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believers who, in consequence of persecution in Judæa, | of the Cortes, but the people resisted and killed the colwere obliged to take refuge in distant provinces: and lector. Upon this Pedro went to Burgos, accompanied by again, since the ministry of the circumcision was committed Don Juan de Aibuquerque, his unprincipled councillor, and to St. Peter, it is more likely that he should address him- having summoned Garcilasso de la Vega, the adelantado of self to his own converts than to Gentiles. Castile, into his presence, ordered him to be instantly put to Another controversy has been agitated with respect to death by his ballasteros, or men-at-arms. In 1352, he asthe place where the Epistle was written. In the concluding sembled the Cortes at Valladolid, and endeavoured, but verses, it is implied that the Apostle was then at Babylon; without success, to obtain the abolition of the Behetrias, but whether the word is used in a real sense to designate which was the name given to the political condition of certhe city of that name, or mystically to signify Jerusalem or tain towns that had placed themselves under the profection Rome, is the matter in debate. In all probability the term of some powerful noble, and were in great measure indeis employed for Rome; for the Jews were fond of using figu-pendent of the crown. He next proceeded to Ciudad Rodrigo, rative appellations, especially in their national distresses. where he had a conference with his maternal uncle, Alonso Edom was frequently a name for their heathen oppressors; or Affonso IV., king of Portugal, who gave him the best and as Babylon was the cause of their first dispersion and advice as to the necessity of moderation, and above all as to captivity, it is not unlikely that Rome, the instrument of adopting conciliatory measures towards his half-brothers, the their second, and which so closely resembled Babylon in sons of Donna Leonora, who possessed great influence in the her 'abominations, idolatries, and persecutions of the saints,' country. Pedro listened to the advice, and he even invited should be denominated by the same title. the eldest of his natural brothers, Don Enrique, called Enrique of Transtamare, to his court, where another brother, Don Tello, already was. But his brothers did not trust him, and they soon left Pedro, rebelled, were defeated, and emigrated into Aragon. In 1253, by the advice of his ministers, Pedro solicited and obtained the hand of Blanche of Bourbon, a princess of the royal house of France. Pedro, who had a mistress, Maria de Padilla, behaved with coldness to his bride, and soon confined her in the fortress of Arevalo. He next conceived a passion for Donna Juana de Castro, a young lady of a noble family, and in order to marry her, he pretended, upon some grounds unknown to us, that his marriage with Blanche was null, and he found some prelates, the bishops of Salamanca and Avila, who took his part. In 1334, be publicly married Juana at Salamanca, but he soon abandoned her also, on the ground that he had deceived her as well as the prelates. Not long after Juana was brought to bed of a son. Her brother, Fernando Perez de Castro, a powerful lord of Galicia, incensed at his sister's treatment, raised the standard of revolt, and joined the king's brothers and other discontented nobles. Queen Blanche being rescued from her guards, the citizens of Toledo declared themselves her champions and defenders. The league thus formed became too powerful for Pedro, and on the interference of the pope's legate, the king promised to discard Maria de Padilla and to live with Blanche. On this condition the papal legate abstained from excommunicating him, but Pedro shortly after, having obtained supplies from the Cortes at Burgos, resumed the war, confined Blanche to the fortress of Siguenza, surprised the towns of Toledo and Toro, and put to death many of the leaders of the league; the rest escaped into Aragon. In 1358, Pedro having got into his possession his natural brother Fadrique, grand-master of the order of St. Iago, ordered him to be put to death by his guards in his own presence. Fadrique's brothers Enrique and Tello kept up a desultory warfare against Pedro on the borders of Aragon and Castile.
As St. Peter arrived in Rome, A.D. 63, and suffered martyrdom about 65, the Epistle may be dated in 64. It was written in a period of general calamity to the Church; and the design of the Apostle is to console and strengthen his converts in their trials, and teach them how to bear persecution. He exhorts them to honour and obey the civil authorities; and, above all things, to lead a holy and blameless life, that they might stop the mouths of their enemies and calumniators, and by their example gain over others to the side of Christianity.
The best critics speak highly of the excellence of this Epistle. One says it is sparing of words, but full of sense; another calls it majestic; and a third declares it one of the finest books in the New Testament, composed in a strain which demonstrates its divine authority. The writer displays a profound knowledge of the Gospel, and a deep conviction of the truth and certainty of its doctrines. Careless about the disposition of his words and the rounding of his periods, his heart is absorbed and his thoughts swell with the importance and grandeur of his subject. His style is vehement and fervid, and he speaks with the authority of the first man in the Apostolic college.
His second Epistle was written soon after the first. Its object is to confirm the instructions which he had formerly delivered, to establish his converts in the religion that they had embraced, to caution them against false teachers, to warn them against profane scoffers, and to prepare them for the future judgment of the world.
(Horne's Introduction; Macknight; Benson; Michaelis.) PETER, ST., MARTYR. [OFFICE, HOLY.] PETER OF BLOIS, better known by his Latinised name Petrus Blesensis (Blois being his birth-place), a writer of the twelfth century, who spent much of his life in England, being invited thither by King Henry II., who gave him the archdeaconry of Bath. There is a large volume of the writings of this Peter, consisting very much of letters, from which a far better account of his life might be collected Pedro now entered into an agreement with his cousin than any which has yet been prepared. He was in great and namesake, King Pedro of Portugal, for the mutual surfavour with Richard, who succeeded Becket in the arch-render of their respective subjects. Pedro of Portugal was bishopric of Canterbury, and was his chancellor. He had nearly as cruel, though not quite so unprincipled as his also in England the archdeaconry of London, having re- cousin of Castile, and he was then busy in discovering and signed his archdeaconry of Bath. Peter was a scholar of putting to death all those who had been any way concerned John of Salisbury; and before he came to England he had in the murder of his mistress Inez de Castro. [ALONSO IV. studied at Paris and Bologna, and had been secretary to OF PORTUGAL.] In 1360 the exchange of blood was made. William II., king of Sicily. He died in England in 1200. The Castilian gave up the Portuguese emigrants, who were The edition of his works by Pierre de Goussainville, folio, put to death, and he obtained the persons of several of his 1667, is accounted the best. His works belong to the revolted subjects who had fled to Portugal, and whom he series known as the Fathers of the Church. speedily despatched, except the archbishop of Toledo, the protector of Blanche, who was only banished. In 1361 that unhappy lady was put to death, it is said by poison, at Xeres, by order of her husband. Soon after, Maria de Padilla died a natural death, and Pedro, having assembled the Cortes at Seville, declared that she had been his lawful wife, and produced witnesses who swore to the nuptials as having taken place before his marriage with Blanche. The Cortes acknowledged the issue of Maria de Padilla to be legitimate.
Peter visited Bologna for the purpose of acquiring a knowledge of Roman law, and his letters contain numerous indications of his acquaintance with this subject. A work of his on canon law and process has lately been discovered, of which an account is given in the Zeitschrift für Geschichtliche Rechtswissenschaft, vol. vii., p. 207. (Savigny, Geschichte des Kömischen Rechts im Mittelalter.)
PETER OF SICILY. [SICILIES, THE TWO, KINGDOM OF.] PETER THE CRUEL, DON PEDRO I., son of Alonso XI., after his father's death succeeded to the united crown of Castile and Leon, A.D. 1350, being then only sixteen years of age. His first step was to put to death Leonora de Guzman, the mistress of his father, who had several children by her. His next proceeding was to command the city of Burgos to pay a certain tax without the sanction
It was about this time that Pedro committed another atrocious murder, on the person of Abu Saïd, the Moorish king of Granada, who had come to him at Seville with a safe conduct, the purpose of doing homage for his kingdom as a fief of Castile. The Moor came with numerous attendants and servants in splendid attire, and brought much valuable property with him. He was invited by
Pedro to an entertainment, in the midst of which a number | have been, was carried on for two years. The circumstance of armed men entered the hall, seized the Moors, rifled of Pedro having still a strong party in many towns, nottheir persons, and dragged them to prison. The following withstanding all his cruelty, gives weight to the supposition day Abu Saïd, mounted on an ass, and thirty-seven of that while Pedro ruled the nobles with an iron sceptre, he was his companions, were paraded through the streets of Se- not so obnoxious to the mass of the people, who were out of the ville, preceded by a herald, who cried, that they were con- reach of his capricious ferocity. Indeed it is said by Roderie demned to death by King Don Pedro for dethroning their Santius, that be was the scourge of the proud and turbulawful sovereign Mohammed Ben Yúsef. Being con- lent, that he cleared the roads of robbers, and that he could ducted to a field behind the Alcazar, Abu Saïd was stabbed be pleasing and affable when he liked. to the heart by Pedro himself, whilst his companions were despatched by the Castilian guards, A.D. 1362. Abu Saïd was a usurper, but Pedro was not his judge. He had come to Seville on the faith of a king's promise, and on a friendly errand, and his murder was as unprovoked as it was cowardly. [MOORS, p. 389.]
The king of Aragon, joined by the king of Navarre, as well as by Bertrand Duguesclin and other French leaders and soldiers who resented the cruel treatment of Blanche, invaded Castile in 1366, entered Calahorra, and proclaimed Enrique, Pedro's natural brother, as king. Pedro, who was at Burgos, fled to Seville without fighting. Enrique was acknowledged throughout all Castile, and the people of Seville soon after revolted against Pedro, who fled into Portugal. From Portugal he went into Galicia, where he had some partisans, who urged him to try the fortune of arms; but Pedro, having already, in 1363, formed an alliance with Edward III. of England, depended chiefly upon the assistance of the Black Prince, who was then in Gascony. While passing through St. Iago he committed another deed of atrocity, the motive of which is not clearly ascertained. The archbishop of St. Iago, called Don Suero, was lord of several towns and fortresses, and he was one of those who had urged Pedro to make a stand against his enemies. All at once Pedro sent for him, and on the archbishop reaching the gate of his own cathedral, where the king stood as if to receive him, he and the dean were suddenly pierced by the spears of the guards, and the church was plundered. The strongholds of the archbishop were then occupied by the king's troops, after which Pedro embarked at Coruña, and sailed for Bayonne, A.D. 1366.
Edward the Black Prince engaged to restore Pedro to his throne. Pedro on his part promised him the lordship of Biscay, with a supply of money for himself and his army. Besides the alliance existing between his father and Pedro, the French king, Charles V., being the ally of Enrique, the English prince found it his interest to put his weight in the other side of the scale. In the spring of 1367 the Black Prince, together with Pedro, put themselves in motion with an army of English, Normans, and Gascons, and passing through the defile of Roncesvalles, they crossed Navarre, with the consent of that king, and entered Castile. The Black Prince was joined on his march by Sir Hugh de Calverley and Sir Robert Knowles, at the head of several thousand men, who had served as volunteers in the army of Enrique, but would not bear arms against their own countrymen. The army thus reinforced amounted to about 30,000 men. The army of Enrique was much superior in numbers, but the men were not all true to his cause. The two armies met at Najera, a few miles from the right bank of the Ebro, on the 3rd of April. The battle began with the war cry of Guienne and St. George' on one side, and Castile and St. Iago' on the other. Enrique fought bravely, but his brother Don Tello fled from the field at the head of the cavalry, and the Castilian infantry, being charged by the Black Prince in person, gave way. Enrique escaped with very few followers, and retired into Aragon. Pedro, whose ferocity had not been tamed by adversity, wished to kill the prisoners, but was prevented by the Black Prince as long as he remained in Castile. Pedro proceeded to Burgos, and all Castile acknowledged him again. But he behaved faithlessly to his ally; he only paid part of the money which he had promised for the troops, and as for the lordship of Biscay, Pedro excused himself by saying that he could not give it without the consent of the states of that province. The Black Prince, disgusted, and out of health, with his troops half starved, returned to Guienne, where he arrived in July. After his departure Pedro gave vent to his cruelty, and put to death many persons at Toledo, Cordova, and Seville. This gave rise to a second insurrection, and Enrique having again made his appearance, many of the towns of Castile declared for him. Some towns however, and Toledo among the rest, held out for Don Pedro, and a desultory but destructive warfare, as all Spanish wars
In March, 1369, Enrique, being joined by Duguesclin with 600 lances from France, laid siege to the town of Montiel, where his brother then was. Pedro, through one of his knights, made great offers to Duguesclin if he would assist him to escape. Duguesclin informed Enrique of these offers, and it was agreed that he should entice Pedro to his tent. On the evening of the 23rd of March, Pedro came to Duguesclin's tent, when Enrique, who lay in wait, fell upon him with his dagger. They grappled together and fell to the ground, but Enrique soon despatched his brother. A Catalonian, quoted by Zurita, says that Enrique's attendants assisted him in overpowering Pedro. Bad as the latter was, there is no excuse for the treachery and foul manner in which he was killed. Enrique II. was then proclaimed throughout Castile.
(Dunham, History of Spain and Portugal, and authorties therein quoted; Froissart, Chronique.) PETER THE FIRST, called the GREAT,' Czar of Russia, was born at Moscow, on the 11th of June, 1672. His father, Alexis Michaelovitz, was twice married: by his first wife he had two sons and four daughters; and one son (the subject of this notice) and one daughter (Natalia Alexowna) by his second wife. The Czar Alexis was a man of a liberal mind; he commenced the work of improvement among his barbarous subjects, established manufactures, reduced the laws into a code, resisted the usurpations of the clergy, and invited foreign officers to discipline his armies. He died in 1677, and was succeeded by his eldest son Theodore, a youth of delicate constitution, who died in 1682, leaving no issue. The next brother, Ivan, was subject to epileptic fits, and of so weak intellect that Theodore named Peter as his successor. The princess Sophia, an ambitious woman, who had intended to reign herself, through the medium of her incompetent brother, being enraged at this appointment, engaged the strelitzes on her side, and fomented an insurrection, which was only appeased by Ivan being proclaimed joint sovereign with Peter, and Sophia as regent. Peter narrowly escaped with his life on this occasion, for, having fled with his mother to the Troitski convent near Moscow, at the commencement of the insurrection, he was pursued by some of the strelitzes, who found him before the altar, and were only deterred from striking a fatal blow by feelings of reverence or superstition. When Peter was seventeen, his party brought about a marriage between him and the daughter of the boyar Feodor Abrahamavitz, during the absence of Prince Galitzin, who had been associated by the Princess Sophia with her in the government. On the pregnancy of the Czarina being declared, Galitzin, whose plans were entirely deranged by this event, raised an insurrection, which however was soon suppressed, and Galitzin was banished to Archangel, and forfeited his estates. The Princess Sophia was confined to a convent for the rest of her life, which terminated in 1704.
From this time (1689) Peter reigned supreme; his brother Ivan never interfered, and died in 1696. Peter was now in the eighteenth year of his age. He was tall, stout, and well made; his features were regular, but indicated, when grave, a great degree of severity; at other times he was lively and sociable, and always full of energy and activity. His education had been much neglected, and it is said that the Princess Sophia had encouraged every species of excess by placing about him corrupt companions. Although there is no doubt that much of his time was passed in debauchery, yet it is a strong proof that a portion of it must have been devoted to better objects, that he immediately commenced the vast undertaking of reforming the whole system of government and the manners of the people, in which he had to encounter the jealousies of every class of his subjects, who looked upon these changes as subversive of their antient constitution. Peter's indomitable energy however overcame all obstacles. He first directed his attention to the army, in which department his plans were ably seconded by Generals Le Fort and Patrick Gordon, who, with other foreigners, had entered into his service. He himself entered the army as
a private soldier, and rose through all the intermediate proceeded to Vienna to make himself acquainted with the ranks before he obtained a commission. He caused all dress, discipline, and tactics of the emperor's army, then conthe young boyars to follow this example. He made the sidered the best in Europe. From thence he was preparing soldiers lay aside their long coats, shave their beards, and to visit Italy, when he received news of a rebellion having dress their hair, and in a very short time he had a corps broken out among the strelitzes, fomented, it was said, by the of 5000 men disciplined and trained on the German plan. priests and the Princess Sophia. His prudence in leaving The sight of a small vessel built by some Dutchmen in General Gordon in Moscow was now made manifest. That his father's time, on the river which runs through Mos-officer entirely defeated the rebels, many of whom lost their cow, made a great impression on him, and he determined lives and others were thrown into prison to await the return to have a navy. He hired Dutch and Venetian ship- of the Czar. Peter quitted Vienna immediately on the wrights, who built some small vessels at Pskov, in which receipt of this intelligence, and arrived at Moscow, after he used to cruise on the Lake Peipus, until that becoming an absence of seventeen months. too confined a space for him, he went to Archangel, where he passed two summers cruising on board English and Dutch ships, and learning the duties of a practical seaman. His taste for everything connected with ships and navigation soon amounted to a passion. He resolved to be no longer dependent on foreigners for his ships, and accordingly sent a number of young Russians to Venice, Leghorn, and Holland, to learn the art of ship-building. By these measures his expenditure had been so much in creased that it was necessary to take some steps towards augmenting the revenue, which he did, through the advice of his foreign councillors, by raising the custom-house duties from 5 to 10 per cent., which caused an increase of nearly 2,000,000 rubles in the first year. In 1696, he besieged and took Azoff. During the rejoicings which followed this first victory by the army and navy of his own creation, some of the discontented boyars and strelitzes conspired to put him to death, but, being betrayed by certain of the confederates, the plot was defeated by their arrest and execution.
Russia was not at this period represented at any of the courts of Europe, but Peter, being more than ever convinced of the pre-eminence of the inhabitants of Western Europe over his own barbarous subjects, resolved to visit these countries himself, and for this purpose he despatched an extraordinary embassy to Holland, accompanying it himself incognito. Before he set out on his travels in 1697, he took the precaution of leaving General Gordon, with 4000 of his guards, in Moscow, with orders to remain in that capital. He only took with him twelve attendants, among whom were his favourites, Menzikoff and Galitzin, and his dwarf, a necessary appendage to all great men in Russia. He went straight to Saardam in Holland, took a small lodging with two rooms and a garret, and a shed adjoining. He purchased carpenters' tools and the dress of the dockyard artificers, and there he and his companions spent almost all their time in working as common shipwrights. Peter went by the name of Pieter Timmerman; he rose early, boiled his own pot, and received wages for his labour. He was described by a native of Holland as being very tall and robust, quick, and nimble of foot, rapid in all his actions, his face plump and round, fierce in his look, having brown eyebrows and curling brown hair, and swinging his arms in walking.' He spent much time in sailing on the Zuyder Zee, and with his own hands made a bowsprit for his yacht; he also assisted at rope-making, sail-making, and smiths' work. A bar of iron which he forged at Olonetz some years later, with his own mark stamped upon it, is preserved in the Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg. In the same spirit of inquiry and eagerness to learn, he visited every manufactory, examining into all the details of each. He attended the hospitals, where he learned to bleed and draw teeth; he was very fond of practising in a surgical way. From Holland he proceeded to England, when he arrived in January, 1698. As his chief object in coming to this country was to learn the theory of shipbuilding, and the method of making drafts, and laying them off in the mould-lofts, he did not disguise his annoyance at the crowds which assembled to see him, and at the festivities given in his honour.
The Marquis of Carmarthen was appointed by King William to attend upon the Czar, and they are reported to have passed their nights together in drinking pepper and brandy. Peter visited the dockyards of Deptford, Woolwich, and Chatham. He spent much of his time at Rotherhithe, where a ship was building for him. After his day's work, he and his companions were in the habit of retiring to a publichouse near Tower-hill, to smoke and drink beer and brandy. The house still bears the sign of the Czar of Russia. He went to Portsmouth, to witness a grand naval review and sham fight. In April he quitted England, taking with him several men of science, engineers, and officers for his army and navy. He spent a short time in Holland, and then
The dark side of Peter's character now showed itself in the savage nature of the punishments inflicted on the rebels; in palliation of which it can only be said that this being the third insurrection during his reign, a severe example was required to deter other malcontents. He next ordained that all persons, civil as well as military, should cut off the skirts of their Tartar coats, and shave their beards: a tax was levied on all who disobeyed, which, from the love of the Russians for these appendages, became a fruitful source of revenue. He regulated the printing-press, and caused translations to be published of works on various arts and other subjects, established schools for the marine and the teaching of languages, obliged his subjects to trade with other countries, which formerly subjected them to the penalty of death, and he altered the calendar, much to the horror of the priests, ordering that the year 1700 should commence on the 1st of January, instead of the 1st of September, which day used to commence the Russian year. He also instituted the order of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Russia.
In the year 1700 Peter entered into an offensive league with Poland and Denmark against Sweden. His army was defeated before Narva by Charles XII., on the 19th of November in that year; but far from being dispirited at this event, he was only excited to renewed exertion, and he cbserved that the Swedes would at length teach his soldiers to beat them. In 1703 he laid the foundation of St. Petersburg; and in the previous year the Russian army, under Scherematoff, had gained a complete victory over an inferior force of Swedes, and immediately after took the town of Marienburg. The war continued with more or less success until the year 1709, when Charles XII., having rashly marched into the Ukraine, was completely defeated by the Russian army under Peter at Pultowa, on the 15th of June. Charles himself escaped to Bender, but his army was totally annihilated.
We have seen that Peter, in his seventeenth year, had a wife forced upon him, who bore him one son, Alexis. The czarina having encouraged the factious party, who opposed all innovation, Peter found it necessary to divorce and confine her to a convent before he had been married three years (1696). His son Alexis was unfortunately left in her guardianship. When the prisoners taken at Marienburg fied off before General Bauer, he was much struck with the appearance of a very young girl, who appeared to be in the greatest distress. She had been married only the day before to a Livonian sergeant in the Swedish service, whose loss she was then mourning. The general took compassion on her, and received her into his house. Some time after, Menzikoff being struck by her beauty, she was transferred to him, and remained his mistress till the year 1704, when, in the seventeenth year of her age, she became the mistress of Peter, and gained his affections so entirely that he married her, first privately and afterwards publicly. On the 17th of March, 1711, he declared the czarina Catherine Alexina his lawful wife. She accompanied her husband immediately afterwards to the war in Turkey, which had just broken out. Peter, following the rash example of Charles XII., entered the enemy's country before his whole army was concentrated. Without sufficient force to keep up his line of communication with Russia, he crossed the river Pruth near Jassy, marched some way down the right bank, and was hemmed in by the army of the grand-vizier on one side, and the Tartars of the Crimea on the opposite shore of the river. After three days' action, the situation of the army became desperate, when Catherine, unknown to her husband, sent a letter to the grand-vizier, with a present of all the plate and jewels she could collect in the camp. After some delay a treaty of peace was signed, by which Peter gave up the towns of Azof and Taganrog, and the vizier supplied the Russian army with provisions. Peter's health was
so much impaired after this campaign, that he went to Carlsbad to drink the waters. From Carlsbad he proceeded to Dresden, where his son the czarovitz Alexis Petrovitz was married to the princess of Wolfenbuttel. From Dresden he went to St. Petersburg, where he solemnised anew his marriage with Catherine with great pomp. Peter now determined to strip Sweden of every place which could be an annoyance to his new capital. Before the close of 1713 Stralsund was the only spot in Pomerania remaining to the Swedes: Peter himself gave the plan for its siege, and then leaving Menzikoff to carry it out, went to St. Petersburg, and from thence with a squadron of galleys and flat boats made himself master of Abo and the whole coast of Finnland. The library of Abo was transferred to St. Petersburg, and was the foundation of the present library of that city.
He next defeated the Swedish fleet in a naval engagement, and instituted the female order of St. Catherine on the occasion, in honour of the czarina, who alone could bestow it. The senate was removed from Moscow to St. Petersburg in 1713, and the emperor's summer and winter palaces were completed in 1715. He employed about 40,000 men in finishing his dockyard, building ships, wharfs, and fortifications. Goods imported into Archangel were prohibited from being sent to Moscow; and under these favourable circumstances, St. Petersburg soon became a place of great commerce and wealth.
Peter had now taken the whole of Finnland, and the provinces of Esthonia and Livonia, and having nothing to fear from Charles XII., he made a second tour through Europe in 1716, accompanied by the empress. They visited Mecklenburg, Hamburg, Pyrmont, Schwerin, Rostock, and Copenhagen, where he remained some months. While he was at Copenhagen, an English and a Dutch squadron arrived: Peter proposed that the four fleets should unite, and proceed to sea in search of the Swedish fleet: the chief command was given to the Czar, who declared the moment in which he hoisted his standard to be the proudest of his life. From Copenhagen he went to Lübeck, where he had an interview with the king of Prussia, and then to Amsterdam, where he remained some time. Catherine, who had been left behind, was brought to bed at Wesel of a third child, which died the next day. She remained at Amsterdam while her husband went to Paris, where he was received with great splendour. On his return to Amsterdam he visited Berlin on his way to Russia. During this tour he purchased great quantities of pictures, cabinets of birds and insects, books, and whatever appeared likely to enrich or ornament the city of his creation. The king of Denmark presented him with a great hollow globe eleven feet in diameter, whose inside represented the celestial and the outside the terrestrial sphere. Peter showed every where the same dislike to parade and formal etiquette which he had always evinced, and avoided them when possible. His eldest son, Alexis, who had unhappily been left to the guardianship of his mother, had always been a source of disquietude and trouble to Peter; and when he grew up, far from showing any desire to tread in the footsteps of his father, he chose his friends and advisers from among the disaffected and turbulent boyars and priests, who were opposed to all change. The unfortunate princess, wife of Alexis, had fallen a victim to the brutal conduct of her husband, after giving birth to a son, Peter Alexiovitz, afterwards Peter II. While yet grieving for the loss of his daughterin-law, Peter remonstrated with his son on his conduct, and told him that he should not be his successor unless he altered his mode of living. These remonstrances being treated with complete neglect by Alexis, who still pursued his vicious courses, Peter forced him, on the 14th Feb, 1718, to sign and swear to a deed wholly renouncing the succession to the crown: he also required from him the names of his advisers in his misconduct. The answers given by Alexis to the queries put to him were such, that Peter thought it necessary to try him by the great officers of state, the judges, and the bishops, who unanimously condemned him to death. On the day of his condemnation, he was seized with a violent illness, which terminated in two days, on the 7th July, 1718. His mother was strictly confined, and his advisers punished. In 1719 the Czar's son by Catherine, in whose favour Alexis had abdicated, died at five years of age. On the 10th September, 1721, the peace of Neustadt was concluded, by which Sweden ceded to Russia, Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, Carelia, Wyburg, and the P. C., No. 1106.
adjacent islands, but secured the possession of the Gulf of Finland.
Peter had now attained the summit of his glory: he was requested, and after some hesitation consented, to adopt the titles of Peter the Great, Emperor of all the Russias, and Father of his Country.' This was done amidst great rejoicings, which continued for fifteen days. He now turned his undivided attention to the arts of peace. He commenced canals to unite navigable rivers; encouraged by bounties the manufactures of woollen and linen cloths; the erection of corn, powder, and sawing mills; established a manufactory of small-arms; instituted hospitals, and established a uniformity of weights and measures; paved the streets of Moscow and St. Petersburg; and ordered the young nobility to carry their wives to visit foreign courts and countries, in order to acquire more civilised manners. Some of his measures were not so politic, although equally well intended, such as the attempt to fix the prices of provisions and the limit of expense in dress.
In 1722, Peter led an expedition to the Caspian, which however failed in producing any results. In 1723 he went to St. Petersburg to found the Academy of Sciences, and to erect a memorial of the establishment of a navy in Russia. Peter took his idea of the academy from that of Paris, of which he had been elected a member during his visit to that capital. In the same year he caused Catherine to be crowned, and his eldest daughter was married to the duke of Holstein Gottorp. He suffered greatly at this time from a strangury in the neck of his bladder, which painful disorder he endeavoured to stifle by an unlimited indulgence in strong liquors, which so much increased the violence of his temper, that even the empress is said to have feared his presence. Being partially relieved, he went, in October, 1724, contrary to the advice of his physicians, to inspect the works on Lake Ladoga. On his return he proceeded to Lachta, on the Gulf of Finnland, and had scarcely anchored there, when a boat full of soldiers being cast on the shore, Peter, in his ardour to assist them, waded through the water, which brought on violent inflammation in the bladder and intestines. He was conveyed to St. Petersburg, where his complaint made rapid progress, giving him intense and constant pain. He at length sunk under the disease, and expired on the 28th of January, 1725. His body lay in state till the 21st March, when his obsequies and those of his third daughter, Natalia Petrowna, who died after her father, were performed at the same time.
Peter I., deservedly named the Great, was compounded of contradictions; the greatest undertakings and the most ludicrous were mingled together; benevolence and humanity were as conspicuous in him as a total disregard of human life; he was at once kind-hearted and severe even to ferocity; without education himself, he promoted arts, science, and literature. He gave a polish,' says Voltaire, to his people, and was himself a savage; he taught them the art of war, of which he was himself ignorant; from the sight of a small boat on the river Moskwa he created a powerful fleet, made himself an expert and active shipwright, sailer, pilot, and commander; he changed the manners, customs, and laws of the Russians, and lives in their memory as the Father of his Country?'
Menzikoff, whose birth was so obscure as to be totally unknown, and who had risen through the favour of the Czar to be a prince and governor of St. Petersburg, caused Catherine to be proclaimed empress immediately after the death of Peter, and during her reign possessed unlimited power. Catherine died of a cancer in the breast, aggravated by excessive indulgence in wine of Tokay, in 1727, at the age of 38, having survived her husband only two years and a few months. She was succeeded by Peter H., son of the unfortunate Alexis. He was left in the guardianship of Menzikoff, who affianced his daughter to the young Czar. Peter felt the greatest repugnance to her, and in consequence, with the help of Dolgorouki, his tutor, caused Menzikoff to be arrested and banished to Siberia. His great wealth was forfeited, and he was only allowed out of it 10 rubles a day for his support. He died at Berezof, in 1729. The haughty favourite of Peter the Great, whose magnificence exceeded that of crowned heads, died in poverty and exile.
Among other works connected with the mechanical arts, Peter the Great translated L'Architecture de Sebastien Leclerc; L'Art de Tourner, par Plumier;' L'Art des Ecluses et des Moulins, par Sturm.' The manuscripts of VOL. XVIII.—E
these, with his journal of the Swedish campaigns from 1698 ! to 1714, are preserved at St. Petersburg.
(Voltaire; General Gordon, Hist. of Peter the Great; Mem, of Peter Bruce; Coxe's Travels; Biograph. Universelle.)
PETER II. [RUSSIA.]
PETER III. [RUSSIA; CATHARINA II.] PETER THE HERMIT. [CRUSADES.] PETER-HOUSE, the earliest endowed college in the university of Cambridge, was founded in 1257, by Hugh de Balsham, then sub-prior, afterwards bishop of Ely, who, having purchased two hostels, one of them belonging to the Friars of Penance, united them, and appropriated the building for the residence of students; but it was not till 1280, after his promotion to the see of Ely, that he endowed the college with revenues for the support of a master, fourteen fellows, two bible-clerks, and eight poor scholars. After his death a new college was built on the site of the two hostels, for which purpose the bishop gave by will the sum of three hundred marks; he gave them also the church of St. Peter. Among the principal benefactors in subsequent times were Simon Langham, bishop of Ely, who gave the rectory of Cherry-Hinton; bishop Montacute, who appropriated the church of Triplow, and gave the manor of Chewell in Haddenham; Margaret lady Ramsay, who founded two fellowships and two scholarships, and gave two advowsons; and Dr. Hale, one of the masters, who gave the sum of 70007. and two rectories.
The fellowships are open without restriction to natives of any part of the British dominions, but no one is eligible who is M.A., or of sufficient standing to take that degree. The bishop of Ely appoints to the mastership one of two candidates presented to him by the society. The candidates must be doctors or bachelors of divinity, and must be selected if possible from the fellows on the foundation. Formerly there could not be more than two fellows of a county (except of Cambridge or Middlesex), and seven fellowships were confined to the northern and seven to the southern division of England and Wales; but these restrictions were removed by letters-patent, which came into operation in June, 1839. One-fourth part only of the foundation fellows are required to be in priest's orders. By queen Elizabeth's licence the five senior clerical fellows may hold any livings with their fellowships, provided they are not more than 207. in the Liber Regis, and within twenty miles of the university of Cambridge. The bye fellowships, which are perfectly open and unrestricted, are distinct from the former; the possessors of them are not entitled to any office or voice in the affairs of the college. Two were founded 1589, by Andrew Perne, D.D.; two, in 1601, by Lady Ramsay; and four, in 1637, by Thomas Parke, Esq.
Two fellowships of 70l. per annum each, and four new scholarships of 307. per annum each, have recently been added to the college from the donation of the Rev. Francis Gisborne, M.A., late fellow of Peter-House. This foundation bears the name of the donor. The two Gisborne fellowships are tenable for seven years, and any person may be elected from either of them into a foundation fellowship before he is of standing to take his M.A. degree. These fellowships are vacated by marriage, or by the possession of any permanent income amounting to 250l. per annum.
The livings in the gift of this college are, the rectories of Glayston in Rutlandshire, Statherne in Leicestershire, Exford in Somersetshire; Norton, Witnesham, Newton, and Freckenham, in Suffolk; and Knapton in Norfolk; with the vicarage of Hinton, and the curacy of Little St. Mary, Cambridge, in Cambridgeshire; and the vicarage of Ellington in Huntingdonshire. Glayston rectory is annexed to the mastership, and the vicarage of Hinton and the curacy of Little St. Mary are tenable with fellowships.
This college stands on the west side of Trumpingtonstreet, and consists of two courts, the larger of which is 144 feet by 84. The chapel, which stands in the lesser court, was built in 1632. The master's lodge is a detached building on the opposite side of Trumpington-street.
The bishop of Ely is the visitor of this college. The number of members upon the boards, March 18th, 1840, was 210. Copies of the statutes of this college are preserved among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum.
(Lysons's Magna Britann., 'Cambr.,' pp. 103, 104; Camb. Univ. Calendar, 1840.)
PETER PENCE, a tax antiently levied throughout England, according to some authorities, of a penny upon each house; according to others, of a penny upon every house which contained twenty pennyworth of any kind of goods, and paid to the pope. This payment, in antient times, passed under various denominations: Rome-fee, Romepenning, and Rome-scot were the Saxon names; Denarii S. Petri and Census S. Petri, in Latin. The earliest payment of it is attributed by some to Ina, king of the West Saxons, A.D. 720; by others to Offa, king of Mercia, A.D. 790. At one period of his reign, Edward III. discontinued this payment, but it was revived by Richard II. It finally ceased at the Reformation. (Du Cange's Glossary; Hist. Will. Malmsb. Leg. Edw. Conf. & Will. Conq.) PETER'S RIVER, ST. [MISSISSIPPI, River.] PETER'S, ST. [ROME.]
PETERBOROUGH, or PETERBURGH, an English city, in the liberty of Peterborough (otherwise called Nassburgh or Nassaburgh soke or hundred), in the county of Northampton, on the river Nene, and on the Hull and Lincoln mail road, 83 miles from the General Post-oflice, London, by Waltham Cross and Baldock.
This city owes its origin to a celebrated Benedictine abbey founded by Peada, son of Penda, king of the Mercians, soon after the revival of Christianity among the Saxons. Peterborough was antiently called Medeshamsted and Medeswellehamsted. About the year 870 the abbey was destroyed by the Danes; and after remaining desolate for a century, was restored in the reign of Edgar (A.D. 970), about which time the name Medeshamsted was superseded by that of Burgh, otherwise Gilden-burgh, from the wealth and splendour of the abbey, or Peter-burgh, from the saint to whom it was dedicated. In the reign of William the Conqueror the abbey was attacked and plundered by the insurgents of the fens under Hereward-le-Wake; and the village which was rising around it was destroyed by fire. In 1116 the village and the greater part of the abbey were again destroyed by fire. The monastic buildings were gradually restored and augmented; and at the dissolution of the religious houses under Henry VIII., Peterborough was one of the most magnificent abbeys then existing. Having been selected as the seat of one of the new bishoprics erected by Henry, the buildings were preserved entire. In the civil war of Charles I. great devastations were committed. The cathedral itself was much injured, and many of the other conventual buildings were utterly demolished and the materials sold. The Lady-chapel was subsequently taken down by the townsmen, to whom the church had been granted for a parish church. No historical interest is attached to the town independent of the abbey or cathedral.
Peterborough is comprehended in the parish of St. John Baptist, which has a total area of 4880 acres, and a population, in 1831, of 6313: of this the limits of the city comprehend an area of 1430 acres, and a population of 5553; the remaining area and population are included in the hamlets of Dogsthorpe and Eastfield with Newark, and the chapelry of Longthorpe. The city consists of several streets regularly laid out and well paved and lighted, close upon the bank of the river, over which there is a wooden bridge. The houses are in general well built, and several of them are of recent erection. Besides the cathedral, there is a large parish church; and also some dissenting places of worship. There is a market-house, the upper part of which is used as the town-hall; and a small gaol and house of correction for the liberty.
The cathedral of Peterborough is a regular cruciform structure of Norman or early English character, remarkable for the solidity and massiveness of its construction. The erection of it was commenced A.D. 1117 (after the great fire of 1116), by John de Sais or Seez, a Norman, then abbot. It is probable that the choir was the part first erected. It has a semicircular eastern end, and at the extremities of the semicircle there are two slender turrets crowned with pinnacles: the aisles have subsequently been carried out square by an addition of perpendicular character. The chancel was finished (A.D. 1140) by Abbot Martin de Vecti: the great transept and a portion of the central tower were built by Abbot William de Waterville or Vaudeville (A.D. 1160-1175), and the nave by Abbot Benedict (A.D. 1177-1193). The central tower is low, and forms a lantern. The nave has its piers composed of shafts of good proportions and fine