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620 miles, runs north-north-west, and exhibits a much float over the heaviest surf without danger. Two of these greater portion of low sandy beach than is found farther bladders are fastened together, and a sort of platform made south. A high ground invariably appears at the back of the of cane is fixed on them. These balsas hold from two to low shore, in some places rising with a steep and in others three persons. The balsa of the northern coast of Peru is a with a gentle declivity. In a few places the high ground raft consisting of nine logs of the cabbage-palm secured is six miles from the sea. Where the coast is high the rocks together by lashings, with a platform raised about two feet, are frequently low, but in several places they rise to 100 or on which the goods are placed. They are employed for 300 feet. The projecting headlands are not numerous, and coasting along the shore, and have a lug sail, which is most being short, and at right angles to the coast, they do not used in landing. The wind being along the shore enables afford safe anchorage. Towards the south-eastern extremity them to run through the surf and on the beach with ease are some islands, and between 7° and 10° S. lat. some inlets and safety. At Lambayeque, where the surf is very heavy, which are larger than commonly occur on this part of a kind of balsa is used called caballito: it consists of Peru, and good anchorage is found in them. The most bundles of reeds fastened together and turned up at the southern of these harbours is the Bay of Pisco, which bow. Being very light, it is thrown on the top of the is between the mainland and a row of islands extend-surf upon the beach, and the fishermen who use them jump ing along the coast. The most southern of these islands, off and carry them on their shoulders to their huts. It that of Gallan, is 2.1 miles ng, 1 mile wide, and of con- seems that each bay or road has its peculiar balsa. siderable elevation. North of it are the Ballista Islands, Surface, Soil, Climate, and Agricultural Productions.and north of them the Chinca Islands, both clusters of low As Peru comprehends the whole of the mountain-masses of rocks. The sea about these islands is deep, and the Bay of the Andes which lie between 150 and 5o S. lat., together Pisco may be entered safely by all the passages thus with the countries on both declivities of the chain, it is formed. The most southern passage, which is between the naturally divided into three different regions. The country island of Gallan and Point Paracca, is generally used; it is between the chain and the Pacific is called Los Valles, and called the Boqueron of Pisco. Within the bay there is good that included between the higher ranges of the Andes, Monanchorage in 12 fathoms. This bay is much visited by ves- taña. The region on the eastern declivity of the Andes and sels, as the surrounding country is rather fertile, and the the plains contiguous to it are not designated by a pecucommerce of the town of Pisco is considerable.

liar denomination; they may be conveniently called the Opposite the town of Cerro Azul there is only an open Eastern Region. roadstead, with bad anchorage, and a heavy surf constantly 1. The country between the steep ascent of the Andes breaking on the shore. The bay of Callao is between the and the Pacific varies in width from 15 to 50 miles, and may coast and the island of S. Lorenzo, which is four miles and be considered as the western base of the mountains. It has a half long from south-east to north-west, and a mile wide: a great elevation above the level of the sea, where it lies its highest part is 1050 feet above the sea-level. The bay, contiguous to the range, on an average between 8000 and which is extensive and commodious, has good anchorage; 10,000 feet, and from this elevation it slopes towards the sea it is usually entered from the north round Cape Lorenzo, with a very irregular surface. Where it approaches the the northern extremity of the island, but it may also be en- shores it is still in many parts from 1500 to 2000 feet above tered by the Boqueron, a strait between Cape Callao and the sea-level, but in other places it is less than 500 feet. the southern extremity of the island. Salinas Bay, on the This irregularly inclined plain is furrowed by a number of north of Salinas Head, which extends five miles into the depressions running from the Andes to the sea with a rapid sea from south to north, is of large dimensions, and affords slope. As the adjacent high lands frequently rise 1000 feet good anchorage, but it is seldom visited. The bay of Sapé, above them, these depressions are appropriately called Los to the north of Cape Thomas, is small, but as it is contigu- Valles, or the Vales. They are traversed by rivers, many ous to a fertile district, it is much visited by coasters. The of which are dry during nine months in the year, and only a port of Guarmey, north of Point Legarto, is also small, but few preserve a running stream all the year round. As it it contains good anchorage in three and a half to ten never rains in the lower portion of this region, vegetation fathoms, on a fine sandy bottom. Firewood is abundant in and agriculture do not extend beyond the reach of irrigation. the neighbourhood, and is exported. Between go and 10° The narrow strips along the rivers are cultivated in proporS. lat. there are four comparatively good harbours, Casma, tion to the supply of water. Though the upper course of Samanco, or Huambacho, Ferrol, and Santa. That of the rivers is extremely rapid, few of them enter the sea, but Samanco is the largest port north of Callao, being six miles are either lost in shallow lagoons or filter through the sand long from south-east to north-west, and four miles wide. which is invariably found near their mouth. The uplands The entrance is two miles wide. Port Ferrol is nearly equal which separate the valleys from one another are covered in size, and entirely free from the swell of the ocean. Boih with a fine loose sand, through which in many parts the harbours are much visited by coasters, as the adjacent rocks protrude, either in the form of isolated mountains, or country is fertile and well cultivated. There is no harbour more frequently in ridges several miles long. These uplands farther north. Opposite the towns of Truxillo and Lam- are complete deserts; neither beasts, birds, nor reptiles are bayeque there are only open roadsteads with bad anchorage. ever seen on tin, and they do not produce a single blade

North of the roadstead of Lambayeque, and between it of vegetation. No stranger can travel from one vale to anand the Bay of Guayaquil, a huge promontory runs out into other without a guide, the sand being so loose that it is the sea.

At its base, between Lambayeque and Point raised into clouds by the wind, and thus all traces of a path Malpelo (3° 30' S. lat.) it is 220 miles wide, and its coast- are obliterated. On account of the great heat which is exline exceeds 300 miles. Between Point Aguja and Cape perienced in these uplands in the day-time, and the clouds Blanco, the most projecting part of this promontory, the of sand which the wind then raises, they are usually trashores are rocky and steep, and rise to a considerable ele- versed by night, and the guides regulate their course by the vation; but near the roadstead of Lambayeque and on the stars, or the light breeze which always. blows from the Gulf of Guayaquil the shores are sandy and partially covered south. The vales are most numerous in that part where with brushwood. In this part there are two indentations, the coast runs from south-south-east to north-north-west, which form two tolerably deep but open bays. The southern between Lambayeque on the north and Cape Carreta on is the Bay of Sechura, which is six miles deep, and at its the south. In ihis part they are on an average 10 or 12 entrance, between Cape Pisura and the Little Lobos Island miles distant from one another, and have a better supply of of Payta, 12 miles wide. It is open to the swell of the sea, water than in the other parts of Peru. Where the coast and is only navigated by the Indians in balsas. The Bay of runs from north-west to south-east, between Cape Carreta Payta, which is farther north, is of smaller dimensions, but and Arica, they are less extensive, and from 15 to 20 miles it is the best harbour on the coast of Peru, and is more distant from each other. Farther south they are very narrow, visited by foreign vessels than any other harbour except and occur at greater intervals. In the most northern disCallao.

trict the vales are more extensive, and contain considerable As the heavy surf occasioned by the swell of the Pacific portions of cultivated ground, but they are at great disrenders landing with boats always dangerous, and often tances from one another. Between Lambayeque and Seimpracticable, balsas are used along this coast. These balsas chura the desert is 90 miles across. differ in materials and form on the different parts of the It is well known that the vicinity of the sea very matecoast. In Chile and the southern coast of Peru the balsa is rially influences the climate of countries, but the Pacific a kind of sea-balloon, consisting of seal-skins made air- affects the climate of this region in a very extraordinary tight, and intiated like a bladder: they are so light that they I way, of which no satisfactory explanation has been offered.


Along the whole coast of Peru, south of Cape Blanco, al but they do not supply an article of exportation, the conshower is never experienced, a drop of rain never falls. But sumption of olives in the country being considerable. There for nearly five months, from June to November, the sky is are few natural meadows; the want of them is supplied by covered with a kind of fog, which is called the garua. In the cultivation of lucern, which has spread over all the the morning it is so thick and close to the ground that ob- valleys. jects at a moderate distance cannot be seen. About ten or

The soil of the vales consists of sand mixed with vegeeleven o'clock the fog rises into the atmosphere, but does table mould, and does not possess a great degree of fertility. not break into clouds. This fog covers the sun so effectually As it is cultivated every year, it requires a great deal of as to intercept the rays, and the disk is hardly visible. manure. This manure is obtained from the small rocky During this period the earth is constantly covered with dew islands, and also from the rocky cliffs along the coast, which caused by the condensation of the fog. This dew is not are covered with a layer of the excrements of sea-fowls, seheavy enough to penetrate the thinnest clothing, though it veral feet thick, which appear at a distance as white as snow. changes dust into mud, and fertilises the ground. While A great number of small coasters are continually employed the garua covers the lower parts of the country, and con- in conveying this manure, which is called guano, to the neighstitutes their winter, the higher declivities of the Andes bouring anchorages, where it is bought by the cultivators of enjoy fine weather and have their summer. But in the the soil. month of January the rains on the mountains commence, II. The Mountain Region, or Montaña, runs parallel to and they last about three months. The rains occur how- the Pacific, and from 20 to 50 miles from the shores. It ever earlier in the year in the northern than in the southern comprehends the central portion of the Andes, namely, the districts: and hence it happens that the rivers in the northern part of the Bolivian Andes and the whole of the northern part of Peru are full at the end of January or the Peruvian Andes. The Bolivian Andes consist of two elebeginning of February, while in the southern parts this vated ranges running nearly parallel to one another from does not take place before the end of March.

south-south-east 10 north-norih-west, between 200 and 15° The climate of Peru is not so hot as might be supposed. S. lat. The eastern chain contains the highest summits of In summer the weather is delightfully fine, and the heat is the Andes, the Nevados of Illimani and Sorata, and though moderated by the sea and land breezes. The sea-breeze the western does not attain an equal elevation, it contains generally commences about ten o'clock; it is then light several summits which rise above the snow-line. The valley and variable, but gradually increases till one or two o'clock enclosed between the two ranges, called the Valley of the ' in the afternoon. A steady breeze prevails until sun-set, Desaguadero, is about 13,000 feet above the sea-level. The when it begins to die away; and soon after the sun is down greatest part of it belongs to Bolivia ; only about one there is a calm. About eight or nine o'clock in the evening fourth of it is within the territories of Peru. This valley is light winds come off the land, and continue until sun-rise, about 60 miles wide where it belongs to Peru; the climate when it again becomes calm, until the sea-breeze sets in. and productions are noticed under Bolivia, vol. v., p. 86. It is also supposed that the cold current which runs along Between 14° and 15° S. lat., the two chains of the Bothis coast from south to north, and the temperature of livian Andes are connected by a transverse ridge, the mounwhich is on an average 8o lower than the mean annual tains of Vilcanota, which do not attain the elevation of the temperature of the adjacent coast, may contribute to mode- eastern Bolivian Andes, but appear not to be inferior in rate the summer-heat. During the winter however, that height to the western chain, as several of their summits are is, during the fogs, the air is raw and damp, and woollen always covered with snow. The limit of perpetual congelaclothing is then necessary for the preservation of health. tion on this chain, according to Pentland, occurs at 15,800 The mean annual temperature, according to Humboldt, is feet above the sea-level. The mountains of Vilcanota may 72°, the maximum 82°, and the minimum 55°, In the be considered as forming the boundary-line between the day-time it varies between 72° and 77°, and in the night Bolivian and Peruvian Andes. between 60° and 63o.

The Peruvian Andes consist of two chains, which run in The prevailing winds along the coast blow from the south, the same direction as the Bolivian Andes, from south-southvarying between south-south-east and south-west. They are east to north-north-west, and may be considered as their seldom stronger than a fresh breeze, especially along the continuation. The western range runs parallel to the Pacoast south of Cape Carreta, where calms sometimes set in and cific, nearly north-west between 150 and 13° S. lat., and last three or four days. Farther north they are stronger and north-north-west between 13° and 5° S. lat. It is a contiblow with greater regularity; and near Cape Blanco they nuous chain, without any break, and generally rises to 14,000 sometimes blow with great force. In winter light northerly or 15,000 feet above the sea-level ; only a few of its summits winds are occasionally experienced. At some distance from rise above the snow-line, and these elevated points are most the shores the prevailing winds blow from south and south- numerous at the southern extremity, where the chain is east, and with greater strength in winter than in summer: no connected with the mountains of Vilcanota. The Nevado thunder-storms occur; lightning indeed is seen from a dis de Chuquibamba attains nearly 22,000 feet of elevation, and tance, but thunder is never heard. Earthquakes are fre- exceeds in height the famous Chimborazo. South of it, quent, and sometimes destroy the towns and villages. and completely isolated, is the volcano of Arequipa, the

We do not know at what elevation above the sea-level the summit of which is 17,200 feet above the sea, but it is not rains begin on the western declivity of the Peruvian Andes, always covered with snow. Farther north-east are the elebut as travellers observe that cultivation and vegetation be- vated summits called Cerro de Huando and Cerro de Paringin to increase at the height of from 8000 to 9000 feet, it is acocha. South-east of Lima is the Toldo de Nieve ; between evident that such tracts must have the advantage of an- 11° and 11° 30' S. lat. is the elevated summit called La Viuda, nual rains.

which rises to 15,968 feet; and north of it occur four other As the mean annual temperature of Peru does not much snow-capped summits, the Altun Chagua, which rises seveexceed that of the countries along the southern coast of the ral thousand feet above the snow-line, and the Nevados of Mediterranean, all the grains and fruits of Spain succeed, Pelagotas, of Moyapota, and of Huaylillas. The last-menand many of the intertropical products do not, which how- tioned summit is situated in 7° 50' $. lat., and north of it ever seems attributable rather to the want of a sufficient there are no snow-capped mountains until we come to Chimquantity of moisture than of heat. Indian corn is generally borazo (2° S. lat.). The mountain-mass north of the Nevado cultivated, and constitutes the principal food of the Indians of Huaylillas seems to descend to an average height 0. and lower classes. Rice is extensively grown in some of 9000 or 10,000 feet. the wider northern vales, and is exported. Wheat succeeds The eastern chain of the Peruvian Andes, which is the only in the more elevated part of the valleys, where barley continuation of the eastern Bolivian Andes, runs in its also is grown. Potatoes and sweet potatoes are generally southern part, and as far north as 12° 30' S. lat., parallel to cultivated, also mandioc, yams, and bananas to a smaller the western Andes, at the distance of about 100 miles. It extent. The sugar-cane plantations are numerous and ex- is composed of an almo uninterrupted series of snowy tensive, and sugar is exported to all the American coun- peaks, which terminate with the Nevado of Salcantahi (13° tries bordering on the Pacific. Most of the fruit-trees pe- 10' S. lat.). Farther north it sinks much lower, and north of culiar to the southern countries of Europe succeed well, but 12° 30' S. lat. the chain is interrupted by two large rivers, those of England are not common; and walnuts, pears, the Rio Yucay and the Rio Apurimac. On the northern apples, filberts, and almoonds are imported from Chile. banks of the Rio Apurimac the Andes again rise to a great Vines grow in every valley, and good wine is made in several elevation, though, so far as is known, in no place do they places, as at Pisco, Nasca, and Ica. There are olive-trees, I ascend above the snow-line. They gradually approach near

the wesiern Andes, and may be considered as united to | 14,000 feet above the sca-level. As the snow-line in this them by the elevated table-land of Pasco, which is situated part of the Andes seems to occur about 15,500 feet above between 11° 10' and 10° 30' S. lat. At the northern side of the sea, the surface of the table-land is only 1500 feet below this table-land both chains again divide, and run parallel it, which renders the climate so cold that it would have reto each other to 7° S. lat., where the eastern chain inclines mained uninhabited but for the rich mincs of Pasco, which to the east of north, and continues in that direction to the have attracted a numerous population. The mean annual banks of the Amazonas, at the famous Pongo de Manseriche. temperature probably does not exceed 40°, which is equal Where both ranges run parallel, they are hardly more than to that of Trondhiem in Norway, but the climate is much 50 miles distant from each other, but near 50 s. lat. they more disagreeable, as nearly all the year round it resembles are 120 miles apart. In the northern portion of the eastern that of the month of April at Trondhiem. Even in the chain there are a few snowy peaks, as the Paramo de Cara- midst of summer, from May to November, the nights are calla (near 7° S. lat.) and the Paramo de Piscoyana (south cold, and at sun-rise all the country is covered with hoar. of ° S. lat.).

frost, at which time the thermometer indicates 32°. At The country included by these two ranges contains four nine o'clock it rises 4° or 5°, and in a short time a conregions, which differ materially in climate and productions. siderable degree of heat is experienced. But the sky, They may be called the table-land of Cuzco, the valley of the which is serene in the night-time, is soon covered with Rio Jauja, the table-land of Pasco, and the valley of the fogs accompanied with a strong wind. This is followed Marañon.

by a fall of snow mixed with hail. This state of the The table-land of Cuzco extends from the mountains of weather sometimes continues for several hours; but at other Vilcanota, its southern boundary, to about 12° 30' S. lat., or times some fine intervals occur. In the afternoon, storms more than 150 miles from south to north, and about 100 are frequently experienced, accompanied by frightful thunmiles from east to west. Its surface is very uneven, being der and hail, which sometimes cause great loss of property traversed by several ridges of broad-backed hills rising with and life. In April, two or three weeks generally pass witha tolerably steep ascent, and running from the south, where out storms and night-frosts. In the winter, from November they are connected with the mountains of Vilcanota, towards to March, the weather is much worse, as the snow-storms the north-north-west, parallel to the great chains of the Andes, then last for weeks together. Even when the sky is which enclose this region. The valleys between these ridges serene and of a dark-blue colour, the sun looks as if it are usually several miles wide, but their surface is diversified were eclipsed. The table-land is a plain divided into by low eminences. The whole region declines towards the a considerable number of smaller plains by ridges of north. The town of Cuzco (13° 31' S. lat.) is 11,380 feet low hills rising a few hundred feet above their base. above the sea-level. We may reasonably infer that the The surface of the level parts consists partly of bare districts south and west of that place are more elevated. rocks or sand. The sand is partly covered with peat, or by But the rapid course of the numerous rivers which descend swamps, intersected with grassy tracts, which serve as northward, shows that this plain lowers rapidly towards the pasture-ground for the llamas, which are kept in considernorth; and on the banks of the Rio Mantaro it probably does able numbers for the purpose of carrying the ore from the not exceed 8000 feet above the sea. This is also confirmed mines to the smelting-places. A great number of lakes are by the agricultural products. In the most elevated districts dispersed over the plain. They are very deep, and are the south and west of Cuzco the only cultivated grain is the sources of some of ihe largest tributaries of the Amazonas. quinoa (chenopodium quinoa), which is also the case in the In the northern part of the plain is the lake of Llauricocha, valley of the Desaguadero. [Bolivia, vol. v., p. 87.] In the the source of the Marañon, which is considered as the parallel of Cuzco the climate is favourable to the growth of principal branch of the Amazonas. In the southern district wheat, Indian corn, and the fruits of Europe, but the last is the lake of Chinchaycocha, of large dimensions, from require a good deal of care, and the fruits usually met with which a river issues which is the principal branch of the between the tropics do not succeed. In the lower parts of Jauja, and consequently one of the greatest affluents of the the valleys north of 13° S. lat. the agricultural products Rio Ucayale. Near the eastern edge of the table-land is consist of Indian corn, sweet potatoes, yucas, and plantains. the lake of Quiluacocha, whence the Rio Huallaga, an affluent The sugar-cane succeeds very well, and is cultivated in some of the Amazonas, issues. Nothing is cultivated on this parts, but not extensively. The mountains which enclose table-land, not even the quinoa. ihese valleys are covered with thick forests, but trees are The Vale of the Rio Marañon extends from 10° to 5° S. scarce in the more elevated districts, and in some of them lat. The southern part is very narrow, the river running are entirely wanting. We are not acquainted with the in a valley so contracted, that it is merely a wide ravine. climate of this region, except that there is a good deal of This ravine continues to about so S. lat., where it gradurain all the year round. In the valley of Paucartambo rain ally enlarges to a valley several miles wide, and more falls 300 days in the year.

than 200 miles long. The southern part of this valley is The Vale of the Rio Jauja extends from the table-land probably not much more than 3000 feet above the sea-level, of Pasco on the north, about 100 miles southwards, between and it lowers very gradually; at its northern extremity, at both ranges of the Andes, and in the widest part may be the Ponga of Rentema, it is only 1250 feet above the sea. about thirty miles across. Its descent from the table-land The lower part of the valley, north of 7° S. lat., is many is very rapid. At its southern extremity, near 12° 30', it is miles wide, but not a level, as several offsets from both probably less than 8000 feet above the sea-level. Though chains of the Andes advance some miles into it, and in ihis valley is the most populous district of Peru, and con- several places within a short distance of the river. This tains several comparatively large towns, our information valley is by far the hottest portion of the mountain rerespecting its climate and productions is very scanty, none gion, and the vegetation in the lower parts does not of ibe modern travellers who have visited Peru having di- differ from that of other tropical countries. Wheat is only rected their steps to this region. We only know that the grown on the declivities of some adjacent mountains. Innorthern districts produce abundance of wheat, Indian corn, dian corn, mandioca, plantains, and yucas are most extenand the fruits of Europe, and that in the southern, yucas, sively grown for the consumption of the inhabitants, and the plantains, and mandiocca are cultivated, and that the sugar- sugar-cane and tobacco for exportation. We know nothing cane and tobacco are grown to a considerable extent. of the climate of this valley except that the heat is very

The table-land of Pasco has lately been more visited by tra- great and that it has the advantage of rains. Though vellers than any other part of the interior of Peru, the Andes hardly less populous than the vale of the Jauja, it has been here being crossed by one ascent and one descent. The little visited by modern travellers. ascent from the Pacific is near the high summit called La On the west side of the Peruvian Andes, the region of Viuda, about 11° 10' S. lat. and 76° 30' W. long, and the the tropical productions does not ascend more than 2000 descent is north of the Cerro Pasco, near 10° 30' S. lat. and feet above the sea, but in the valleys of the mountain region 75° 40' W. long. The width of the table-land from south-west it rises to between 4000 and 5000 feet, probably owing to to north-east is about 60 miles, and in these parts it is enclosed the abundant rains which fall on the latter. The cultivated by ranges which rise from 500 10 1000 feet above it. Its length grains of this region are rice and Indian corn, and the other cannot be determined, as the inountain-masses are broken, products are plantains, bananas, mandioca, yams, camotes, towards the north-west and south-east, by numerous river and the sugar-cane. The principal fruits are grapes, anonas, courses, and do not constitute a determinate boundary, but pine-apples, papaws (carica), and cherimoyers. Above this sink imperceptibly lower. It is the highest of the table region is that of the European cerealia, which towards the lands enclosed within the Andes, the level parts being Pacific reaches to 10,000 feet, and in the valleys to 12,000

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feet and upwards. The grains cultivated in this re-I in October and November. It does not appear that the dry gion are wheat, barley, and Indian corn; potatoes and and rainy seasons are distinguished as in other countries, different kinds of pulse are also cultivated. The fruit-trees showers being frequent all the year round. The heat is are those of Europe, among which the peach succeeds best. great, and during the rain it is frequently oppressive. The Above this region only quinoa and barley are cultivated; declivities of the mountains which enclose the vale are the latter for fodder. 'Potatoes succeed at a height exceed covered with thick forests of tall trees, which is also the ing 13,000 feet. There are no forest-trees on the western case with the greatest part of the vale itself. Wheat and declivity of the Andes below 8000 or 9000 feet, but in the barley are grown in the southern and more elevated disinterior of the mountain region they increase in size and tricts, whence they are sent to the table-land of Pasco. In number in proportion as the country declines in height, and the lower part, Indian corn, two sorts of plantains, and three the lowest districts are covered with nearly impenetrable sorts of bananas are cultivated. There are also plantations forests of lofty trees.

of sugar-cane, coffee, cacao, and coca. The coca is an herb Several roads lead from the coast of the Pacific to the much used by the Indian population, who chew it with a interior of the mountain region. Six of these roads occur small quantity of lime. Fruit is here produced in greater south of 15° 20' S. lat. These roads lead from Arica, Are perfection than in any other part of Peru.

There are quipa, &c., to the valley of the Desaguadero, and are named ihirty-two kinds of fruit-trees. Many of these trees hardly from the mountain-passes through which they lead. The require any care at all. There are eighteen different sorts most southern is the Pass of Las Gualillas (170 50' S. lat.), of vegetables. which is 14,830 feet high, and a little farther north (17° 43') The country to the east of the range of bills which form is another pass of the same name, the highest part of which the eastern boundary of the vale of the Huallaga, and is 14,200 feet. The Pass of Chullunquani (17° 18' S. lat.) extending from their base to the banks of the Rio Ucayali, is is 15,600 feet high. The lowest and most frequented pass known under the name of Pumpa del Sacramento. The in these parts is that of the Altos de los Huessos; it runs term “pampa' is applied in South America to level plains at the foot of the volcano of Arequipa, and where it passes destitute of trees, and hence it was supposed that this part the Andes (16° 21' S. lat.) it is only 13,573 feet high. The of Peru was of this description. But according to the latest Pass of the Altos de Toledo (16° 2') rises to 15,528 feet, and information, this country is covered with woods, though they the Pass of Lagunillas (15° 22' S. lat.) to 15,613 feet. The are not so dense as the forests in the vale of the Rio Huallast-mentioned pass, which is the most elevated, is situated laga. The surface also is not a level, except along the banks where the mountains of Vilcanota join the Western Andes. of the Rio Ucayali. At some distance from this river the A mountain-pass leads over the mountains of Vilcanota country is diversified by numerous eminences. This country from Santa Rosa, in the valley of the Desaguadero, to Cuzco. extends from the banks of the Amazonas to the Rio PachiWe are imperfectly acquainted with the roads which traverse tea, more than 300 miles from north to south, with a breadth the Andes north of 150 30'. A pass leads from Lima to the varying between 40 and 100 miles. North of 7° S. lat. it is town of Huancabelica, the highest point of which is 15,080 a dead level, and forms part of the alluvial plain of the feet above the sea-level. Farther north is the pass called Amazonas. As no European settlements have been esiaPortachuela de Tacto, through which the road from Lima blished in this part of Peru, we are very imperfectly acto Tarma passes; it is 15,760 feet high. The road which quainted with its climate and productions. It does not leads from the coast to the table-land of Pasco traverses the suffer from oppressive heat, as the thermometer ranges only Pass of the Alto de Jacaibamba, which is 15,135 feet high, between 750 and 85° when the sun passes over the zenith and also that of the Alto de Lachagual, which rises to 15,480 In fertility and products it does not seem to be inferior to feet. The pass by which travellers descend from the table the vale of Huallaga. It is still in possession of the native land of Pasco to the valley of the Rio Huallaga does not tribes, of which a small number have embraced Chrisexceed 14,000 feet, and runs in a ravine of the table-land. tianity. A road leads from the town of Truxillo to Caxamarca, in The country extending from the eastern banks of the Rio the vale of the Marañon, which in the Pass of Micuipampa Ucayali to the river Yavari

, which separates Peru from is 11,604 feet above the sea-level. From Caxamarca a Brazil, is entirely unknown, except so far as it has been road leads northward to Chachapoyas, and from the last seen by travellers who have sailed on the Ucayali and mentioned place, over the Eastern Andes, to Moyabamba Amazonas, where it appears to be flat and covered with and Tarapoto. The most northern mountain-pass in Peru woods, exactly resembling the Pampa del Sacramento in its occurs near 5° S. lat., and leads over the Paramo of Guamani, principal features. Some hills of considerable elevation where it attains the elevation of 10,950 feet above the sea- rise on the plain between 74° and 75° W. long.; and north of level.

7° S. lat. they are called the Sencis Hills. It is not III. The Eastern Region comprehends the eastern de known whether these hills extend in an uninterrupted chain clivity of the Andes and the adjacent plains, as far as they south-east and then southward, until they join the eastern belong to Peru. It is the least known portion of that chain of the Andes, near 12° S. lat.; but this is the direction country, and our information about it is extremely scanty, given to them in our maps. except as to the vale of the Rio Huallaga. This exten- The Pampa del Sacramento extends southward to the sive valley lies east of the vale of the Marañon, being tanks of the river Pachitea. The country which extends separated from it by the Eastern Andes. It extends from south of the last-mentioned river, from the eastern chain of 10° 30' to 7° 30' S. lat., about 350 miles in length. The the Andes to the Rio Ucayali, is likewise entirely unknown. most southern part, as far north as 9° 30' S. lat., is narrow. According to information collected from the native tribes In this part the descent is rapid. Huanuco is about 9000 that live in this part, it is chiefly covered with mountains, feet above the sea-level, but at 9° 30' S. lat. the valley is which attain a great elevation near the Andes, but towards probably not more than 4000 feet high. At this place it the Ucayali sink into hills. The country along its banks begins to widen, the Eastern Andes receding to the distance seems to be rather flat; it is also said to be entirely covered of 15 or 20 miles from the river. This may be the width of the with forests, except in the highest summits of the mountains. valley to 7°, where a branch of the mountains comes close Rivers.-The rivers which descend from the western deup to the river, and as high hills approach also on the east close clivity of the Western Andes and fall into the Pacific have to its banks, they form, near 6° 30', the Pongo of Huallaga, a short course, and flow with great rapidity. They are also at which the valley terminates on the north. The country shallow, and have very little water during the greater part north of the Pongo is quite level, and belongs to the alluvial of the year; many of ihem are quite dry for several months. plain of the Amazonas. The eastern boundary of the vale Accordingly they cannot be navigated even by the smallest is formed by a range of hills, which south of go 30' S. lat. canoes, but the water is used to irrigate the adjacent flat tracts. probably do not fall short of 10,000 feet above the sea-level, All the large rivers of Peru originate within the mountainand between 7° and 6° 30' S. lat. rise to a considerable eleva- region, and all the waters which collect in it are united tion, but between these two points they are of moderate height in three large rivers, the Marañon, the Huallaga, and the The soil of the wider portion of the vale is chiefly alluvial, | Ucayali. These three rivers may be considered as the and as it combines great fertility with abundance of moisture principal branches of the Rio Amazonas. The Marañon, and a great degree of heat, it is capable of maintaining a which is commonly considered as the principal branch of pumerous population. At present bowever it is thinly in the Amazonas, issues from the lake of Llauricocha on the habited, though the population of late is said to have in-table-land of Pasco, and runs north-north-west about 150 creased considerably. There are at least one hundred miles in a narrow valley, and with great rapidity. In this very rainy days in the year, and these occur particularly | distance it descends not less than 10,000 feet. It then flows

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in a wide valley for more than 250 miles to the Pongo of Domestic animals are far from being abundant in Los Rentema, and in this valley its course is rather gentle, as Valles, on account of the want of pasture. There is a good it descends only from about 3000 to 1232 feet. It is navi- supply of horses, and still better of mules, which are used for gated by balsas and canoes. Near Tomependa is the Pongo the transport of merchandise. On the elevated table-land of of Rentema, a rapid. From this place the river turns to Pasco, and in other mining districts, llamas are kept for the north-east, and after flowing about 70 miles in that di- that purpose. A llama carries about 130 pounds, or half rection, it turns to the east; after a course of 70 miles the load of a mule. Cattle are abundant in the mountainmore it descends into the plains by the Pongo de Manse- region, where the declivities supply extensive pastureriche, a rapid about seven miles in length. Between the grounds; and in some places sheep abound, especially where Pongos of Rentema and Manseriche the river runs between the situation is too cold for cattle. lofty rocks, which sometimes rise to the height of 1000 feet, Nearly all the wild animals peculiar to South America and never sink below 40 feet. It is full of eddies and rapids, are found in Peru, as the jaguar, the puma, the spectacled and can only be navigated by balsas. At the foot of the bear, sloths, armadillos, ant-eaters, guanacoes, and vicuñas. Pongo de Manseriche is the town of Borja (in Ecuador), Several species of monkeys occur in the eastern region, from which place the river is navigable for vessels drawing where they are used for food and dried for preservation. not more than seven feet. After its union with the Hual. The condor inhabits the most elevated parts of the Andes. laga and Ucayali its depth is so much increased that it is Parrots, parroquets, and macaws are numerous in the woods navigable for the largest vessels.

on the mountains. Whales and seals abound along the The Huallaga, which joins the Marañon near 5° S. lat. coast, and this branch of fishery is chietly carried on by and 76° W. long., rises in the lake of Quiluacocha, which vessels from the United States of North America. Fish is also on the table-land of Pasco, south-east of the lake of are plentiful in the large rivers of the eastern region, where Llauricocha. It runs more than 500 miles. The southern they constitute the principal food of the inbabitants, togehalf of its course is north-north-west, and the northern ther with the manatee and turtles. The manatee occurs half north-north-east. The upper part of its course is full only in the Ucayali and the lower part of the Huallaga. of rapids, which however may be descended, though not The oil extracted from the eggs of the turtle is an article of ascended. These rapids cease at Juan del Rio, south of 90 export under the name of manteca. Alligators are numerous S. lat. ; and the river, though rapid, affords an easy navi- in these rivers, and they are often thirty feet long. gation as far north as 8o S. lat., where several rapids again Peru is noted for its wealth in silver and gold. The num

There are no rapids between 7° 30' and 6° 40' S. lat. ber of mines which have been worked is above a thousand; Further north occur the last rapids, which render the river but most of them are exhausted, or at least abandoned. nearly unnavigable for about 30 miles. North of 6° 20' Among those which are still worked, the mines of Pasco S. lat. the Huallaga flows through a level marshy plain to are the richest. Formerly the annual produce of these ils junction with the Marañon, and is navigable for vessels mines amounted to eight millions of dollars, or 1,800,0001.; of considerable size.

but at present it probably falls short of half that sum. The Ucayali brings to the Amazonas the drainage of the There are quicksilver-mines near Huancabelica, which were mountain-region situated between 110 and 15° S. lat. This formerly very rich: we do not know in what state they are large river is formed by the junction of the rivers Urubamba now. Copper, iron, lead, and brimstone are found in several and Tambo, which takes place near go S. lat. The Uru- places. Saltpetre is found in the country adjacent to the bamba is formed by the union of the rivers Paucartamba Pacific, south of Arequipa, and great quantities of it are exand Quilabamba, which drain the eastern portion of the ported by English vessels. It is not a nitrate of potash, table-land of Cuzco, and running north, meet near 11° 30' but of soda. Salt is collected on the coast north of Callao, S. lat. These rivers are too rapid to be navigable, but the at Point Salinas, and in Sechura Bay, where there are saUrubamba is stated to be navigated by the natives. The linas, or salt-ponds. Nearly all the mines of the precious Rio Tambo is formed by the confluence of the rivers Apu. metals are on the most elevated parts of the Andes above rimac and Mantaro. The Apurimac, which drains the the line to which cultivation extends, a circumstance which western portion of the table-land of Cuzco, unites with the renders the working of these mines very difficult and exMantaro, which drains the valley of the Jauja, and in its pensive. upper part is called Rio Jauja. [APURIMAC.) These rivers Inhabitants.-No census having been taken, the populado not appear to be navigable. The Tambo, wlich is formed tion is vaguely estimated at 1,800,000, composed of creoles, by their union, is probably navigable, but it tlows through or descendants of Europeans, Peruvian Indians, and a mixed a country in which no European settlements have been race. The greater part of the eastern region is in possesformed. Not far below the place where the Urubamba sion of independent tribes, and only those natives who and Tambo by their union have formed the Ucayali, is a inhabit the vale of the Huallaga have been converted and great rapid or cataract called Vuelta del Diablo. From subjected to the government of the whites. The number of this place downward the river runs above 500 miles, first creoles is stated to amount to about 250,000, and that of north-north-west, and afterwards north-north-east, and no the Peruvian Indians to near 1,000,000; the remainder impediment to navigation occurs in this part of its course. are a mixed race, the offspring of Europeans and Indian It is navigable for large vessels. Among its chief tribu- women. taries is the Rio Pachitea. This river originates on the The Peruvian Indians inhabit the Valles and the Montaña, eastern declivity of the mountains which enclose the upper to the exclusion of all other native tribes. They speak the vale of the Huallaga on the cast near 10° S. lat., and runs Quichua language, which is generally called the language of first east and then north, falling into the Ucayali near 8° 30'. the Incas, and which is used by all the natives of South As nearly the whole course is free from impediments to na- America, from Quito near the equator, to Tucuman in La vigation, it has been supposed that it might be used as a Plata, 27° S. lat. The Peruvian Indians had attained a channel for the exportation of the produce of the eastern considerable degree of civilization at the time of the arrival districts of Peru, in preference to the Huallaga, the course of the Spaniards, a fact which is proved by the numerous of which is interrupted by many rapids and cataracts; but ruins of extensive buildings, the remains of the great artifias the banks of the Pachitea are inhabited by native tribes cial road which leads through the Montaña from Quito 10 who are in a state of continual enmity with the whites, it Cuzco, and thence south ward over the valley of the Desahas been found impossible to establishi a regular navigation guadero; and more particularly by the fact that they irrigated

the low tracts in the vales by making cuts to convey the Productions. The trees and plants which are objects of water from the small rivers over the fields, and by the judicultivation have been already enumerated. The forests, cious manner in which the water was distributed. It may with which the mountain-region and the eastern country be said that their condition has been improved by the conare covered, supply several articles for commerce and for quest, inasmuch as they acquired iron implements and domestic use, such as vanilla, sarsaparilla, copaiva, caout- domestic animals to assist them in their agricultural labour; chouc, and several kinds of resins alid gum; also various but they have not been benefited in any other respect. barks and woods, used as dyes, such as Brazil-wood, log- These Indians apply themselves particularly to agriculiure, wood, mahogany bark, and annotto. The indigo-plant grows and there are numerous villages,

and even small towns, the spontaneously.' Jesuits-bark is met with in several places whole population of which now consists of Peruvians. on the Eastern Andes. There are various kinds of lofty They also work in the mines, and manufacture different trees, useful as timber or for cabinet-work, as mahogany kinds of woollen and cotton cloth. These kinds of manu, and cedar.

factures existed before the arrival of the Spaniards, and

on it.

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