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PERU is a country in South America, situated between cannot land on these shores, as they are exposed to a very 3° 30' and 21° 28' S. lat., and between 65° and 81° 20' W. heavy swell from the Pacific, forming a dangerous suri, long: On the west it is washed by the Pacific; and on the which can only be passed in favourable weather by boats. south and south-east it borders on Bolivia. The boundary. Landing in most places can only be effected by balsas. In all line between these states, at the most southern point of this extent of coast, fresh water can only be got at three places, Peru, is formed by the small river Loa (21° 28' S. lat.): it the rivers Loa and Pisagua, and at Arica. The water of the follows the course of this river for several miles, when it river Loa is extremely bad. The water of the Rio Pisagua turns eastward till it reaches the western edge of the Andes. is good, but the river is dry nine months in the year, and It follows this edge northward to the mountain-pass of the water obtained from the wells is bad. At Árica the Gualillas (17° 50' S. lat.), whence it runs northward across water is excellent. The only harbour is that of Iquique, the plain of the lake of Titicaca to the southern extremity which is formed by a low island, the largest that occurs of that lake. It traverses the lake in a northern direction, along this coast. Between it and the town is good anchorage which it preserves till it reaches the eastern chain of the in eleven fathoms. The harbour of Arica, which lies at the Bolivian Andes, near 15o S. lat. It follows this chain for northern extremity of this coast-line, is also formed by a low some distance, and then runs along the lateral range which island, called Huans, on the northern side of which there branches off in an east-north-east direction between the is good anchorage. A mole runs out into the sea, which river Tuche, an affluent of the Beni, and some rivers which enables boats to lie quietly while loading or discharging are supposed to fall into the Purus. From the mouth of From Arica (18° 28' S. lat.) to Point Carreta (14° 10'), a the river Tuche, the boundary-line between Peru and Bo- distance of more than 460 miles, the coast lies east-southlivia runs along the Rio Beni to its junction with the Gua- east and west-north-west. Where the cliffs come close to poré, by which the river Madera is formed. At this point the sea, they rise from 50 to 300 feet above it, and the waves commences the boundary-line between Peru and Brazil. in some places break with great violence along the shore. This line follows the Madera river to go 30' S. lat.: it Even the sandy beach is frequently interrupted by low prostretches westward along this parallel to the river Yavari, jecting cliffs, but the soundings are in general regular. The the course of which river, up to its junction with the Ama- projecting points are usually too short and too far from one zonas, forms the remainder of the boundary between Peru another to form safe anchorages and to break the swell of and Brazil. The Amazonas is the boundary between Peru | the sea. Towards Point Carreta a few inlets occur, which and Ecuador, from its junction with the Yavari to the town form good harbours, though even here the landing in boats of S. Juan de Brancamoros, south of which place the river is generally difficult and sometimes impracticable. Fresh Chinchupe falls into the Amazonas. The Chinchupe sepa- water is much more abundant, and may be got in several rates both countries as far as its source, from which the places. The first harbour which occurs, after leaving Arica, dividing line passes over the Andes to the Rio Tumbez, is that of Islay, the port of Arequipa. Cove Mollendo forwhich falls into the Gulf of Guayaquil, in 3° 30' S. lat. merly served for that purpose, but it has so changed, that
The length of this country from south to north, along at present it only admits boats, or very small coasting ves. the meridian of 70°, is above 1150 miles, but its width varies sels. Port Islay is formed by a few straggling islands greatly. South of 17° S. lat. it hardly exceeds 30 miles, which lie off Point Islay, and is capable of containing twenty whilst near 10° S. lat, it is more than 650 miles wide. Its or twenty-five vessels. The anchorage is good, but the area, according to a rough estimate, considerably exceeds landing extremely difficult, and at the full of the moon it is 500,000 square miles, being about two and a half times the sometimes impracticable for several days. Point Lomas, extent of France.
the port of Acari, lies farther west, and is an open roadstead, Coast and Harbours. The coast-line is about 1500 miles but it has good anchorage in from five to fifteen fathoms, in length. In an extent of 1200 miles this coast forms only and tolerable landing. Some distance farther west there three straight lines, which meet at obtuse angles, and are not are two good harbours, S. Juan and S. Nicolas, with excelinterrupted by any large bays. The most southern line lent anchorage and tolerable landing; but the country about runs south and north, the central line runs nearly south-them is sterile and uninhabited. Farther west is the Bay east and north-west, and the northern line runs north- of Independencia, which lies between Cape Quemada and north-west. The most northern and most projecting por- Cape Carreta, and is protected towards the sea by two islands, tion of the coast is broken by bays and by headlands. Santa Rosa and Santa Vieja, of which the laiter rises to a
The southern coast-line, which runs south and north, considerable elevation. It extends 15 miles from south-east extends from the mouth of the river Loa (21° 28' S. lat.) to to north-west, and is about 3} miles broad. There is an. the harbour of Arica (18° 28' S. lat.), a distance of 210 chorage in all parts of this spacious bay, the bottom being miles. The whole of this line consists of rocky cliffs, quite regular in about 20 fathoms. It may be entered from rarely low, and occasionally several hundred feet high. In the south by the Strait of Serrate, between the island of a few spots a sandy beach lies between the cliffs and the Santa Rosa and Cape Quemada, which is three-quarters of a sea. The projecting points seldom extend a mile from the mile wide, or by the wide opening at the north-western exmainland, and in no case more than two. They also form tremity, which is called Dardo, and is five miles across beright angles with the coast, and as they occur only at tween the island of Vieja and Cape Carreta. As the country distances of 10, 15, or 20 miles, they afford no shelter to surrounding this bay is very thinly inhabited, it is rarely vessels. A few small rocks lie off the coast, but tiiey are visited by vessels. low and too small to protect vessels which anchor between The coast from Cape Carreta (14° 10' S. lat.) to the roadthem and the shores. The soundings are irregular. Boats stead of Lambayeque (6° 46' S. lat.), a distance of about P. C., No. 1103.
620 miles, runs north-north-west, and exhibits a much float over the heaviest surf without danger. Two of these
liar denomination; they may be conveniently called the Opposite the town of Cerro Azul there is only an open Eastern Region. roadstead, with bad anchorage, and a heavy surf constantly 1. The country between the steep ascent of the Andes breaking on the shore. The bay of Callao is between the and the Pacific varies in width from 15 to 50 miles, and may coast and the island of S. Lorenzo, which is four miles and be considered as the western base of the mountains. It has a half long from south-east to north-west, and a mile wide : a great elevation above the level of the sea, where it lies its highest part is 1050 feet above the sea-level. The bay, contiguous to the range, on an average between 8000 and which is extensive and commodious, has good anchorage; 10,000 feet, and from this elevation it slopes towards the sea it is usually entered from the north round Cape Lorenzo, with a very irregular surface. Where it approaches the the northern extremity of the island, but it may also be en-shores it is still in many parts from 1500 to 2000 feet above tered by the Boqueron, a strait between Cape Callao and the sea-level, but in other places it is less than 300 feet. the southern extremity of the island. Salinas Bay, on the This irregularly inclined plain is furrowed by a number of north of Salinas Head, which extends five miles into the depressions running from the Andes to the sea with a rapid sea from south to north, is of large dimensions, and affords slope. As the adjacent high lands frequently rise 1000 feet good anchorage, but it is seldom visited. The bay of Sapé, above them, these depressions are appropriately called Los to the north of Cape Thomas, is small, but as it is contigu-Valles, or the Vales. They are traversed by rivers, many ous to a fertile district, it is much visited by coasters. The of which are dry during nine months in the year, and only a port of Guarmey, north of Point Legarto, is also small
, but | few preserve a running stream all the year round. As it it contains good anchorage in three and a half to ten never rains in the lower portion of this region, vegetation fathoms, on a fine sandy bottom. Firewood is abundant in and agriculture do not extend beyond the reach of irrigation. the neighbourhood, and is exported. Between 9° and 10° The narrow strips along the rivers are cultivated in proporS. lat. there are four comparatively good harbours, Casma, tion to the supply of water. Though the upper course of Samanco, or Huambacho, Ferrol, and Santa. That of the rivers is extremely rapid, few of them enter the sea, but Samanco is the largest port north of Callao, being six miles are either lost in shallow lagoons or filter through the sand long from south-east to north-west, and four miles wide, which is invariably found near their mouth. The uplands The entrance is two miles wide. Port Ferrol is nearly equal which separate the valleys from one another are covered in size, and entirely free from the swell of the ocean. Both with a fine loose sand, ihrough which in many parts the harbours are much visited by coasters, as the adjacent rocks protrude, either in the form of isolated mountains, or country is fertile and well cultivated. There is no barbour more frequently in ridges several miles long. These uplands farther north. Opposite the towns of Truxillo and Lam- are complete deserts; neither beasts, birds, nor reptiles are bayeque there are only open roadsteads with bad anchorage. ever seen on ti n, and they do not produce a single blade
North of the roadstead of Lambayeque, and between it of vegetation. No stranger can travel from one vale to anand the Bay of Guayaquil, a huge promontory runs out into other without a guide, the sand being so loose that it is the sea.
At its base, between Lambayeque and Point raised into clouds by the wind, and thus all traces of a path Malpelo (3° 30' S. lat.) it is 220 miles wide, and its coast- are obliterated. On account of the great heat which is exline exceeds 300 miles. Between Point Aguja and Cape perienced in these uplands in the day-time, and the clouds Blanco, the most projecting part of this promontory, the of sand which the wind then raises, they are usually trashores are rocky and steep, and rise to a considerable ele- versed by night, and the guides regulate their course by the vation; but near the roadstead of Lambayeque and on the stars, or the light breeze which always. blows from the Gulf of Guayaquil the shores are sandy and partially covered south. The vales are most numerous in that part where with brushwood. In this part there are two indentations, the coast runs from south-south-east to north-north-west, which form two tolerably deep but open bays. The southern between Lambayeque on the north and Cape Carreta on is the Bay of Sechura, which is six miles deep, and at its the south. In this part they are on an average 10 or 12 entrance, between Cape Pisura and the Little Lobos Island miles distant from one another, and have a better supply of of Payta, 12 miles wide. It is open to the swell of the sea, water than in the other parts of Peru. Where the coast and is only navigated by the Indians in balsas. The Bay of runs from north-west to south-east, between Cape Carreta Payta, which is farther north, is of smaller dimensions, but and Arica, they are less extensive, and from 15 to 20 miles it is the best harbour on the coast of Peru, and is more distant from each other. Farther south they are very narrow, visited by foreign vessels than any other harbour except and occur at greater intervals. In the most northern disCallao.
trict the vales are more extensive, and contain considerable As the heavy surf occasioned by the swell of the Pacific portions of cultivated ground, but they are at great disrenders landing with boats always dangerous, and often tances from one another. Between Lambayeque and Seimpracticable, balsas are used along this coast. These balsas chura the desert is 90 miles across. differ in materials and form on the different parts of the It is well known that the vicinity of the sea very matecoast. In Chile and the southern coast of Peru the balsa is rially influences the climate of countries, but the Pacific a kind of sea-balloon, consisting of seal-skins made air- affects the climate of this region in a very extraordinary tight, and intiated like a bladder: they are so light that they I way, of which no satisfactory explanation has been offered.
Along the whole coast of Peru, south of Cape Blanco, a but they do not supply an article of exportation, the conshower is never experienced, a drop of rain never falls. But sumption of olives in the country being considerable. There for nearly five months, from June to November, the sky is are few natural meadows; the want of them is supplied by covered with a kind of fog, which is called the garua. In the cultivation of lucern, which has spread over all the the morning it is so thick and close to the ground that ob- valleys. jects at a moderate distance cannot be seen. About ten or
The soil of the vales consists of sand mixed with vegeeleven o'clock the fog rises into the atmosphere, but does table mould, and does not possess a great degree of fertility. not break into clouds. This fog covers the sun so effectually As it is cultivated every year, it requires a great deal of as to intercept the rays, and the disk is hardly visible. manure. This manure is obtained from the small rocky During this period the earth is constantly covered with dew islands, and also from the rocky cliffs along the coast, which caused by the condensation of the fog. This dew is not are covered with a layer of the excrements of sea-fowls, seheavy enough to penetrate the thinnest clothing, though it veral feet thick, which appear at a distance as white as snow. changes dust into mud, and fertilises the ground. While A great number of small coasters are continually employed the garua covers the lower parts of the country, and con- in conveying this manure, which is called guann, to the neighstitutes their winter, the higher declivities of the Andes bouring anchorages, where it is bought by the cultivators of enjoy fine weather and have their summer. But in the the soil. month of January the rains on the mountains commence, II. The Mountain Region, or Montaña, runs parallel to and they last about three months. The rains occur how- the Pacific, and from 20 to 50 miles from the shores. It ever earlier in the year in the northern than in the southern comprehends the central portion of the Andes, namely, the districts: and hence it happens that the rivers in the northern part of the Bolivian Andes and the whole of the northern part of Peru are full at the end of January or the Peruvian Andes. The Bolivian Andes consist of two elebeginning of February, while in the southern parts this vated ranges running nearly parallel to one another from does not take place before the end of March.
south-south-east to north-north-west, between 200 and 15° The climate of Peru is not so hot as might be supposed. S. lat. The eastern chain contains the highest summits of In summer the weather is delightfully fine, and the heat is the Andes, the Nevados of Illimani and Sorata, and though moderated by the sea and land breezes. The sea-breeze the western does not attain an equal elevation, it contains generally commences about ten o'clock; it is then light several summits which rise above the snow-line. The valley and variable, but gradually increases till one or two o'clock enclosed between the two ranges, called the Valley of the in the afternoon. A steady breeze prevails until sun-set, Desaguadero, is about 13,000 feet above the sea-level. The when it begins to die away; and soon after the sun is down greatest part of it belongs to Bolivia ; only about one there is a calm. About eight or nine o'clock in the evening fourth of it is within the territories of Peru. This valley is light winds come off the land, and continue until sun-rise, about 60 miles wide where it belongs to Peru; the climate when it again becomes calm, until the sea-breeze sets in. and productions are noticed under Bolivia, vol. v., p. 86. It is also supposed that the cold current which runs along Between 14° and 15° S. lat., the two chains of the Bothis coast from south to north, and the temperature of livian Andes are connected by a transverse ridge, the mounwhich is on an average 8o lower than the mean annual tains of Vilcanota, which do not attain the elevation of the temperature of the adjacent coast, may contribute to mode- eastern Bolivian Andes, but appear not to be inferior in rate the summer-heat. During the winter however, that height to the western chain, as several of their summits are is, during the fogs, the air is raw and damp, and woollen always covered with snow. The limit of perpetual congelaclothing is then necessary for the preservation of health. tion on this chain, according to Pentland, occurs at 15,800 The mean annual temperature, according to Humboldt, is feet above the sea-level. The mountains of Vilcanota may 72°, the maximum 82°, and the minimum 55o. In the be considered as forming the boundary-line between the day-time it varies between 72° and 77°, and in the night Bolivian and Peruvian Andes. between 60° and 63o.
The Peruvian Andes consist of two chains, which run in The prevailing winds along the coast blow from the south, the same direction as the Bolivian Andes, from south-southvarying between south-south-east and south-west. They are east to north-north-west, and may be considered as their seldom stronger than a fresh breeze, especially along the continuation. The western range runs parallel to the Pacoast south of Cape Carreta, where calms sometimes set in and cific, nearly north-west between 15° and 13° S. lat., and last three or four days. Farther north they are stronger and north-north-west between 13° and 5° S. lat. It is a contiblow with greater regularity; and near Cape Blanco they nuous chain, without any break, and generally rises to 14,000 sometimes blow with great force. In winter light northerly or 15,000 feet above the sea-level; only a few of its summits winds are occasionally experienced. At some distance from rise above the snow-line, and these elevated points are most the shores the prevailing winds blow from south and south- numerous at the southern extremity, where the chain is east, and with greater strength in winter than in summer: no connected with the mountains of Vilcanota. The Nevado thunder-storms occur; lightning indeed is seen from a dis de Chuquibamba attains nearly 22,000 feet of elevation, and tance, but thunder is never heard. Earthquakes are fre. exceeds in height the famous Chimborazo. South of it, quent, and sometimes destroy the towns and villages. and completely isolated, is the volcano of Arequipa, the
We do not know at what elevation above the sea-level the summit of which is 17,200 feet above the sea, but it is not rains begin on the western declivity of the Peruvian Andes, always covered with snow. Farther north-east are the elebut as travellers observe that cultivation and vegetation be- vated summits called Cerro de Huando and Cerro de Paringin to increase at the height of from 8000 to 9000 feet, it is acocha. South-east of Lima is the Toldo de Nieve; between evident that such tracts must have the advantage of an- 11° and 11° 30' S. lat. is the elevated summit called La Viuda, nual rains.
which rises to 15,968 feet ; and north of it occur four other As the mean annual temperature of Peru does not much snow-capped summits, the Altun Chagua, which rises seveexceed that of the countries along the southern coast of the ral thousand feet above the snow-line, and the Nevados of Mediterranean, all the grains and fruits of Spain succeed, Pelagotas, of Moyapota, and of Huaylillas. The last-menand many of the intertropical products do not, which how- tioned summit is situated in 7° 50' Š. lat., and north of it ever seems attributable rather to the want of a sufficient there are no snow-capped mountains until we come to Chimquantity of moisture than of heat. Indian corn is generally borazo (2° S. lat.). The mountain-mass north of the Nevado cultivated, and constitutes the principal food of the Indians of Huaylillas seems to descend to an average height o. and lower classes. Rice is extensively grown in some of 9000 or 10,000 feet. the wider northern vales, and is exported. Wheat succeeds The eastern chain of the Peruvian Andes, which is the only in the more elevated part of the valleys, where barley continuation of the eastern Bolivian Andes, runs in its also is grown. Potatoes and sweet potatoes are generally southern part, and as far north as 12° 30' S. lat., parallel to cultivated, also mandioc, yams, and bananas to smaller the western Andes, at the distance of about 100 miles. It extent. The sugar-cane plantations are numerous and ex- is composed of an almost uninterrupted series of snowy tensive, and sugar is exported to all the American coun- peaks, which terminate with the Nevado of Salcantahi (130 tries bordering on the Pacific. Most of the fruit-trees pe- io' S. lat.). Farther north it sinks much lower, and north of culiar to the southern countries of Europe succeed well, but 12° 30' S. lat. the chain is interrupted by two large rivers, those of England are not common; and walnuts, pears, the Rio Yucay and the Rio Apurimac. On the northern apples, filberts, and almoonds are imported from Chile. banks of the Rio Apurimac the Andes again rise to a great Vines grow in every valley, and good wine is made in several elevation, though, so far as is known, in no place do they places, as at Pisco, Nasca, and Ica. There are olive-trees, I ascend above the snow-line. _They gradually approach near