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must have existed in a country where the climate obliges On the eastern chain of the Andes, in a district called Hua. the people to put on warm clothing for several months in malies, a great quantity of Jesuits’-bark is collected. The the year. They are also fishermen, and sail with their balsas number of creoles is comparatively small, and that of the along the coast from one small port to another to exchange Indians very great. There are numerous ruins of antient their different productions.

buildings in the Valles and vale of the river Marañon. The native tribes which inhabit the vale of the Huallaga Payta is a commercial town with an excellent harbour, river have been converted, and are nearly equal in civiliza- which in 1835 was visited by upwards of 4000 tons of tion to the Peruvians. The Shanamachos live on the eastern shipping. The town, which is built on the slope and at the banks of the Huallaga, and on the western are the Cholones, foot of a hill, contains 5000 inhabitants. It is the port of Sharras, and Ibitas. They all seem to belong to one nation, the fine vale of the Rio Piura, which contains 75,000 inhabitas they speak one language, called the Ibita, though most ants, and is a place of much business, as communication with of them understand the Quichua. They cultivate the Europe by the way of Panamà is more expeditious than at grains and roots which have been mentioned as the princi- any other port of Peru. The town of S. Miguel de Piura, pal productions of this valley. Their dwellings are much built on the banks of the river, about 20 miles from Payta, inferior to those of the Peruvians, which however may be contains a population of from 8000 to 9000, and some maattributed to the circumstance of their country not being nufactures of soap and leather. Lambayeque is situated in exposed to cold weather. They have adopted a decent a district which produces abundance of rice and has a condress, except that they wear no covering for the head or siderable commerce, though the roadstead is bad. It confeet, which they stain blue.

tains about 4000 inbabitants, and exports bullion and rice. The independent native tribes inhabit the low and level Truxillo, founded by Francisco Pizarro and named after his country east of the mountain region. It is more than pro- birthplace, is situated in the middle of the extensive valley bable that all these tribes are not known, eren by name. of Chimu, about two miles from the sea. The harbour HuanaSouth of 12° S. lat., on the east of the Andes, are the cho is an open roadstead. The streets of Truxillo are wide Chunchos and Tuyoneris. The Antes inhabit the country and regular, and it has a fine cathedral and a handsome town. where the Paucartamba and Quilabamba unite, between hall. The principal articles of export are bullion, sugar, and 12° and 11° S. lat. North of 11°, and as far north as go s. rice. Population 9000. The valley of Chimu contains the lat., are four tribes, the Tampas, Palutuniques, Chuntagui- ruins of a large Indian town. In the vale of the Marañon rus, and Piros. The country on both sides of the Pachitea are the towns of Caxamarca and Chachapoyas. Caxamarca river is in possession of the numerous and warlike tribe of stands on the eastern declivity of the Western Andes, in a the Cashibos, who are said to be cannibals, and do not rich mining district: it is nearly 9000 feet above the seapermit strangers to enter their country. They have ad- level, and contains 7000 inhabitants and the ruins of a vanced as far north as go S. lat. North of them, between palace of the Incas. Cotton and woollen cloth are manuthe Huallaga and Ucayali, are the Conibos, Setebos, and factured to a considerable extent, and also many utensils of Shipebos; and still farther north two small tribes, the Ma- iron. In the neighbourhood there are hot springs, called paris and Puinaus. Between the Ucayali and Yavari are the baths of the Incas. The richest mine in the vi. ihe Amajuacas (between 9° and 8°), the Remos (between 8° cinity is that of Qualgayac, not far from Chota. The and 7°), the Sencis and Capanaguas (7o and 6°), and the town of Chachapoyas is near the western declivity of numerous tribe of the Mayorunas, who occupy the country the Eastern_Andes, on the road which leads to the to the very banks of the Amazonas. The tribes inhabiting vale of the Rio Huallaga, and contains 3000 inhabitants. both banks of the Ucayali speak one language, or dialects Much tobacco is raised in the neighbourhood. In the vale which differ very little from one another. This language of the Rio Huallaga are the towns of Moyobamba and is called Pano. Some of these tribes have been partially Tarapoto. Moyobamba, near the eastern declivity of the converted to Christianity, as the Conibos, Setebos, and Shi- Eastern Andes, has 5000 inhabitants, and Tarapoto, a few pebos, but the missionaries have made no impression on the miles from the Huallaga river, about 4000. In both towns other tribes, and no attempt at conversion has been made a coarse cotton stuff called tucuya is made; and cotton, among some of them. Since Peru has obtained its inde- gums, resin, and white wax are sent to the coast of the pendence, the missions have been much neglected, and many Pacific by the road which leads from Tarapoto to Truxof the converted Indians have returned to the woods, and illo. are again lost to civilization. The converted tribes are agri- 2. The department of Junin was formerly called Tarma, culturists, which is also the case with several of the uncon- from the principal town, but the name was changed to comverted tribes, as the Chunchos, Antes, Remos, and Sencis; memorate the battle gained by Bolivar on the plain of Junin but they cultivate only small patches of ground, and prefer in 1824. It occupies the valleys along the Pacific which wandering about in the forests in pursuit of game. The lie between Santa and Barranca (near 11° S. lat.), and comconverted tribes wear clothing, but the others go quite prehends the upper vales of the rivers Marañon, Huallaga, naked. None of these tribes have any chief, but they all and Jauja, and also the table-land of Pasco. Besides the live in a state of perfect equality. Even in their excursions produce of the rich mines, this department exports sugar, against their enemies they have no leader, but each warrior rice, and Indian corn. The greater part of the district of acts individually, and appropriates to his own use all the Huamalies, in which bark is collected, belongs to this deplunder or prisoners that he takes. They use a few articles partment. The Indian population is still greater in proof European manufacture, as hatchets, knives, scissors, portion to the creoles than in Truxillo. There are several needles, buitons, and some glittering baubles. They pro- ruins of antient buildings, but they are not considerable. cure these articles either at Nauta on the Amazonas or at None of the towns situated in the Valles are important in a Sarayacu on the Ucayali. The Chuntaguirus, who are the commercial view. The fertile valley of the Rio Nepeña most remote from all the settlements of the whites, ascend contains the towns of Huambacho and Nepeña; the lastthe Ucayali and Urubamba to the confluence of the Pau- mentioned town seems to be a place of some size. They excartamba and Quilabamba, where they procure by barter port their produce, sugar and grain, from the excellent such articles as they want, giving in exchange parrots and harbour of Samanco or Huambacho. Farther south is the other birds, monkeys, cotton robes white and painted, wax, town of Guarmey, in a country which is covered with balsams, the feet of the tapir, feather ornaments for the lofty trees, whence great quantities of fire-wood are sent to head, and jaguar and other skins.

Lima. It has only from 500 to 600 inhabitants. The small Political Divisions and Towns.—Peru is divided into eight towns of Barranca and Supé export their agricultural prodepartments, Truxillo, Junin, Lima, Huancabelica, Ayacu- duce to Lima from the bay of Supé. In the upper vale of cho, Cuzco, Arequipa, and Puno. The countries inhabited the Marañon is the town of Huari, with 7000 inhabitants, by the independent tribes are not comprised in these de- and Caxatambo, which has some mines in the neighbourpartments.

hood. Pasco or Cerro Pasco is built on the table-land of 1. The department of Truxillo extends over the northern Pasco, 14,278 feet above the sea-level. It is probably the most districts of the republic, from the shores of the Pacific to the elevated place in America, if not in the world, which is perbasin of the Rio Huallaga, and comprehends the Valles manently inhabited. This town, whose population flucnorth of Santa (near go s. lat.), the lower and wider tuates, according to the produce of the mines, between portion of the vale of the Marañon, and likewise the greater | 12,000 and 16,000, is irregularly built on very uneven part of that of the Rio Huallaga. The mountains contain ground. The site on which it stands abounds in silver many mines, several of which are still profitably worked. It ore, and the mouths of the mines are frequently in the midalso produces great quantities of sugar, which is exported. dle of the streets. Only those mines are worked which





contain rich ores. The houses are low, and some have | numerous in this country, and in many places ruins of ansmall glazed windows; but the suburbs are merely a collec- tient buildings occur. The southern districts contain extion of mud cottages. As the surrounding country is des- tensive pasture-grounds: those situated in the middle titute of trees, it is fortunate that coal abounds in the produce wheat and the other cerealia of Europe, with Indian neighbourhood. In the upper vale of the Rio Huallaga, corn in abundance, and the southern have extensive plannorth-east of Pasco, is the town of Huanaco, with 9000 in- tations of sugar and other intertropical plants. In the habitants, which owes its prosperity to the circumstance of southern districts are several mines, but few of them are its agricultural produce finding a ready sale at Pasco. In worked. Besides the capital, Cusco, or Cuzco (Cuzco), there the neighbourhood there are ruins of considerable extent is no town of importance in this department. Abancay, in In the vale of the Rio Jauja is the town of Tarma, with the narrow valley of the upper Apurimac, is a small place. 6000 inhabitants, in which cotton and woollen stuffs are The plain which lies east of the eastern Andes contains a manufactured.

small number of plantations near the base of the moun3. The department of Lima extends along the coast from tains; they belong to this department, and border on the Barranca (11° S. lat.) to Point Penates (150 30'), and com- country of the Chunchos Indians. prehends that part of the maritime region in which the 7. The department of Arequipa extends along the valleys are most numerous and occur at short distances coast of the Pacific from Point Penates (15° 30' S. lat.) to from one another. It extends inland to the lower decli- Point Sama (18° S. lat.), and inland to the declivity of the vity of the Western Andes. All the productions of the western Andes. It contains a smaller number of vales than vales grow here, and are tolerably abundant. The popula- the department of Lima, but several of them are extensive, tion contains a greater proportion of creoles than that of especially that of the Rio Chila or Arequipa, in which the other departments. There are some extensive ruins of the town of Arequipa stands. The commercial products antient buildings and towns. North of Lima is the town of consist chiefly of wool and cotton. There are more creoles Huacho, built in an extensive and fertile valley about one than in any other department except Lima. Acari, not far mile from the port, which is small, but has good anchorage. from the boundary of the department of Lima, is built in a Lima, the capital of the republic, is about 6 miles from fertile plain several miles from the sea. It is a considerable Callao. [Lima ; Callao.] 'South of Callao is the small place, but little visited by travellers. The port, called Point town of Chorillos, built on a cliff at the foot of the Morro Lomas, has good anchorage and tolerable landing. Islay, Solar, a remarkable cluster of hills; it is chiefly used as a the harbour of Arequipa, contains about 1500 inhabitants. bathing place for the inhabitants of Lima. In the fertile It is built on the west side of a hill which slopes gently and well-cultivated valley of Lurim, which is a few miles towards the harbour. The trade is flourishing, and it exfarther south, are the ruins of the antient city of Pachaca- ports bark, wool, and specie. On the north-east of the

Cerro Azul, farther south, in the middle of a fer- capital, Arequipa (Arequipa), stands the volcano of Aretile valley, is a considerable place, and exports large quipa, 17,200 feet high. There is always snow on the quantities of rum, sugar, and chancana, a sort of treacle. norih-west side of its summit. Ylu is a small place on the Pisco, built on a plain, about a mile from the shores of the coast. Bay of Pisco, has above 3000 inhabitants. It has a con- 8. The department of Puno extends along the Pacific siderable commerce, and exports wine, a kind of spirit called from Point Sama (18° S. lat.) to the Rio Loa, which conPisco or Italia, and sugar. South of Pisco are two small stitutes the southern boundary of Peru. It comprehends towns, Yca and Nasca, in which much wine is made, and also that part of the valley of the Desaguadero which beexported to other parts of Peru; but it is inferior to that longs to Peru. The vales along the coast are small, and in of Pisco.

general 20 miles from one another. The rivers which drain 4. The department of Huancabelica lies east of Lima, and these valleys have in general water only during three months extends over the Western Andes and the lower vale of the of the year. In the barren tracts which divide the valleys Jauja. The mountains contain a great number of mines, much salt petre is collected, and in some silver and copper and several of them are still worked with profit. The fertile ore are found. The population is more scanty than in any vale is well cultivated and inhabited, as it supplies the min. other part of Peru, and chiefly consists of Indians. The ing district with provisions. The number of creoles is con- principal town on the coast is Arica, which contains a siderable. The capital, Huancabelica, is built in a ravine population of about 3000 souls, who live in low houses built between mountains whose summits rise to the height of of sun-dried bricks. [Arica.] It is the port of Tacna, a 13,000 feet, and which contain several mines of gold, silver, town built in the same valley about 30 miles from it, and and quicksilver; the quicksilver-mines are rich. The town the depôt of European merchandise for the consumption of has 5000 inhabitants. Nothing is cultivated in the neigh- the department of Puno and the greater part of the republic bourhood. Castro Vireyna, farther south, is in the centre of Bolivia. Tacna contains 7000 souls and several wellof another mining district. In the vale of the Rio Jauja is built houses. Y quique (20° 12' S. lat.), with a bad roadJauja or Atanjauja, a town with 3000 inhabitants, and some stead, has only 1000 inhabitants; a considerable quantity of silver-mines in the neighbourhood.

saltpetre is shipped here. Near the lake of Titicaca, in the 5. The department of Ayacucho received its name from valley of the Desaguadero, are the towns of Puno, the the plains of Ayacucho, on which General Sucre, on the capital of the department, which has a population of 9000 9th of December, 1824, defeated Canterac, the viceroy of inhabitants, and Chuquito, with 5000. In the vicinity of Peru, and put an end to the dominion of Spain in South Puno are numerous silver-mines, which in 1805 yielded America. It extends over a part of the Western Andes, 96,528 marcs of silver, but since that time the produce has the western lower portion of the table-land of Cuzco, and the fallen off. valley of the Rio Mantaro. The principal productions are In the countries of the independent tribes there were the cerealia and fruits of Europe. The population consists formerly several missiones, or stations of missionaries, who of Indians: whites are only found in the town. The capital collected a number of aborigines and tried to convert them is Huamango, a large place with 26,000 inhabitants, founded to Christianity. Nearly all these missions have been deby Francisco Pizarro, in an elevated situation, on the decli- stroyed by the political changes to which Peru has been vities of some mountains of moderate elevation above subject during the last twenty years. Only one of them is their base. It contains several large private buildings of in a flourishing state, that of Sarayacu, on the Rio Ucayali, stone, covered with tiles. The suburbs, which are in near 7° S. lat., where about 2000 individuals of the tribes of habited by Indians, are large, and the houses better than in Puinaus, Setebos, Conibos, Shipebos, and Sencis live in other Indian towns. It has a fine cathedral, a university, scattered houses, and seem to advance, though slowly, in and a seminary for clergymen. The rich creole families civilization. that live in this town have large sugar-plantations in the Manufactures.—The Peruvian Indians consume a very valley of the river Mantaro. As the town is situated on the small quantity of European manufactured articles. Their road leading from Lima to Cuzco, it has a considerable dress is composed of cotton or woollen stuffs made at home, trade. Some miles east-north-east of the town are the or in several of the small towns in the vale of the Marañon plains of Ayacucho. North of it is Huanta, a small town, and Jauja. These home-made stuffs also serve as tlie in a district rich in agricultural produce, especially wheat dress of the mixed race. Only the creoles dress in Edand Indian corn.

ropean stuffs. There are some manufactures of cordovan 6. The department of Cuzco extends over the whole of leather, and some tanneries and soap-houses. The iron the southern and over the greater portion of the northern utensils, such as hatchets, scissors, &c., made in Caxapart of the table-land of Cuzco. The Peruvians are very I marca, are highly valued. In the large towns many per


sons are occupied with making vessels, utensils, and orna. , inhabited by a nation which had made great progress in the ments of gold and silver.

arts of civilization. The people were decently dressed, and Commerce.—The country is too mountainous to admit the lodged in comfortable houses. Their fields were well cultimaking of carriage-roads in the interior. Mules are gene- vated, and artificial cuts had been made to conduct the rally used by travellers and for the transport of merchan- water of the small rivers to a considerable distance for the dise. In the more elevated parts of the country llamas are purposes of irrigation. They had extensive manufactures employed for the latter purpose. Six great roads traverse of earthenware and woollen and cotton cloth, and also tools the country from west to east; the most northern runs made of copper. Even now the elegant forms of their from Truxillo do Caxamarca, Chacapoyas, Moyabamba, and utensils, made out of the hardest rock without the use of iron Tarapoto. One road leads from Lima to Pasco, another tools, excite admiration. The extensive ruins of palaces to Tarma, and a third to Huancabelica, Hacamango, and and buildings scattered over the country, and the remains Cuzco. A road leads from Islay to Arequipa and Puno, of the great road which led from Quito to Cuzco, and and another from Arica to Tacna, and thence to La Paz thence southward over the table-land of the valley of the and Oruro in Bolivia. The goods imported from foreign Desaguadero, show that the nation was far advanced in countries are sent by these roads into the interior of civilization. This civilization appears to have grown up in Peri.

the nation itself, and not to have been derived from comThe foreign commerce is considerable, especially that munication with other civilised people. The navigation of with the other countries of America bordering on the Pacific, the Peruvians was limited to coasting from one small harand also with Europe. The most important article of ex-bour to another in balsas. The difference in political instiport is the produce of the mines, especially silver. The tutions and in the usages of society between the Peruvians second in importance is sugar, which is sent to Mexico, and Mexicans precludes the supposition of either of these New Granada, Ecuador, and Chile. The third article in two nations having received their civilization from the other. importance is perhaps saltpetre, the quantity sent to dif- Besides this, they were divided by savage tribes, which ferent countries of Europe being very great.

Cotton, were sunk in the deepest barbarism. The Spaniards were tobacco, Indian corn, rice, salt, and spirits are minor arti- surprised to find this state of things in Peru. When they cles. Wheat, flour, wine, and fruiis are imported from had got possession of the country, they inquired into its Chile, with which country there is an active commerce. history, and learned the following traditions :Manufactured goods are received from Europe and from About three centuries before the arrival of the Spaniards, the United States of North America, and from Canton silk Manco Capac and Mama Ocollo appeared on the table-land goods and nankeens.

of the Desaguadero. These two personages, male and The principal harbours from which the exports are made, female, of majestic stature, appeared clothed in garare Payta, Lambayeque, Callao, Pisco, Islay, Arica, and ments, and declared that they were children of the sun, and Iquique. We have no recent account of the commerce of sent by their parent to reclaim the human race from its the first four harbours, in which probably three-fourths of misery. The savage tribes submitted to the instruction of the exports are shipped. The three last-mentioned har- these beings of a divine origin, who taught them the first bours are called puertos intermedios, and are usually visited arts of civilization, agriculture, and the manufacture of by European vessels which sail along the coast from Val- clothing. Manco Capac organised a regular government, and paraiso in Chile to Callao. Nothing is imported into formed his subjects into four different ranks or classes, which Iquique, the most southern of these harbours, but in 1834 had some slight resemblance to the castes of the Hindus. not less than 148,150 cwt. of saltpetre were shipped, of He also established many useful customs and laws, and which more than 100,000 was on account of British mer- founded the town of Cuzco, which soon became the capital chants. The value amounted to 125,000l. The number of of an extensive empire, called the empire of the Incas (or European vessels which entered the port of Arica in 1834 lords) of Peru. He and his successors, being considered as was 63, and their tonnage amounted to 15,094; there were the offspring of the divinity, exercised absolute and uncon17 English vessels, of 3651 tons, 8 French vessels, of 2003 trolled authority: disobedience to their orders was consitons, and 10 vessels from the United States of North dered a sin and violation of the commands of the Supreme America, with 2971 tons. The other European vessels were Being. His successors gradually extended their authority from Antwerp, Hamburg, Cadiz, and Genoa. The vessels over the whole of the mountain-region between the equator from Chile and other parts of Peru were 26 in number. and 25° S. lat. As the aborigines who inhabit this extenThey exported bullion and specie to the amount of 320,301 sive country speak one language, the Quichua, it must be Spanish dollars, equal to 72,0521.; bark to the value of supposed that they belong to one race, and thus were easily 175,552 dollars, or 39,5041.; pewter to the amount of 18,285 united into one nation, and peaceably submitted to one dollars, or 4114.; and wool to the amount of 13,252 dollars, government. When the Spaniards first entered Peru, the or 29821.; chinchilla and vicuña skins, hides, and cotton twelfth monarch from the founder of the state, named were among the minor articles of export. In the Huayna Capac, was said to be seated on the throne. He same year 132 cwt. of copper were brought from the had violated the antient usage of the Incas, which forbade Bolivian part of the valley of the Desaguadero and a monarch to marry a woman not a descendant of Manco shipped at Arica. The value of all the exports of Arica Capac and Mama Ocollo. His wife was a daughter of the does not exceed 150,0001. The exports of Islay in the same vanquished king of Quito, and the son whom she had borne year amounted to 1,135,590 dollars, equal to 255,5077., him, named Atahualpa, was appointed his successor in that viz:

kingdom. The rest of his dominions he left to Huascar,

his eldest son by a princess of the Inca race. This led to a Saltpetre


civil war between the two princes, and when the contest Silver


was at its height, a Spanish force entered the country Bark


under Francisco Pizarro in 1531. Vicuña wool


Pizarro had sailed in 1526 from Panamà to a country Sheep-wool


lying farther south, which, according to the information Copper


collected from the natives, abounded in precious metals. Rataña


He sailed along the coast as far south as Cape Parina or

Cape Aguja. Landing at Tumbez in the Bay of Guayaquil, 1,135,590

the most northern point of the present republic of Peru, The exports of the puertos intermedios, shipped for he was struck with the advanced state of civilization of the Europe and the United States, amounted therefore to inhabitants, and still more with the abundance of gold and 530,5071.; and as it is assumed that only one-fourth of the silver vessels and utensils. From this time he resolved on commerce of Peru is concentrated in these harbours, the the conquest of the country. In 1531 he returned with a whole exports of the country would exceed 2,000,0001., ex- small force which he had procured from Spain, marched clusive of the commerce with Mexico, Central America, and along the coast, and in 1532 built the town of St. Michael Chile. But it must be remembered that a great part of de Piura, the oldest Spanish settlement in Peru. The disthe exports of the puertos intermedios is brought from tracted state of the country cansed by the civil war enBolivia, as the silver, bark, vicuña and sheep wool, and abled the Spaniards to take possession of it without a copper.

battle; and though the Peruvians afterwards tried to renew History.When the Spaniards first visited Peru, they the contest, they were easily defeated and compelled to found the country under a well-regulated government, and submit to a foreign yoke. In many instances during the P. C., No. 1104.



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progress of the conquest (from 1532 to 1534), Pizarro acted | as well as the judges, are elected by the Congress from three with cruelty and perfidy, but he undoubtedly possessed candidates, who are proposed by the provincial governments. great political sagacity. All the large towns now existing in The Roman Catholic religion alone can be publicly exercised. Peru were built by Pizarro, with the exception of Cuzco, Peru has experienced, even more than the other parts of which was founded by Manco Capac. Pizarro built Piura, America which once were subject to Spain, the bad effects Truxillo, Lima, Arequipa, and Huamanga.

of having adopted a constitution unsuited to the state of The disorders which immediately followed the conquest society. The country is almost continually distracted by nearly caused the loss of the country, a circumstance which parties which are struggling for power, and by civil wars and determined the court of Spain to make Peru the chief seat revolutions produced by these continual struggles. In 1835 of the Spanish dominions in South America. Lima was four chiefs in arms were contending for supremacy. If one chosen for the capital, and it soon rose to such opulence of them succeeded in making himself powerful, the others that it was called the City of the Kings. The authority of united against him; but no sooner were they victorious, Spain took deeper root in Peru than in any other of her than they were again disunited and in hostility to each South American colonies. In 1780 the Peruvians took up other. In 1836 the four southern departments, Cuzco, arms against the Spaniards, under Tupac Amaro, an Inca, Ayacucho, Puno, and Arequipa, separated from the four but failing to capture the town of La Paz after a long siege, northern, and constituted an independent state, under the they again submitted. When all the Spanish colonies began name of Estado Sud Peruano. We do not know whether to rise against the mother country, after the year 1810, the two parts of Peru have again united under one governPeru remained quiet, and though some of the neighbouring ment, or continue to form two republics. provinces had already expelled the Spanish armies, and (Ulloa’s Voyage to South America ; Humboldt's Perothers were attempting to do the same, the Spaniards re- sonal Narrative, &c. ; Memoirs of General Miller ; mained in undisturbed possession of Peru until 1820, and Meyen's Reise um die Welt; Poeppig's Reise in Chile, even then the first impulse to rebellion came from without. Peru, &c. ; Smyth's and Lowe's Narrative of a Journey General San Martin had collected a force in the pro- from Lima to Para ; Narrative of the Surveying Voyages vinces of La Plata, with which he entered Chile, and, after of the Adventure and Beagle ; Pentland, in the London a successful war, expelled the Spaniards from that country. Geographical Journal, vols. v. and viii.; Miller, in the In 1820 he came with an army' from Valparaiso to Perú, London Geographicu? Journal, vol. vi.) and as soon as he had obtained possession of Lima, the in- PERUVIAN ARCHITECTURE. Remains of antient dependence of Peru was proclaimed on the 28th of July, Peruvian buildings are dispersed over the western parts of 1821, and San Martin was also proclaimed protector of South America, from the equator to 15o S. lat., especially Peru. The Spanish viceroy Canterac, who had remained over the Montaña. They are characterised by simplicity, in possession of the Montaña, gradually recovered the symmetry, and solidity. There are no columns, pilasters, or Valles. San Martin, who had lost his popularity, resigned arches, and the buildings exhibit a singular uniformity and his authority into the hands of the legislature on the 19th a complete want of all exterior ornaments. of August, 1822. On the 1st of September, Bolivar, the The great road of the Incas, whiclı runs from Quito to Columbian general, entered Lima, and continued the war Cuzco and the table-land of the Desaguadero, is made of with Canterac, but at first with doubtful success. In No. enormous masses of porphyry, and it is still nearly perfect vember, 1823, a constitution proposed by Bolivar was in several parts of the Montaña. Humboldt obtained an adopted, but the Congress, being unable to maintain its antient Peruvian cutting instrument, which had been authority, dissolved in February, 1824, and Bolivar was found in a mine not far from Cuzco: the material made dictator. After some advantages gained by Bolivar consisted of 94 parts of copper and 6 of tin, a composition over Canterac, the latter was entirely defeated by Sucre in which rendered it hard enough to be used nearly like steel. December, 1824, in the plains of Ayacucho, by włoich battle with instruments made of this material the Peruvians cut the authority of Spain in Peru and South America was the enormous masses of which their buildings are composed. annihilated. General Rodil threw himself with 3000 men Some of the buildings near Cuzco contain stones 40 feet into the fortress of Callao, which he surrendered, after a long, 20 feet wide, and nearly 7 feet thick. These stones are siege of more than thirteen months, on the 29th of January, fitted together with great skill, and, as it was supposed, with1826. In February, 1825, Bolivar had resigned the dicta- out cement. But Humboldt discovered in some ruins a thin torsnip, but he had previously contrived to separate the layer of cement, consisting of gravel and an argillaceous southern provinces from the northern, anıl to convert the earth; in other edifices, he says, it is composed of bitumen. former into a new republic, which adopted the name of The stones are all parallelopipedons, and worked with such Bolivia. The different forms of government which had exactness that it would be impossible to perceive the joinbeen tried within the six years following the declara- | ings if their exterior surface were quite level; but being tion of independence, were not adapted to the state a little convex, the junctures form slight depressions, which of society and the circumstances of the nation. Towards constitute the only exterior ornament of the buildings. The the end of 1826, the Bolivian constitution was adopted, ac- doors of the buildings are from 7 to 8 feet high. The sides cording to which a president was to be placed at the head of the doors are not parallel, but approach each other towards of the government, with the power of naming his successor, the top, a circumstance which gives to the Peruvian doorand without being subject to any responsibility for his acts. ways a resemblance to those in some of the Egyptian iemples. This new constitution excited great discontent, and as Bo- | The niches, of which several occur in the inner side of the livar was soon afterwards obliged to go to Columbia, where walls, have the form of the doors. an insurrection had broken out and a civil war was on the The most extensive Peruvian buildings occur in the tablepoint of commencing, a complete revolution took place in land of Cuzco, which was the most antient seat of the moPeru, in January, 1827. The Bolivian constitution or go-narchy of the Incas. There are also antient remains vernment was abolished, and a new constitution framed and within the boundaries of the present republic of Ecuaadopted, which may be considered as still in force. This dor. Near the ridge called Chisinche, not far from constitution may be viewed as an attempt to unite a fe- the volcano Cotopaxi, are the ruins of a large building called deral republic with a central government. The provincial the Palace of the Incas. It was a square, of which each governments of the departments have the power of framing side is about 30 yards long, and it had four doors. The inlaws for the provinces, but these laws do not obtain authority terior was divided into eight apartments, three of which are till they have been approved by the Congress. The provincial still in tolerable preservation. Not far from the mountain. governments however are entitled to the uncontrolled admi- pass of Assuay is a building called Ingappilca, or the Fortress nistration of their own affairs, both civil and ecclesiastical. I of Cañar, consisting of a wall of very large stones, about The national congress, or supreme legislature, consists of 5 or 6 yards ligh; it has a regular oval form, of which the two bodies, a senate and a house of representatives. The greatest axis is nearly 40 feet long. In the ruins of the president, in whose hands the executive power is placed, is town of Chulucanas, in the department of Truxillo, near chosen for four years, and he cannot be re-elected. He is the boundary-line between Peru and Ecuador, Humboldt assisted in the administration of the public affairs by a mi- had an opportunity of observing the construction of the nistry of his choice, and by a state council, which is elected private buildings of the Peruvians, and he observes that by the legislature. The judicial power is independent of the they consist of one room only, and that probably the door executive, and all decrees and judgments are to be made pub- opened into a court-yard. (Humboldt's Vues des Cordillic. The highest officers of the central government in the i lères et Monuments des Peuples Indigènes, fc.) departments are the prefects and subprefects. These persons, PERU'GIA, DELEGAZIO'NE DI, a province of the


Papal State, is bounded on the north by the central ridge | 20 miles; 4, the Chiana, which is the outlet of the lake of of ihe Apennines, which separates it from the province of Chiusi in Tuscany, drains the southern part of thu Val di Pesaro e Urbino, on the west by Tuscany, on the south by Chiana, receives the river Astrone on its right bank and the the provinces of Spoleto and Viterbo, and on the east by the Tresa on its left, and entering the Papal territory near Città provinces of Macerata and Spoleto. Its length from the della Pieve, joins the Paglia at Orvieto, a few miles below Apennines, which border the valley of the Tiber above which the united stream enters the Tiber. Citià di Castello, down to the contluence of the Paglia with The province of Perugia is the fourth in extent in the the Tiber, is about 60 miles, and its breadth varies from 20 Papal Siate, being inferior only to those of Rome, Viterbo, to 35 miles. The area is reckoned at about 1790 square and Spoleto e Rieti. It is the most fertile of the provinces miles. The province of Perugia is entirely in the basin of south of the Apennines. The principal productions are the Tiber. The lake of Perugia (Lacus Trasimenus) lies corn, wine, oil, silk, and grass, on which large herds of fine in the territory of Perugia, near the borders of Tuscany; its horned cattle are fed: nearly one half of the consumption circumference is about 30 miles, the greatest width is about 1 of butcher's meat by the city of Rome is supplied by cattle eight miles, but the depth is not more than 30 feet. It con- from Perugia. The lake of Perugia abounds with fish, tains three small islands; two (of which one is called Isola which forms a considerable article of export; and the Maggiore) are towards the north, and the third (called Pol- shores are frequented by numerous aquatic birds. The rese) towards the southern extremity. This lake is enclosed by climate is healthy, except in a few low spots on the banks hills on the north, east, and south, but the western coast is of the lake and in the valley of the Chiana near Città della more open, merging into the wide plain of Cortona. This Pieve. lake is fed by no permanent river, but by numerous springs The principal towns of the province are-1, PERUGIA; 2, which rise from the bottom of the bed; it has no natural | Assisi; 3, NOCERA; 4, Foligno, a pleasant well-built town outlet, and in seasons of rain, when numerous streams run in a delightful valley on the river Topino, a short distance into it from the neighbouring hills, it suddenly overflows the above its confluence with the Maruggia or Timia, which banks, and sometime the waters have entered the plain of comes from Spoleto. Foligno is said to have been built Cortona, and mixing with those of the Chiana, have flowed about the eleventh century, being first in habited by cointo the Arno. In order to prevent the mischief occasioned lonists from the antient town of Forum Flaminii, which by these foods, a tunnel or emissary has been made through was in the neighbourhood. It has a handsome cathedral, a hill on the south-east bank near the parish church of San several other line churches, and manufactures of woolSavino, opposite the island of Polrese. The mouth of the lens, silks, extensive paper-mills, and 7300 inhabitants. emissary is about six feet high and five wide, and the length Foligno is one of the most trading inland towns in the Papal is 2845 feet; it is entirely cased with masonry. Seven State. It suffered considerably from the earthquake of shafts open into it from the sides of the hill at various dis- 1832. 5, Todi, the antient Tudertum, a city first of the tances along the length of the tunnel, and give access to Umbri, next of the Etruscans, and afterwards a Roman the workmen for clearing and repairing it. The water on colony, stands on a hill above the Tiber. It has a cathedral issuing out of the tunnel flows into a canal, sets in motion and another handsome church built after the design of several mills, and after a course of about two miles enters Bramante, with several remains of Etruscan and Roman the river Caïna, an affluent of the Nestore, which is an antiquities, among which are the town walls and the ruins affluent of the Tiber. The mouth of the emissary is above of a temple of Mars. The population of Todi is 2500. 6, the ordinary or summer level, and the water flows into it Città di Castello, a well-built town, with 5000 inhabitants, only in the winter or after heavy rains. (Vestrini, * Disser- in the valley of the Upper Tiber, near the borders of Tustazione sull'Emissario del Lago di Perugia,' in vol. vii. of cany, contains several fine churches, some good paintings, the Memoirs of the Academiu Etrusca di Cortona.) The and the palace of the former baronial family of Vitelli, known construction of this important work is due to Braccio da Mon- in the history of the middle ages. It has a wooden bridge tone, a distinguished chieftain, and lord of Perugia in the over the Tiber. 7, Città della Pieve, a small town situated beginning of the fifteenth century. Some pretend that the on an eminence above the Chiana, has about 2000 inha emissary existed long before, and was only repaired by Brac- bitants. Remains of antiquity have been dug up in the cio, but there is no evidence in support of this assertion. The neighbourhood. (Brasavola, Breve Ragguaglio della Citta emissary became encumbered in course of time, and a great di Pieve, folio, Perugia, 1686.) 8, Marsciano, a walled flood occurring in 1602, the waters of the lake inundated the town in the valley of the Nestore, has about 2000 in haplain of Cortona, and did great mischief in other places along bitants, and a fertile territory. 9, Fratta, on the left or the banks. After this misfortune, Pope Clement VIII. eastern bank of the Tiber, 14 miles north of Perugia, has ordered the emissary to be repaired. Campanus, 'De Rebus some good buildings, a theatre, and a bridge on the river; Gestis Andreæ Brachii,' 6th book, gives a pleasing descrip- the population, including its territory, is 4700. The inha. tion of the lake of Perugia, its wide expanse, its limpid bitants manufacture pottery, which they paint with consiwaters, its verdant and picturesque green banks, and ihe derable taste. 10, Castiglione del Lago, on the western towns and villages scattered along the shore. Seen from bank of the lake of Perugia, has some good buildings, and the hills of Spelonca, between Ossaia and Passignano, on about 5300 inhabitants, including the territory of the comthe high road from Florence to Perugia, the lake has a

11, Gualdo, at the foot of the Apennines, 8 miles very fine appearance. This lake is subject to sudden north of Nocera, is near the site of the antient town of storms.

Tadinum, long since ruined, near which Totila was defeated The site of the battle between Hannibal and the Romans and wounded by Narses: it has about 4000 inhabitants. has been a subject of much contention among the learned. 12, Spello, a few miles north of Foligno, is on the site of the It is generally supposed to be near Passignano on the north- antient Hispellum, of which there are still considerable reeast side of the lake, where the hills recede from the shore, mains; among others, a triumphal arch in honour of the forming a kind of valley or dale between them and the lake. emperor Macrinus. Spello has several churches, with good The province of Perugia ischietly hilly, being crossed by offsets paintings, a college, and about 2400 inhabitants. (Calindri, from the Apennine chain, which stretch southwards in a direc- Suggio geografico-statistico dello Stato Pontificio.) tion parallel to the course of the Tiber. South of the town of The province of Perugia is divided for administrative Perugia are some extensive plains, one of which lies east- purposes into four districts, Perugia, Città di Castello, wards towards Foligno, and another on the western or right Foligno, and Todi, containing altogether 202,600 inhabitants bank of the Tiber, towards Città della Pieve.' The principal (Serristori, Statistica d'Italia), and is one of the most inteaffluents of the Tiber in the province of Perugia are-1, the resting provinces of the Papal State, though little noticed Chiascio, which rises in the central Apennine ridge, and tlow-by strangers. ing southwards receives the Topino, which comes from the PERUGIA, THE TOWN OF, built on a high hill valley of Foligno, after which the united stream enters the which forms two summits, and rises on the left or western Tiber a few miles below Perugia; 2, the Nestore, which bank of the Tiber, is surrounded by walls in the form of a rises near Città della Pieve, flows south of the hills which polygon. The streets are wide, and the squares are lined border the southern bank of the lake of Perugia, receives by massive old buildings. It has also numerous churches the Caïna from the north, and after a course of about 35 with lofty domes, fine gates, and retains all the appearance miles enters the Tiber; 3, the Naja, a torrent which rises of an important though now somewhat decayed city. Pein an offset of the Apennines that separates the valley of the rugia is a bishop's see, and it has a long-established unilower Nera, or of Terni, from that of the Tiber, and runs versity, which reckons among its early professors Bartolo into the Tiber below the town of Todi, after a course of about | and Baldo. The university is now attended by between


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