; but not being able by this knowledged, observes Dr. Brown, that while so migratory an means to arrest the vomiting, it was recommended and animal as man inhabits the earth, it cannot well do other- put into practice by Dr. Latta of Leith to inject the same wise. But if it is meant to be asserted that its diffusion has fluid into the veins. This was first done by means of one been in proportion to the intercourse between infected and of Reid's syringes, the temperature of the solution being healthy districts, the assertion is by no means supported by kept at from 108° to 110° Fahr. Of 74 bad cases treated in facts. Its appearance at Madras, for instance, whither, ac- this method, 22 recovered, and in one case only did any cording to this doctrine, it ought to have been conveyed almost unfavourable symptoms occur, and this was from phlebitis, three months earlier by trading vessels from the infected or intlammation of the veins. As much as 33 lbs. of this districts, was simultaneous with its appearance in parallel alkaline solution have been injected in the space of 52 latitudes in the interior. It did not reach Ceylon, to which, hours, and with a successful result. Some practitioners on the contagious principle, it ought to have been conveyed have even exceeded in amount this quantity. The compomuch earlier by shipping from the infected points of the sition of the saline injection employed by Dr. Latta concoast, until it had previously gained the nearest point to it sisted of two drachms of common salt and two scrupies of on the continent, and had been long prevalent on both coasts carbonate of soda dissolved in sixty ounces of water; but of the peninsula. In its importation into this country like- this formula has been slightly varied in different cases. wise, supposing it to be imported, so far from following the The immediate effects observed on injecting this fluid into great routes of human intercourse, it chose one of the least the veins are, an increase of the temperature and perspirafrequented paths. The principal evidence on this point, tion, a reappearance of the pulse, if before imperceptible, which was collected during the last epidemic cholera, goes or it becomes fuller, stronger, and slower, when it was before to negative its contagious character; and the advocates of small, frequent, and feeble. The collapsed appearance of the contrary opinion are at present by far the more numerous | the countenance gradually vanishes; it becomes fuller and
more natural; the eyes brighten, the thirst diminishes, and PETE'CHIÆ are small spots of a dark red colour prothe patient expresses himself in terms of gratitude or satis- duced by the effusion of drops of blood in the skin just faction at the wonderful change wrought in his feelings. beneath the cuticle. At first sight they look very like theaBut this change is evanescent; the purging continues, and bites, but they do not disappear when they are pressed with the patient is shortly reduced to the same hopeless state in the finger. They usually indicate an altered state of the which he was previous to the adoption of this treatment. blood, and are often symptoms of very serious diseases, as By recommencing the injections, the same beneficial results in typhus fever (some varieties of which have lience been are obtained, and, provided this treatment prove successful, called petechial fever), scurvy, purpura, &c. They comthe patient does not again relapse into his former condition, monly appear also in very severe cases of small-pox, measles, but the diarrhea and vomiting diminish, and reaction and scarlet fever, and are amongst the worst symptoms by
With respect to the treatment of the febrile which those diseases are marked. stage of cholera little need be said. The same recognised PETER, ST., one of the twelve Apostles, was born at principles that are applicable to the treatment of pyrexiu in Bethsaida, on the western side of the lake of Gennesareth. general must be our guides in treating this fever; and the His name at first was Simon, which was changed by our physician should never neglect to impress upon his patient Lord into Cephas, a Syriac word signifying a stone or rock; ihe probability of a relapse, if he should indulge too soon in in Greek, petra, whence Peter. In conjunction with Anany dietetic or other irregularities.
drew his brother, he followed the occupation of a fisherman. PETAL is one of the inner divisions of the organs cloth. Both were hearers of John the Baptist, by whom they were ing a flower, and called floral envelopes. These are usually taught that Jesus Christ was the Messiah. While plying double, the outer being a calyx composed of sepals, and the their business on the sea of Galilee, the Saviour called them inner a corolla composed of petals. Both these parts are to be his disciples:- Follow me, and I will make you leaves incompletely organised. The petal, being fugitive, fishers of men: immediately they quitted their boats and and of very temporary utility, is generally the more delicate, nets, and became his intimate friends and constant assocontaining no woody tissue to protect the spiral vessels. ciates. Peter was one of the three, James and John being It is sometimes of extraordinary size, but is as frequently a the others, who were favoured by our Lord with peculiar very minute body. [COROLLA ; MORPHOLOGY; Flower.] marks of his confidence. PETALISM. [OSTRACISM.]
Peter was a man of an open and generous nature, strong PETALITF, a mineral which occurs massive. Structure in his attachments, ardent, and precipitate. He was prompt perfectly lamellar in one direction. Cleavage parallel to the on every occasion to exhibit his zeal in behalf of his master, lateral planes, and both diagonals of a rhombic prism. of which we have a memorable instance in his conduct to. Fracture uneven. Hardness 6.5. Brittle. Colour greyish, wards the high-priest's servant, whose ear he cut off when greenish, or reddish-white. Streak white. Lustre vitreous, the Jewish officers were about to apprehend our Lord. Yet, inclining to resinous. Translucent. Specific gravity 2:42 to notwithstanding the ardour of his character and his solemn 2:45. When heated in acids, it undergoes partial decompo- declaration to ihe contrary, he denied Christ when he was sition; emits a blue phosphorescent light when genily in circumstances of danger. After the denial, ‘Jesus turned heated. When by itself, it melts with difficulty, and only and looked upon Peter.' That look entered his heart; and on the edges; but with borax, it fuses into a colourless stång with deep compunction, he went out and wept bitterly. glass.
On the day of Pentecost which succeeded the ascension It occurs at Utön in Sweden, and in North America. It of our Lord, the Holy Ghost descended upon the Apostles, consists, according to Gmelin, of-Silica, 74:17; Alumina, and produced the most astonishing and extraordinary results. 17:41; Lithia, 5:16; Lime, 0:32; Water, 2:17.
The gift of tongues came upon them; and they were enPETARD. [ARTILLERY.]
abled to address the inhabitants of different nations, each PETAURUS. [MARSUPIALIA, vol. xiv., pp. 460, 461.] in his own language. On this occasion the character of St.
PETA'VIUS, DIONYSIUS PETAU, born at Orleans, Peter sustained a singular change; and he preached with in 1583, studied at Paris, and afterwards entered the order so much effect, that three thousand were converted to the of the Jesuits. He lectured on rhetoric in the colleges of Christian faith. He now took a prominent position among Rheims, La Flèche, and lastly at Paris, in which he was the Apostles. When a miracle is performed, it is Peter made professor of theology in 1621. He applied himself who avails himself of the opportuniiy, and preaches to the assiduously to classical and historical studies, and became people. When brought before the council for declaring a distinguished scholar and critic. In 1627 he published ihe resurrection of their Master, it is Peter who speaks in his great work on chronology, • De Doctrinâ Temporum,' reply to the charges against them. In the case of Ananias 2 vols. folio, which was republished with considerable addi- and Sapphira, it is Peter who detects and punishes the fraud. tions by himself, as well as by Hardouin and others, in Being at Joppa in the course of his apostolic labours, 3 vols. folio, Antwerp, 1703. The 'Doctrinâ Temporum'he converted Cornelius, a Roman centurion, the first Gentile consists of 13 books. In the first 8 books, Petau discusses who was admitted into the Church without circumcision. the principles of the science of chronology, antient and This event was considered satisfactory evidence that the modern; in books 9 to 12, he examines the application of benefits of the Gospel were intended, not for the Jews only, chronology to history, the various æras, &c.; and in the but for mankind universaily. Shortiy after, the zeal and last or 13th book he gives chronological tables of the success with which he propagated the new religion induced principal events from the creation to the reign of Justinian. Herod Agrippa to cast him into prison, from which he was After the publication of the work, Philip IV. invited Petau miraculously delivered by an angel. The last important to Madrid to fill the chair of history, but Petau declined transaction in which we find him engaged was in the aposthe offer, as well as an invitation to go to Rome by Pope tolic council held at Jerusalem, A.D. 49, when it was decided Urban VIII., preferring the tranquillity of his cell in the that Christianity required of its converts neither circumJesuits' college of Clermont at Paris, where he died in cision nor the observance of any other rite of the Jewish 1652. Just before his death he published . Rationarium institute. It is supposed that he afterwards preached to Temporum,' 2 vols. 8vo., 1652, which is a kind of abridge-the Hebrew Christians dispersed through Ponius, Galatia, ment of his great work, and forms a useful manual of uni- Cappadocia, Asia Minor, and Bithynia; and that he visited
a versal chronology. It has gone through many editions, and Rome, A.D. 63, where he soon after suffered martyrdom. has been translated into French: ‘Abrégé Chronologique St. Peter was the author of two Epistles, both of which de l'Histoire universelle, sacrée et profane,' 5 vols. 12mo., make part of our canonical Scriptures. The first, whose Paris, 1715. Perizonius published an edition of the .Ra- genuineness and authenticity have never been questioned, tionarium Temporum,' with a continuation down to 1715. is addressed to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, At the end of the work are lists of the Roman consuls, the Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. There is much popes, the emperors of the Eastern and Western empires, difference of opinion among the learned with respect to the of ihe various dynasties of modern Europe, as well as of the persons here denominated strangers. Some suppose they councils, and of the various heresies and schisms. Petau wrote were Jewish Christians; others, that they were in the first also De Theologicis Dogmatibus,' 3 vols. fol., Antwerp, 1700. instance proselytes to Judaism, and then converts to ChristHe edited the Breviarium of Nicephorus, in Greek and Latin, ianity; others again, that they were Christians in general. with notes, Paris, 1648; the works of Synesius, bishop of There are two considerations whiclı induce us to hold that Ptolemaïs in Cyrenaica; and those of St. Epiphanius, the first is the more probable opinion. The word strangers with a Latin translation, 2 vols. folio, Paris, 1622. He also (Naperiòn uoe) properly signifies persons from another counwrote a dissertation upon Photinus, ' De Photino Heretico.' try; and "iberefore it is very suitably applied to those Jewisby