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must have existed in a country where the climate obliges the people to put on warm clothing for several months in the year. They are also fishermen, and sail with their balsas along the coast from one small port to another to exchange their different productions.

The native tribes which inhabit the vale of the Huallaga river have been converted, and are nearly equal in civilization to the Peruvians. The Shanamachos live on the eastern banks of the Huallaga, and on the western are the Cholones, Sharras, and Ibitas. They all seem to belong to one nation, as they speak one language, called the Ibita, though most of them understand the Quichua. They cultivate the grains and roots which have been mentioned as the principal productions of this valley. Their dwellings are much inferior to those of the Peruvians, which however may be attributed to the circumstance of their country not being exposed to cold weather. They have adopted a decent dress, except that they wear no covering for the head or feet, which they stain blue.

The independent native tribes inhabit the low and level country east of the mountain region. It is more than probable that all these tribes are not known, even by name. South of 12° S. lat., on the east of the Andes, are the Chunchos and Tuyoneris. The Antes inhabit the country where the Paucartamba and Quilabamba unite, between 12° and 11° S. lat. North of 11°, and as far north as 9° S. lat., are four tribes, the Tampas, Palutuniques, Chuntaguirus, and Piros. The country on both sides of the Pachitea river is in possession of the numerous and warlike tribe of the Cashibos, who are said to be cannibals, and do not permit strangers to enter their country. They have advanced as far north as 8° S. lat. North of them, between the Huallaga and Ucayali, are the Conibos, Setebos, and Shipebos; and still farther north two small tribes, the Maparis and Puinaus. Between the Ucayali and Yavari are the Amajuacas (between 9° and 8°), the Remos (between 8° and 7°), the Sencis and Capanaguas (7° and 6°), and the numerous tribe of the Mayorunas, who occupy the country to the very banks of the Amazonas. The tribes inhabiting both banks of the Ucayali speak one language, or dialects which differ very little from one another. This language is called Pano. Some of these tribes have been partially converted to Christianity, as the Conibos, Setebos, and Shipebos, but the missionaries have made no impression on the other tribes, and no attempt at conversion has been made among some of them. Since Peru has obtained its independence, the missions have been much neglected, and many of the converted Indians have returned to the woods, and are again lost to civilization. The converted tribes are agriculturists, which is also the case with several of the unconverted tribes, as the Chunchos, Antes, Remos, and Sencis; but they cultivate only small patches of ground, and prefer wandering about in the forests in pursuit of game. The converted tribes wear clothing, but the others go quite naked. None of these tribes have any chief, but they all live in a state of perfect equality. Even in their excursions against their enemies they have no leader, but each warrior acts individually, and appropriates to his own use all the plunder or prisoners that he takes. They use a few articles of European manufacture, as hatchets, knives, scissors, needles, buttons, and some glittering baubles. They procure these articles either at Nauta on the Amazonas or at Sarayacu on the Ucayali. The Chuntaguirus, who are the most remote from all the settlements of the whites, ascend the Ucayali and Urubamba to the confluence of the Paucartamba and Quilabamba, where they procure by barter such articles as they want, giving in exchange parrots and other birds, monkeys, cotton robes white and painted, wax, balsams, the feet of the tapir, feather ornaments for the head, and jaguar and other skins.

Political Divisions and Towns.—Peru is divided into eight departments, Truxillo, Junin, Lima, Huancabelica, Ayacucho, Cuzco, Arequipa, and Puno. The countries inhabited by the independent tribes are not comprised in these departments.

1. The department of Truxillo extends over the northern districts of the republic, from the shores of the Pacific to the basin of the Rio Huallaga, and comprehends the Valles north of Santa (near 9° S. lat.), the lower and wider portion of the vale of the Marañon, and likewise the greater part of that of the Rio Huallaga. The mountains contain many mines, several of which are still profitably worked. It also produces great quantities of sugar, which is exported.


On the eastern chain of the Andes, in a district called Huamalies, a great quantity of Jesuits'-bark is collected. The number of creoles is comparatively small, and that of the Indians very great. There are numerous ruins of antient buildings in the Valles and vale of the river Marañon. Payta is a commercial town with an excellent harbour, which in 1835 was visited by upwards of 4000 tons of shipping. The town, which is built on the slope and at the foot of a hill, contains 5000 inhabitants. It is the port of the fine vale of the Rio Piura, which contains 75,000 inhabitants, and is a place of much business, as communication with Europe by the way of Panamà is more expeditious than at any other port of Peru. The town of S. Miguel de Piura, built on the banks of the river, about 20 miles from Payta, contains a population of from 8000 to 9000, and some manufactures of soap and leather. Lambayeque is situated in a district which produces abundance of rice and has a considerable commerce, though the roadstead is bad. It contains about 4000 inhabitants, and exports bullion and rice. Truxillo, founded by Francisco Pizarro and named after his birthplace, is situated in the middle of the extensive valley of Chimu, about two miles from the sea. The harbour Huanacho is an open roadstead. The streets of Truxillo are wide and regular, and it has a fine cathedral and a handsome townhall. The principal articles of export are bullion, sugar, and rice. Population 9000. The valley of Chimu contains the ruins of a large Indian town. In the vale of the Marañon are the towns of Caxamarca and Chachapoyas. Caxamarca stands on the eastern declivity of the Western Andes, in a rich mining district: it is nearly 9000 feet above the sealevel, and contains 7000 inhabitants and the ruins of a palace of the Incas. Cotton and woollen cloth are manufactured to a considerable extent, and also many utensils of iron. In the neighbourhood there are hot springs, called the baths of the Incas. The richest mine in the vicinity is that of Qualgayac, not far from Chota. The town of Chachapoyas is near the western declivity of the Eastern Andes, on the road which leads to the vale of the Rio Huallaga, and contains 3000 inhabitants. Much tobacco is raised in the neighbourhood. In the vale of the Rio Huallaga are the towns of Moyobamba and Tarapoto. Moyobamba, near the eastern declivity of the Eastern Andes, has 5000 inhabitants, and Tarapoto, a few miles from the Huallaga river, about 4000. In both towns a coarse cotton stuff called tucuya is made; and cotton, gums, resin, and white wax are sent to the coast of the Pacific by the road which leads from Tarapoto to Truxillo.

2. The department of Junin was formerly called Tarma, from the principal town, but the name was changed to commemorate the battle gained by Bolivar on the plain of Junin in 1824. It occupies the valleys along the Pacific which lie between Santa and Barranca (near 11° S. lat.), and comprehends the upper vales of the rivers Marañon, Huallaga, and Jauja, and also the table-land of Pasco. Besides the produce of the rich mines, this department exports sugar, rice, and Indian corn. The greater part of the district of Huamalies, in which bark is collected, belongs to this department. The Indian population is still greater in proportion to the creoles than in Truxillo. There are several ruins of antient buildings, but they are not considerable. None of the towns situated in the Valles are important in a commercial view. The fertile valley of the Rio Nepeña contains the towns of Huambacho and Nepeña; the lastmentioned town seems to be a place of some size. They export their produce, sugar and grain, from the excellent harbour of Samanco or Huambacho. Farther south is the town of Guarmey, in a country which is covered with lofty trees, whence great quantities of fire-wood are sent to Lima. It has only from 500 to 600 inhabitants. The small towns of Barranca and Supé export their agricultural produce to Lima from the bay of Supé. In the upper vale of the Marañon is the town of Huari, with 7000 inhabitants, and Caxatambo, which has some mines in the neighbourhood. Pasco or Cerro Pasco is built on the table-land of Pasco, 14,278 feet above the sea-level. It is probably the most elevated place in America, if not in the world, which is permanently inhabited. This town, whose population fluctuates, according to the produce of the mines, between 12,000 and 16,000, is irregularly built on very uneven ground. The site on which it stands abounds in silver ore, and the mouths of the mines are frequently in the middle of the streets. Only those mines are worked which

contain rich ores. The houses are low, and some have | numerous in this country, and in many places ruins of ansmall glazed windows; but the suburbs are merely a collection of mud cottages. As the surrounding country is destitute of trees, it is fortunate that coal abounds in the neighbourhood. In the upper vale of the Rio Huallaga, north-east of Pasco, is the town of Huanaco, with 9000 inhabitants, which owes its prosperity to the circumstance of its agricultural produce finding a ready sale at Pasco. In the neighbourhood there are ruins of considerable extent. In the vale of the Rio Jauja is the town of Tarma, with 6000 inhabitants, in which cotton and woollen stuffs are manufactured.

3. The department of Lima extends along the coast from Barranca (11° S. lat.) to Point Penates (15° 30′), and comprehends that part of the maritime region in which the valleys are most numerous and occur at short distances from one another. It extends inland to the lower declivity of the Western Andes. All the productions of the vales grow here, and are tolerably abundant. The population contains a greater proportion of creoles than that of the other departments. There are some extensive ruins of antient buildings and towns. North of Lima is the town of Huacho, built in an extensive and fertile valley about one mile from the port, which is small, but has good anchorage. Lima, the capital of the republic, is about 6 miles from Callao. [LIMA; CALLAO.] South of Callao is the small town of Chorillos, built on a cliff at the foot of the Morro Solar, a remarkable cluster of hills; it is chiefly used as a bathing place for the inhabitants of Lima. In the fertile and well-cultivated valley of Lurim, which is a few miles farther south, are the ruins of the antient city of Pachacamac. Cerro Azul, farther south, in the middle of a fertile valley, is a considerable place, and exports large quantities of rum, sugar, and chancana, a sort of treacle. Pisco, built on a plain, about a mile from the shores of the Bay of Pisco, has above 3000 inhabitants. It has a considerable commerce, and exports wine, a kind of spirit called Pisco or Italia, and sugar. South of Pisco are two small towns, Yea and Nasca, in which much wine is made, and exported to other parts of Peru; but it is inferior to that of Pisco.

4. The department of Huancabelica lies east of Lima, and extends over the Western Andes and the lower vale of the Jauja. The mountains contain a great number of mines, and several of them are still worked with profit. The fertile vale is well cultivated and inhabited, as it supplies the mining district with provisions. The number of creoles is considerable. The capital, Huancabelica, is built in a ravine between mountains whose summits rise to the height of 13,000 feet, and which contain several mines of gold, silver, and quicksilver; the quicksilver-mines are rich. The town has 5000 inhabitants. Nothing is cultivated in the neighbourhood. Castro Vireyna, farther south, is in the centre of another mining district. In the vale of the Rio Jauja is Jauja or Atanjauja, a town with 3000 inhabitants, and some silver-mines in the neighbourhood.

tient buildings occur. The southern districts contain extensive pasture-grounds: those situated in the middle produce wheat and the other cerealia of Europe, with Indian corn in abundance, and the southern have extensive plantations of sugar and other intertropical plants. In the southern districts are several mines, but few of them are worked. Besides the capital, Cusco, or Cuzco [Cuzco], there is no town of importance in this department. Abancay, in the narrow valley of the upper Apurimac, is a small place. The plain which lies east of the eastern Andes contains a small number of plantations near the base of the mountains; they belong to this department, and border on the country of the Chunchos Indians.

7. The department of Arequipa extends along the coast of the Pacific from Point Penates (15° 30' S. lat.) to Point Sama (18° S. lat.), and inland to the declivity of the western Andes. It contains a smaller number of vales than the department of Lima, but several of them are extensive, especially that of the Rio Chila or Arequipa, in which the town of Arequipa stands. The commercial products consist chiefly of wool and cotton. There are more creoles than in any other department except Lima. Acari, not far from the boundary of the department of Lima, is built in a fertile plain several miles from the sea. It is a considerable place, but little visited by travellers. The port, called Point Lomas, has good anchorage and tolerable landing. Islay, the harbour of Arequipa, contains about 1500 inhabitants. It is built on the west side of a hill which slopes gently towards the harbour. The trade is flourishing, and it exports bark, wool, and specie. On the north-east of the capital, Arequipa [AREQUIPA], stands the volcano of Arequipa, 17,200 feet high. There is always snow on the north-west side of its summit. Ylo is a small place on the coast.

8. The department of Puno extends along the Pacific from Point Sama (18° S. lat.) to the Rio Loa, which constitutes the southern boundary of Peru. It comprehends also that part of the valley of the Desaguadero which belongs to Peru. The vales along the coast are small, and in general 20 miles from one another. The rivers which drain these valleys have in general water only during three months of the year. In the barren tracts which divide the valleys much saltpetre is collected, and in some silver and copper ore are found. The population is more scanty than in any other part of Peru, and chiefly consists of Indians. The principal town on the coast is Arica, which contains a population of about 3000 souls, who live in low houses built of sun-dried bricks. [ARICA.] It is the port of Tacna, a town built in the same valley about 30 miles from it, and the depôt of European merchandise for the consumption of the department of Puno and the greater part of the republic of Bolivia. Tacna contains 7000 souls and several wellbuilt houses. Yquique (20° 12' S. lat.), with a bad roadstead, has only 1000 inhabitants; a considerable quantity of saltpetre is shipped here. Near the lake of Titicaca, in the valley of the Desaguadero, are the towns of Puno, the capital of the department, which has a population of 9000 inhabitants, and Chuquito, with 5000. In the vicinity of Puno are numerous silver-mines, which in 1805 yielded 96,528 marcs of silver, but since that time the produce has fallen off.

5. The department of Ayacucho received its name from the plains of Ayacucho, on which General Sucre, on the 9th of December, 1824, defeated Canterac, the viceroy of Peru, and put an end to the dominion of Spain in South America. It extends over a part of the Western Andes, the western lower portion of the table-land of Cuzco, and the valley of the Rio Mantaro. The principal productions are In the countries of the independent tribes there were the cerealia and fruits of Europe. The population consists formerly several missiones, or stations of missionaries, who of Indians: whites are only found in the town. The capital collected a number of aborigines and tried to convert them is Huamango, a large place with 26,000 inhabitants, founded to Christianity. Nearly all these missions have been deby Francisco Pizarro, in an elevated situation, on the decli-stroyed by the political changes to which Peru has been vities of some mountains of moderate elevation above their base. It contains several large private buildings of stone, covered with tiles. The suburbs, which are inhabited by Indians, are large, and the houses better than in other Indian towns. It has a fine cathedral, a university, and a seminary for clergymen. The rich creole families that live in this town have large sugar-plantations in the valley of the river Mantaro. As the town is situated on the road leading from Lima to Cuzco, it has a considerable trade. Some miles east-north-east of the town are the plains of Ayacucho. North of it is Huanta, a small town, in a district rich in agricultural produce, especially wheat and Indian corn.

6. The department of Cuzco extends over the whole of the southern and over the greater portion of the northern part of the table-land of Cuzco. The Peruvians are very

subject during the last twenty years. Only one of them is in a flourishing state, that of Sarayacu, on the Rio Ucayali, near 7° S. lat., where about 2000 individuals of the tribes of Puinaus, Setebos, Conibos, Shipebos, and Sencis live in scattered houses, and seem to advance, though slowly, in civilization.

Manufactures.-The Peruvian Indians consume a very small quantity of European manufactured articles. Their dress is composed of cotton or woollen stuffs made at home, or in several of the small towns in the vale of the Marañon and Jauja. These home-made stuffs also serve as the dress of the mixed race. Only the creoles dress in Earopean stuffs. There are some manufactures of cordovan leather, and some tanneries and soap-houses. The iron utensils, such as hatchets, scissors, &c., made in Caxamarca, are highly valued. In the large towns many per

sons are occupied with making vessels, utensils, and ornaments of gold and silver.

Commerce. The country is too mountainous to admit the making of carriage-roads in the interior. Mules are generally used by travellers and for the transport of merchandise. In the more elevated parts of the country llamas are employed for the latter purpose. Six great roads traverse the country from west to east; the most northern runs from Truxillo to Caxamarca, Chacapoyas, Moyabamba, and Tarapoto. One road leads from Lima to Pasco, another to Tarma, and a third to Huancabelica, Hacamango, and Cuzco. A road leads from Islay to Arequipa and Puno, and another from Arica to Tacna, and thence to La Paz and Oruro in Bolivia. The goods imported from foreign countries are sent by these roads into the interior of Peru.

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inhabited by a nation which had made great progress in the arts of civilization. The people were decently dressed, and lodged in comfortable houses. Their fields were well cultivated, and artificial cuts had been made to conduct the water of the small rivers to a considerable distance for the purposes of irrigation. They had extensive manufactures of earthenware and woollen and cotton cloth, and also tools made of copper. Even now the elegant forms of their utensils, made out of the hardest rock without the use of iron tools, excite admiration. The extensive ruins of palaces and buildings scattered over the country, and the remains of the great road which led from Quito to Cuzco, and thence southward over the table-land of the valley of the Desaguadero, show that the nation was far advanced in civilization. This civilization appears to have grown up in the nation itself, and not to have been derived from communication with other civilised people. The navigation of the Peruvians was limited to coasting from one small hartutions and in the usages of society between the Peruvians and Mexicans precludes the supposition of either of these two nations having received their civilization from the other. Besides this, they were divided by savage tribes, which were sunk in the deepest barbarism. The Spaniards were surprised to find this state of things in Peru. When they had got possession of the country, they inquired into its history, and learned the following traditions:

The foreign commerce is considerable, especially that with the other countries of America bordering on the Pacific, and also with Europe. The most important article of ex-bour to another in balsas. The difference in political instiport is the produce of the mines, especially silver. The second in importance is sugar, which is sent to Mexico, New Granada, Ecuador, and Chile. The third article in importance is perhaps saltpetre, the quantity sent to different countries of Europe being very great. Cotton, tobacco, Indian corn, rice, salt, and spirits are minor articles. Wheat, flour, wine, and fruits are imported from Chile, with which country there is an active commerce. Manufactured goods are received from Europe and from the United States of North America, and from Canton silk goods and nankeens.

About three centuries before the arrival of the Spaniards, Manco Capac and Mama Ocollo appeared on the table-land of the Desaguadero. These two personages, male and The principal harbours from which the exports are made, female, of majestic stature, appeared clothed in garare Payta, Lambayeque, Callao, Pisco, Islay, Arica, and ments, and declared that they were children of the sun, and Iquique. We have no recent account of the commerce of sent by their parent to reclaim the human race from its the first four harbours, in which probably three-fourths of misery. The savage tribes submitted to the instruction of the exports are shipped. The three last-mentioned har- these beings of a divine origin, who taught them the first bours are called puertos intermedios, and are usually visited arts of civilization, agriculture, and the manufacture of by European vessels which sail along the coast from Val- clothing. Manco Capac organised a regular government, and paraiso in Chile to Callao. Nothing is imported into formed his subjects into four different ranks or classes, which Iquique, the most southern of these harbours, but in 1834 had some slight resemblance to the castes of the Hindus. not less than 148,150 cwt. of saltpetre were shipped, of He also established many useful customs and laws, and which more than 100,000 was on account of British mer-founded the town of Cuzco, which soon became the capital chants. The value amounted to 125,000l. The number of of an extensive empire, called the empire of the Incas (or European vessels which entered the port of Arica in 1834 lords) of Peru. He and his successors, being considered as was 63, and their tonnage amounted to 15,094; there were the offspring of the divinity, exercised absolute and uncon17 English vessels, of 3651 tons, 8 French vessels, of 2003 trolled authority: disobedience to their orders was consitons, and 10 vessels from the United States of North dered a sin and violation of the commands of the Supreme America, with 2971 tons. The other European vessels were Being. His successors gradually extended their authority from Antwerp, Hamburg, Cadiz, and Genoa. The vessels over the whole of the mountain-region between the equator from Chile and other parts of Peru were 26 in number. and 25° S. lat. As the aborigines who inhabit this extenThey exported bullion and specie to the amount of 320,301 sive country speak one language, the Quichua, it must be Spanish dollars, equal to 72,0527.; bark to the value of supposed that they belong to one race, and thus were easily 175,552 dollars, or 39,5047.; pewter to the amount of 18,285 united into one nation, and peaceably submitted to one dollars, or 4114/.; and wool to the amount of 13,252 dollars, | government. When the Spaniards first entered Peru, the or 29827.; chinchilla and vicuña skins, hides, and cotton twelfth monarch from the founder of the state, named were among the minor articles of export. In the Huayna Capac, was said to be seated on the throne. He same year 132 cwt. of copper were brought from the had violated the antient usage of the Incas, which forbade Bolivian part of the valley of the Desaguadero and a monarch to marry a woman not a descendant of Manco shipped at Arica. The value of all the exports of Arica Capac and Mama Ocollo. His wife was a daughter of the does not exceed 150,000l. The exports of Islay in the same vanquished king of Quito, and the son whom she had borne year amounted to 1,135,590 dollars, equal to 255,5077., him, named Atahualpa, was appointed his successor in that viz:kingdom. The rest of his dominions he left to Huascar, his eldest son by a princess of the Inca race. This led to a civil war between the two princes, and when the contest was at its height, a Spanish force entered the country under Francisco Pizarro in 1531.


Vicuña wool





2,500 3,645


Pizarro had sailed in 1526 from Panamà to a country lying farther south, which, according to the information collected from the natives, abounded in precious metals. He sailed along the coast as far south as Cape Parina or Cape Aguja. Landing at Tumbez in the Bay of Guayaquil, the most northern point of the present republic of Peru, The exports of the puertos intermedios, shipped for he was struck with the advanced state of civilization of the Europe and the United States, amounted therefore to inhabitants, and still more with the abundance of gold and 530,5077.; and as it is assumed that only one-fourth of the silver vessels and utensils. From this time he resolved on commerce of Peru is concentrated in these harbours, the the conquest of the country. In 1531 he returned with a whole exports of the country would exceed 2,000,000l., ex-small force which he had procured from Spain, marched clusive of the commerce with Mexico, Central America, and Chile. But it must be remembered that a great part of the exports of the puertos intermedios is brought from Bolivia, as the silver, bark, vicuña and sheep wool, and


History.-When the Spaniards first visited Peru, they found the country under a well-regulated government, and P. C., No. 1104.

along the coast, and in 1532 built the town of St. Michael de Piura, the oldest Spanish settlement in Peru. The distracted state of the country caused by the civil war enabled the Spaniards to take possession of it without a battle; and though the Peruvians afterwards tried to renew the contest, they were easily defeated and compelled to submit to a foreign yoke. In many instances during the VOL. XVIII.-C

progress of the conquest (from 1532 to 1534), Pizarro acted with cruelty and perfidy, but he undoubtedly possessed great political sagacity. All the large towns now existing in Peru were built by Pizarro, with the exception of Cuzco, which was founded by Manco Capac. Pizarro built Piura, Truxillo, Lima, Arequipa, and Huamanga.

as well as the judges, are elected by the Congress from three candidates, who are proposed by the provincial governments. The Roman Catholic religion alone can be publicly exercised. Peru has experienced, even more than the other parts of America which once were subject to Spain, the bad effects of having adopted a constitution unsuited to the state of society. The country is almost continually distracted by parties which are struggling for power, and by civil wars and revolutions produced by these continual struggles. In 1835 four chiefs in arms were contending for supremacy. If one of them succeeded in making himself powerful, the others united against him; but no sooner were they victorious, than they were again disunited and in hostility to each other. In 1836 the four southern departments, Cuzco, Ayacucho, Puno, and Arequipa, separated from the four northern, and constituted an independent state, under the name of Estado Sud Peruano. We do not know whether the two parts of Peru have again united under one government, or continue to form two republics.

(Ulloa's Voyage to South America; Humboldt's Personal Narrative, &c.; Memoirs of General Miller; Meyen's Reise um die Welt; Poeppig's Reise in Chile, Peru, &c.; Smyth's and Lowe's Narrative of a Journey from Lima to Para; Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle; Pentland, in the London Geographical Journal, vols. v. and viii.; Miller, in the London Geographical Journal, vol. vi.)

PERUVIAN ARCHITECTURE. Remains of antient Peruvian buildings are dispersed over the western parts of South America, from the equator to 15° S. lat., especially over the Montaña. They are characterised by simplicity, symmetry, and solidity. There are no columns, pilasters, or arches, and the buildings exhibit a singular uniformity and a complete want of all exterior ornaments.

The great road of the Incas, which runs from Quito to Cuzco and the table-land of the Desaguadero, is made of enormous masses of porphyry, and it is still nearly perfect in several parts of the Montaña. Humboldt obtained an antient Peruvian cutting instrument, which had been found in a mine not far from Cuzco: the material consisted of 94 parts of copper and 6 of tin, a composition which rendered it hard enough to be used nearly like steel. With instruments made of this material the Peruvians cut the enormous masses of which their buildings are composed. Some of the buildings near Cuzco contain stones 40 feet long, 20 feet wide, and nearly 7 feet thick. These stones are fitted together with great skill, and, as it was supposed, with

The disorders which immediately followed the conquest nearly caused the loss of the country, a circumstance which determined the court of Spain to make Peru the chief seat of the Spanish dominions in South America. Lima was chosen for the capital, and it soon rose to such opulence that it was called the City of the Kings. The authority of Spain took deeper root in Peru than in any other of her South American colonies. In 1780 the Peruvians took up arms against the Spaniards, under Tupac Amaro, an Inca, but failing to capture the town of La Paz after a long siege, they again submitted. When all the Spanish colonies began to rise against the mother country, after the year 1810, Peru remained quiet, and though some of the neighbouring provinces had already expelled the Spanish armies, and others were attempting to do the same, the Spaniards remained in undisturbed possession of Peru until 1820, and even then the first impulse to rebellion came from without. General San Martin had collected a force in the provinces of La Plata, with which he entered Chile, and, after a successful war, expelled the Spaniards from that country. In 1820 he came with an army from Valparaiso to Peru, and as soon as he had obtained possession of Lima, the independence of Peru was proclaimed on the 28th of July, 1821, and San Martin was also proclaimed protector of Peru. The Spanish viceroy Canterac, who had remained in possession of the Montaña, gradually recovered the Valles. San Martin, who had lost his popularity, resigned his authority into the hands of the legislature on the 19th of August, 1822. On the 1st of September, Bolivar, the Columbian general, entered Lima, and continued the war with Canterac, but at first with doubtful success. In November, 1823, a constitution proposed by Bolivar was adopted, but the Congress, being unable to maintain its authority, dissolved in February, 1824, and Bolivar was made dictator. After some advantages gained by Bolivar over Canterac, the latter was entirely defeated by Sucre in December, 1824, in the plains of Ayacucho, by which battle the authority of Spain in Peru and South America was annihilated. General Rodil threw himself with 3000 men into the fortress of Callao, which he surrendered, after a siege of more than thirteen months, on the 29th of January, 1826. In February, 1825, Bolivar had resigned the dicta-out cement. But Humboldt discovered in some ruins a thin torship, but he had previously contrived to separate the layer of cement, consisting of gravel and an argillaceous southern provinces from the northern, and to convert the earth; in other edifices, he says, it is composed of bitumen. former into a new republic, which adopted the name of The stones are all parallelopipedons, and worked with such Bolivia. The different forms of government which had exactness that it would be impossible to perceive the joinbeen tried within the six years following the declara-ings if their exterior surface were quite level; but being tion of independence, were not adapted to the state a little convex, the junctures form slight depressions, which of society and the circumstances of the nation. Towards constitute the only exterior ornament of the buildings. The the end of 1826, the Bolivian constitution was adopted, ac- doors of the buildings are from 7 to 84 feet high. The sides cording to which a president was to be placed at the head of the doors are not parallel, but approach each other towards of the government, with the power of naming his successor, the top, a circumstance which gives to the Peruvian doorand without being subject to any responsibility for his acts. ways a resemblance to those in some of the Egyptian temples. This new constitution excited great discontent, and as Bo- The niches, of which several occur in the inner side of the livar was soon afterwards obliged to go to Columbia, where walls, have the form of the doors. an insurrection had broken out and a civil war was on the point of commencing, a complete revolution took place in Peru, in January, 1827. The Bolivian constitution or government was abolished, and a new constitution framed and adopted, which may be considered as still in force. This constitution may be viewed as an attempt to unite a federal republic with a central government. The provincial governments of the departments have the power of framing laws for the provinces, but these laws do not obtain authority till they have been approved by the Congress. The provincial governments however are entitled to the uncontrolled administration of their own affairs, both civil and ecclesiastical. The national congress, or supreme legislature, consists of two bodies, a senate and a house of representatives. The president, in whose hands the executive power is placed, is chosen for four years, and he cannot be re-elected. He is assisted in the administration of the public affairs by a ministry of his choice, and by a state council, which is elected by the legislature. The judicial power is independent of the executive, and all decrees and judgments are to be made public. The highest officers of the central government in the departments are the prefects and subprefects. These persons,

The most extensive Peruvian buildings occur in the tableland of Cuzco, which was the most antient seat of the monarchy of the Incas. There are also antient remains within the boundaries of the present republic of Ecuador. Near the ridge called Chisinche, not far from the volcano Cotopaxi, are the ruins of a large building called the Palace of the Incas. It was a square, of which each side is about 30 yards long, and it had four doors. The interior was divided into eight apartments, three of which are still in tolerable preservation. Not far from the mountainpass of Assuay is a building called Ingappilca, or the Fortress of Cañar, consisting of a wall of very large stones, about 5 or 6 yards high; it has a regular oval form, of which the greatest axis is nearly 40 feet long. In the ruins of the town of Chulucanas, in the department of Truxillo, near the boundary-line between Peru and Ecuador, Humboldt had an opportunity of observing the construction of the private buildings of the Peruvians, and he observes that they consist of one room only, and that probably the door opened into a court-yard. (Humboldt's Vues des Cordillères et Monuments des Peuples Indigènes, &c.)

PERU'GIA, DELEGAZIO'NE DI, a province of the

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20 miles; 4, the Chiana, which is the outlet of the lake of Chiusi in Tuscany, drains the southern part of the Val di Chiana, receives the river Astrone on its right bank and the Tresa on its left, and entering the Papal territory near Città della Pieve, joins the Paglia at Orvieto, a few miles below which the united stream enters the Tiber.

The province of Perugia is the fourth in extent in the Papal State, being inferior only to those of Rome, Viterbo, and Spoleto e Rieti. It is the most fertile of the provinces south of the Apennines. The principal productions are corn, wine, oil, silk, and grass, on which large herds of fine horned cattle are fed: nearly one-half of the consumption of butcher's meat by the city of Rome is supplied by cattle from Perugia. The lake of Perugia abounds with fish, which forms a considerable article of export; and the shores are frequented by numerous aquatic birds. The climate is healthy, except in a few low spots on the banks of the lake and in the valley of the Chiana near Città della Pieve.

Papal State, is bounded on the north by the central ridge of the Apennines, which separates it from the province of Pesaro e Urbino, on the west by Tuscany, on the south by the provinces of Spoleto and Viterbo, and on the east by the provinces of Macerata and Spoleto. Its length from the Apennines, which border the valley of the Tiber above Città di Castello, down to the confluence of the Paglia with the Tiber, is about 60 miles, and its breadth varies from 20 to 35 miles. The area is reckoned at about 1790 square miles. The province of Perugia is entirely in the basin of the Tiber. The lake of Perugia (Lacus Trasimenus) lies in the territory of Perugia, near the borders of Tuscany; its circumference is about 30 miles, the greatest width is about eight miles, but the depth is not more than 30 feet. It contains three small islands; two (of which one is called Isola Maggiore) are towards the north, and the third (called Polrese) towards the southern extremity. This lake is enclosed by hills on the north, east, and south, but the western coast is more open, merging into the wide plain of Cortona. This lake is fed by no permanent river, but by numerous springs The principal towns of the province are-1, PERUGIA; 2, which rise from the bottom of the bed; it has no natural ASSISI; 3, NOCERA; 4, Foligno, a pleasant well-built town outlet, and in seasons of rain, when numerous streams run in a delightful valley on the river Topino, a short distance into it from the neighbouring hills, it suddenly overflows the above its confluence with the Maroggia or Timia, which banks, and sometime the waters have entered the plain of comes from Spoleto. Foligno is said to have been built Cortona, and mixing with those of the Chiana, have flowed about the eleventh century, being first inhabited by cointo the Arno. In order to prevent the mischief occasioned lonists from the antient town of Forum Flaminii, which by these floods, a tunnel or emissary has been made through was in the neighbourhood. It has a handsome cathedral, a hill on the south-east bank near the parish church of San several other fine churches, and manufactures of woolSavino, opposite the island of Polrese. The mouth of the lens, silks, extensive paper-mills, and 7300 inhabitants. emissary is about six feet high and five wide, and the length Foligno is one of the most trading inland towns in the Papal is 2845 feet; it is entirely cased with masonry. Seven State. It suffered considerably from the earthquake of shafts open into it from the sides of the hill at various dis- 1832. 5, Todi, the antient Tudertum, a city first of the tances along the length of the tunnel, and give access to Umbri, next of the Etruscans, and afterwards a Roman the workmen for clearing and repairing it. The water on colony, stands on a hill above the Tiber. It has a cathedral issuing out of the tunnel flows into a canal, sets in motion and another handsome church built after the design of several mills, and after a course of about two miles enters Bramante, with several remains of Etruscan and Roman the river Caïna, an affluent of the Nestore, which is an antiquities, among which are the town walls and the ruins affluent of the Tiber. The mouth of the emissary is above of a temple of Mars. The population of Todi is 2500. 6, the ordinary or summer level, and the water flows into it Città di Castello, a well-built town, with 5000 inhabitants, only in the winter or after heavy rains. (Vestrini, Disser- in the valley of the Upper Tiber, near the borders of Tustazione sull' Emissario del Lago di Perugia,' in vol. vii. of cany, contains several fine churches, some good paintings, the Memoirs of the Academia Etrusca di Cortona.) The and the palace of the former baronial family of Vitelli, known construction of this important work is due to Braccio da Mon- in the history of the middle ages. It has a wooden bridge tone, a distinguished chieftain, and lord of Perugia in the over the Tiber. 7, Città della Pieve, a small town situated beginning of the fifteenth century. Some pretend that the on an eminence above the Chiana, has about 2000 inha emissary existed long before, and was only repaired by Brac-bitants. Remains of antiquity have been dug up in the cio, but there is no evidence in support of this assertion. The neighbourhood. (Brasavola, Breve Ragguaglio della Città emissary became encumbered in course of time, and a great di Pieve, folio, Perugia, 1686.) 8, Marsciano, a walled flood occurring in 1602, the waters of the lake inundated the town in the valley of the Nestore, has about 2000 inhaplain of Cortona, and did great mischief in other places along bitants, and a fertile territory. 9, Fratta, on the left or the banks. After this misfortune, Pope Clement VIII. eastern bank of the Tiber, 14 miles north of Perugia, has ordered the emissary to be repaired. Campanus, De Rebus some good buildings, a theatre, and a bridge on the river; Gestis Andrea Brachii,' 6th book, gives a pleasing descrip- the population, including its territory, is 4700. The inha tion of the lake of Perugia, its wide expanse, its limpid bitants manufacture pottery, which they paint with consiwaters, its verdant and picturesque green banks, and the derable taste. 10, Castiglione del Lago, on the western towns and villages scattered along the shore. Seen from bank of the lake of Perugia, has some good buildings, and the hills of Spelonca, between Ossaia and Passignano, on about 5300 inhabitants, including the territory of the comthe high road from Florence to Perugia, the lake has a mune. 11, Gualdo, at the foot of the Apennines, 8 miles very fine appearance. This lake is subject to sudden north of Nocera, is near the site of the antient town of Tadinum, long since ruined, near which Totila was defeated and wounded by Narses: it has about 4000 inhabitants. 12, Spello, a few miles north of Foligno, is on the site of the antient Hispellum, of which there are still considerable remains; among others, a triumphal arch in honour of the emperor Macrinus. Spello has several churches, with good paintings, a college, and about 2400 inhabitants. (Calindri, Saggio geografico-statistico dello Stato Pontificio.)


The province of Perugia is divided for administrative purposes into four districts, Perugia, Città di Castello, Foligno, and Todi, containing altogether 202,600 inhabitants (Serristori, Statistica d'Italia), and is one of the most interesting provinces of the Papal State, though little noticed

The site of the battle between Hannibal and the Romans has been a subject of much contention among the learned. It is generally supposed to be near Passignano on the northeast side of the lake, where the hills recede from the shore, forming a kind of valley or dale between them and the lake. The province of Perugia is chiefly hilly, being crossed by offsets from the Apennine chain, which stretch southwards in a direction parallel to the course of the Tiber. South of the town of Perugia are some extensive plains, one of which lies eastwards towards Foligno, and another on the western or right bank of the Tiber, towards Città della Pieve. The principal affluents of the Tiber in the province of Perugia are-1, the Chiascio, which rises in the central Apennine ridge, and flow-by strangers. ing southwards receives the Topino, which comes from the valley of Foligno, after which the united stream enters the Tiber a few miles below Perugia; 2, the Nestore, which rises near Città della Pieve, flows south of the hills which border the southern bank of the lake of Perugia, receives the Caïna from the north, and after a course of about 35 miles enters the Tiber; 3, the Naja, a torrent which rises in an offset of the Apennines that separates the valley of the lower Nera, or of Terni, from that of the Tiber, and runs into the Tiber below the town of Todi, after a course of about

PERUGIA, THE TOWN OF, built on a high hill which forms two summits, and rises on the left or western bank of the Tiber, is surrounded by walls in the form of a polygon. The streets are wide, and the squares are lined by massive old buildings. It has also numerous churches with lofty domes, fine gates, and retains all the appearance of an important though now somewhat decayed city. Perugia is a bishop's see, and it has a long-established university, which reckons among its early professors Bartolo and Baldo. The university is now attended by between Č 2

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