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was satisfactory to those who clearly appre hended the possibilities of the case. A vessel of any kind, wholly submerged in still water, will rise perpendicularly if buoyant, or sink perpendicularly if heavier than the fuid. But, if a board be attached to it in such a manner as to point towards the sur. face, the globe will incline that way while rising, and the opposite way while sinking. Then add another board placed edgewise, movable from left to right, and you may change these slant movements this way or that.

It is plain, however, that no such fixtures can make the globe move upwards when heavy, nor downwards when light. It will be impossible, by such means to give it even a horizontal direction. The principle extends only to modifications of the upward and downward motions, wholly dependent on them, and interior to them in power. No new source of motion is communicated. The results therefore must be limited and small. These results were neatly and successfully il. lustrated by Signor Muzzi; but it is evident that the principle can never be applied to any general and great practical use in balloons, because even the slightest current of air must always carry along the balloon with it, and the air is seldom at rest. In a strong breeze, or even a moderate wind, the power of modifying the line of ascent or descent is altogether insufficient for the steering of a balloon. We want an innate power able to counteract a current; and that has not yet been devised with sufficient lightness of apparatus.

are so small, so constructed, and so placed, that they escape our observation.

The following description of the bird and its nest we copy from Wilson's description :

“ About the 25th of April,” he says, “the Humming Bird usually arrives in Pennsylvania, and about the 10th of May begins to build its nest. This is generally fixed on the upper side of a horizontal branch, not among the twigs, but on the body of the branch it. self. Yet I have known instances where it was attached by the side to an old mossgrown trunk, and others where it was fastened on a strong rank stalk or weed in the garden; but these cases are rare. In the woods it very often chooses a white-oak sapling to build on, and in the orchard or garden selects a pear-tree for that purpose. The branch is seldom more than ten feet from the ground. The nest is about an inch in diameter, and as much in depth. A very complete one is now lying before me, and the materials of which it is composed are as follows:

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The Humming Bird and its Nest. Of all the lovely little creatures which pay us their annual visits, to delight our eyes in childhood, and to warm our hearts in old age, }

Nest of the Humming Bird. the Humming Bird may perhaps be named as

~ The outward coat is formed of small the greatest and most general favorite. The

pieces of a species of bluish-gray lichen that extreme of beauty, elegance and delicacy are vegetates on old trees and fences, thickly glucombined in this welcome visiter of our gar ed on with the saliva of the bird, giving firm. dens, in a degree altogether superior to the

ness and consistency to the whole, as well as

keeping out moisture. Within this are thick rest of the feathered race; while the calm

matted layers of the fine wings of certain ness of the summer afternoon, the charms of flying seeds closely laid together : and, lastly,

flowers and blossoms, liveliness of motion, the downy substance from the great mullein S and innocency of nature, combine their attrac

and from the stalks of the common fern lines

the whole. The base of the nest is continued tions to associate them with his appearance

round the stem of the branch, to which it and his very name.

closely adheres, and, when viewed from beOf the numerous varieties of Humming low, appears a mere mossy knot or accidental Birds abounding in the warmer parts of south

protuberance. The eggs are two, pure white,

and of equal thickness at both ends. On a ern America, but one deigns to travel so far

person's approaching their nest, the little pronorth as to favor us with a visit. The male

prietors dart around with a humming sound, and the female, however, are so unlike in passing frequently within a few inches of his plumage, that they probably pass for two va.

head ; and should the young be newly hatch

ed, the female will resume her place upon rieties with most untaught observers. They

the nest, even while you stand within a yard are numerous in certain seasons; but few of

or two of the spot. The precise period of inus have ever discovered their nests---they cubation I am unable to give; but the young mmmmmnnnnnnnnn vunnianum

are in the habit, a short time before they leave the nest, of thrusting their bills into the mouths of their parents, and sucking what they have brought them. I never could perceive that they carried them any animal food, though I think it highly probable they do. As I have found their nests with eggs so late as the 12th of July, I do not doubt but that they frequently, and perhaps usually, raise two broods in the same season.'. *

* Wilson's Amer. Ornith., ii. 18.

WESTMINSTER ABBEY The following description of this cele- { brated edifice, we copy from the “ Picture of Londor for 1806,” because it contains many details omitted by some late works of that kind.

“The church is said to have been founded about the year 610, by Sebert, king of the East Saxons, on the ruins of the temple of Apollo. The king dedicated his new church to St. Peter, who (according to legendary tales) descended in person, with a host of heavenly choristers, to save Bishop Mellitus the trouble of consecration. The saint alighted on the Surry side in a very stormy night; but he prevailed on Edrick, a fisherman, to ferry him over: he then performed the ceremony-and, as a proof, he left behind him the chrism and precious drop

pings of the wax candles, with which the > astonished fisherman saw the church illu

minated; he conveyed the saint safely back, < who directed him to inform the bishop that S there was no need of any other consecration;

he also desired Edrick to fling out his nets, which the fisherman did, and was rewarded with a miraculous quantity of salmon: the

saint, at parting, promised the fisherman and ? his successors that they should never want

salmon, provided they presented every tenth fish to the church. This custom was observed until 1382. The fisherman that day had a right -to sit at table with the prior; and he could demand all the cellarer alé ?

and bread, and the cellarer in return might take as much of the fish's tail as he could, with four fingers and his thumb erect. Credible as this tale appears, it is asserted to be true in one of Edgar's charters, and in one of Edward the Confessor's.

“King Sebert's sons relapsed into Paganism, and consequently the new church was very much neglected ; but Offa the great, king of Mercia, enlarged and repaired it. After that, it was at different times nearly ruined by the Danes; but king Edgar repaired it; in 1049 Edward the Confessor had the old church pulled down, and a finer one erected in the form of a cross; it was finished in 1065, and consecrated on the 28th of December; and by a bull of Pope Nicholas II. it was constituted a place for the inauguration of the kings of England. William the Conqueror was the first king who was crowned there; the ceremony was performed by Alfred, Archbishop of York, Dec. 25th, 1066. In the year 1221, Henry III. erected a chapel at the east end of the church, and dedicated it to the Virgin Mary. Some time after, the king being informed of the ruinous state of the church and steeple, caused the whole fabric to be taken down; but he did not live to see it completed, for the body of the church was not finished until the year 1285.

“In the year 1502, Henry VII. caused the chapel of the Virgin Mary to be demolished, and erected instead of it the present edifice, which is called Henry the Seventh's Chapel; he dedicated the new building to the Virgin Mary, and designed it for a burial place for him and his posterity. Under William III. Westminster Abbey underwent a complete repair, under the direction of Sir Christopher Wren, who added two noble towers at the west end. The Abbey extends 360 feet within the walls ; at the nave it is 72 seet broad, and 195 long at the cross. In viewing the outside of the building, the portico leading into the north cross is worthy of inspection, it is called the Beautiful, or Solomon's gate ; the arms of Richard II. are carved in stone over the duor ; the portico is of the gothic order; over it is a magnificent window. The great west window is extremely curious; on it are paintings which represent Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob-Moses, Aaron and the twelve patriarchs—the arms of King Sebert, Edward the Confessor, Queen Elizabeth, King George, and Dr. Wilcox, Bishop of Rochester. This window was set up in 1733. On the window which is on the left is a painting of Richard II. and on the window on the right is a representation of Edward the Confessor in his robes.

Our limits do not permit us here to describe every monument in this venerable abbey; we shall, however, mention those which are the most remarkable; and cannnot help quotjog Mr. Pennant's words: Here repose the royal, the noble, and the illustrious in arms and arts; the memorials erected to do

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them homage, at once inspire emulation and awe.'

* On each side of the altar are doors which open into St. Edward's Chapel, where our kings retire to refresh themselves at their cor. onations. In this place is the coronation chair, remarkable for its antiquity ; tradition says that Edward I. brought it from Scotland, and that the stone on which Jacob reposed when he beheld the miraculous descent of the angels, is enclosed in it! Poet's Corner is at the southern extremity of the cross aisle ; the monuments of Dryden, Cowley, Chaucer, Phillips, Booth, Drayton, Ben Johnson, But. ler, Spenser, Gray, Shadwell, Prior, St. Evremond, Shakspeare, Dr. Johnson, Thompson, Rowe, Gay, Milton, and Goldsmith, adorn this spot, ponsecrated to the Muses ; here also are the monuments of Handel and David Garrick. In the south aisle, some of the most remarka. ble monuments are those of Sir John Ilowland, Dr. Isaac Watts, Sir Palmer Fairborne, William Hargrave, Esq., Capt. James Cornwell, &c. At the west end of the abbey are those of Sir Godfrey Kneller, Dr. Mead, Sir Charles Wager, Lord Chatham, &c. On the north side of the entrance into the choir is the monument of Sir Isaac Newton.

“St. EDWARD'S CHAPEL.- In the centre of it stands the venerable shrine of the Confessor, but i: has of late been much defaced. Edward I. made an offering to this shrine of ibe Scoich regalia, and the chair on which the kings of Scotland were crowned. In a wainscot press is a wax effigy of Edmund Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham. About the frize of the screen of this chapel are fourteen legendary sculptures respecting Edward the Confessor. They are so badly executed, that they bear the marks of great antiquity. The first is the trial of Queen Emma; the second the birth of Edward; the third his coronation; the fourth relates to his seeing the devil dancing upon the money bags, which made him abolish ihe dane-gilt; the fifth is a story of his pretending to be asleep while a young man was robbing his treasury; the sixth is meant to relate to the appearance of our Savior to him ; the seventh shows how the Danish invasion was prevented by the drowning of the Danish king; in the eighth is seen the quarrel between the boys Tosh and Harold, predicting their respective fates; in the ninth is the Confessor's vision of the seven sleepers; in the tenth, how he met St. John the Evangelist in the disguise of a pilgrim; in the eleventh, how he cured the blind by washing their eyes with dirty water; in the twelfth, how St. John delivered a ring to the pilgrims; in the thirteenth, they deliver the ring to the king, who had unknowingly given it to St. John, when he had given him alms in the form of a pilgrim; this was accompanied with a message from the saint, foretelling the king's death; and the fourteenth shows how, in consequence of that message, he hastened to complete his pious foundation.

Biographical Sketch of Gen. Greene.

From President Duright's Travels. The Hon. Nathan Greene, a MajorGeneral in the army of the United States, and during the latter part of the Revolu. tionary war, Commander-in-Chief of the army in the Southern States, was a citizen of Providence, R. I. This gentleman was born at Warwick, in the year 1740. In early life he was fond of study and reflection ; s and particularly attached to the history of military transactions. In Providence he established himself as a merchant; and ? acquired a distinguished character in the estimation of his fellow-citizens. After the battle of Lexington, he went as a Brigadier General, at the head of three regiments, to Cambridge. In August, 1776, he was raised to the rank of Major-General ; and very honorably distinguished himself in the following December and January, by bis} gallant behavior in the battles of Trenton and Princeton, as he did the succeeding year at the battle of Germantown. In March, 1778, he accepted the place of Quarter-Master-General, on the condition ? of retaining his rank, and his command during the periods of action. This year he signalized himself, June 25th, at the battle of Monmouth, and in the action on Rhode Island the following August

After the defeat of General Gates at Camden, August 16th, 1780, he was ap- 3 pointed to the chief command of the mili-> tary force in the Southern States. Upon this command he entered in circumstances, which would have discouraged almost any other man. After the miserable defeat above mentioned, that part of the country was, in a sense, overrun by the British. Multitudes of the inhabitants had already joined the enemy. Multitudes more were on the point of following their example. The rest, though sufficiently firm and resolute, were continually wounded by the defection of their neighbors, and perpetually in fear of the ravages of invasion. Colonel Williams had, indeed, with the aid of his companions, Tracy, Bannar, Campbell, Shelby and Cleaveland, checked the progress of the enemy by the gallant action at King's Mountain ; as had General Sumpter by two honorable efforts at Boad and Tiger rivers. But their force was too small to obstruct, in any serious degree, a wellappointed and victorious army, commanded by officers of distinguished talents.

In these circumstances, General Greene

commenced the arduous business of recov- s was a victory, which ended the war in that ering this country from the British. At his part of the Union. General Greene took arrival, he forced himself at at the head of 3 the command of the Southern troops near 3,000 men, including 1,200 militia. These the close of the year 1780. The battle of he divided, and sent one part under Briga Cowpens was fought on January 17th; and dier General Morgan into the district of that of the Eutaw Springs on the 6th of Ninety-six: the other he himself led to September following. The troops under Hick's Creek, on the north side of the Pe his command were chiefly new raised, halfdee. Morgan was attacked by Lieutenant clothed, and often half fed. They were, Colonel Tarleton, a brave and skillful par however, brave, determined men; and tisan, at the head of a superior force. But wanted nothing but the usual advantages he repulsed the attack, and gained a com of war, to meet any soldiers in equal numplete victory. Lord Cornwallis, with the bers on fair ground. Within nine months, whole British army pursued Morgan's de thererore, did this illustrious man, aided by tachment; at the head of which General a band of gallant soldiers, recover with Greene, after a rapid journey, placed him these troops the three Southern States from self, and conducted it with so much feli a veteran army of superior force, comcity and success, as, to reach the main body manded by officers of great merit, and in spite of one of the most vigorous pur furnished with every accommodation. His suits recorded in history. He was, how progress through it was a source of perever, still pursued with the same celerity, petual personal hardship, intense labor until he arrived in Virginia ; but he com and unremitted anxiety. Many months pletely eluded the vigilance of the enemy. was he in the field, without taking off his The moment the pursuit ceased, having clothes, even for a single night. Yet he received a reinforcement, he made after never desponded. The very letters which

Lord Cornwallis ; and gave him battle at conveyed to Congress, and to General s Guilford Court House, now Martindale. Washington, accounts of the difficulties

Victory declared for the British : but cost with which he struggled, contain, also, them so dear, as to produce all the conse proofs of his invincible fortitude and resoluquences of a defeat. Lord Cornwallis tion. When he was advised, after he had retreated. Greene following him, and find retreated from Ninety-Six, to retire into ing that he was directing his course to Virginia, he answered, “I will recover Virginia, returned to South Carolina ; and South Carolina, or die." marched at the head of about 1,100 men, General Greene's person was above the within a mile of Hamden, then defended middle stature, well formed, and invested by Lord Rawdon with 900 inen. The with uncommon dignity. His eye was British commander attacked him. He was keen and intelligent. His mind, possessed again defeated; but with so little advan of vast resources, was bold in conceiving, tage to the victors, that his Lordship found instantaneous in discerning, comprehensive himself obliged to burn a considerable part in its grasp, and decisive in its determina

of his baggage, and to retire to the south tions. His disposition was frank, sincere, 3 side of the Santee. Greene, in the mean 3 amiable, and honorable ; and his manners

time, directed his several detachments with were casy, pleasant, affable and dignified. such skill; and the highly meritorious offi He died in June, 1786, in his 47th year, of cers by whom they were led, employed a stroke of the sun. them with such activity and galantry, that a great part of the British posts in Carolina TRAVELLING OVER THE ANDES. } and Georgia, were rapidly retaken; and a

L. C. Pickett, Esq., U. States Charge ď considerable number of the troops by which they were defended were made prisoners.

Affaires at Lima, in a letter to the NationHe then made an unsuccessful attempt for

al Institute, remarks :the post at Ninety-Six; and was obliged I have travelled five days at a time to raise the siege by the approach of Lord among the Andes without seeing a human Rawdon. He next moved his force to the creature except those who were with met south side of the Congaree. The British, and along a track (not a road) which for

having collected theirs, passed that river the most part serpentined over almost per- } } also, and took post at Eutaw Springs, on pendicular precipices, or through a fores,

the south side of the Santee. Here Greene literally impervious, by cutting one's way determined to attack them in their encamp at every step. Provisions, luggage and ment; and the consequence of his attack { everything were carried on men's back;

and my saddle-horse was a stout mulattos (part Indian) whom I occasionally mounted when tired of walking. I felt at first de. cided repugnance to this sort of equitation, and could not think of using a fellow-being for a beast of burden : but the necessity of the case and the custom of the country got the better of my scruples, as they had of more conscientious men, no doubt ; and as the sillero (chairman) as he was called, S told me it was his occupation to carry Christians over the mountains, and solicited the job, I struck a bargain with him, and the price was $10 through, I riding about half the time. This quadrupedal biped, if so he may be called, turned out to be a very surefooted and trusty animal, and carried me in perfect safety to the end of the route. The modus equitandi is this : in. stead of the saddle, a very light chair is used, which the chairman slings upon his back, and the traveller's face, when seated in it, is to the north, should he be going to to the south, and vice versa. It is necessary that when mounted he should keep him. self very accurately balanced, for there are many places in passing which a false step on the part of the sillero might cause a tumble down a precipice, which would be fatal both to the rider and the ridden.”

ishment and contempt, he held up the piece of wood, and said, “ how can this speak? has this a month ?' I desired him to take it immediately, and not spend so much time, talking about it.

On arriving at the house he gave the chip to Mrs. W., who read it, threw it away, and went to the tool chest, whither the chief, re. solving to see the result of the mysterious proceeding, followed her closely. On receiving the square from her, he said, “Stay daughter, how du you know that this is what Mr. Williams wants ?” “Why,” said she, “ did you not bring me a chip ju t now?" "Yes," said the astonished warrior, “but I did not hear it say anything.” “If you did not, I did," was the reply, “ for it made known to me what he wanted, and all you have to do is to return with it as quickly as possible."

With this the chief leaped out of the house and catching up the mysterious piece of wood, he ran tarough the settlement with the chip in one hand and the square in the other, holding them up as high as his arms would reach, and shouting as he went,“ see the wisdom of these English people; they can make chips talk !" On giving me the square, he wished to know how it was possible thus to converse with persons at a distance. I gave him all the explanation in my power ; but it was a circumstance involved in so much mystery, that he actually tied a string to the chip, hung it round his neck, and wore it for some time. During several following days, we frequently saw him surrounded by a crowd, who were listening with intense interest, while he narrated the wonders which the chip had performed.

THE TALKING CHIP. The following incident is told by Mr. Will. iams, a missionary to the South Sea Islands, who was engaged in building a chapel. It shows the difference between being brought up in a land of schools and books, and being brought up among a people, who, even when arrived at manhood, know nothing of reading or writing. It shows, 100, what strange feel. ings the antaught heathen have, when obsery. ing for the first time the effects of written communications.

“ As I had come to work one morning with out my square, I took up a chip, and with a piece of charcoal, wrote upon it a request that Mrs. W. would send me ihat article. I called a chief who was superintending his portion of the work, and said to him, “Friend, take this, go to our house and give this to Mrs. W. He was a singular looking man, remarkably quick in his movements, and had been a great warrior, but in one of the numerous battles that he had fought, he had Irsi an eye, and giving me an indescribable

look with the other, he said, “Take that! S she will call me a fool, and scold me, if I car.

ry a chip to her.” “No, I replied, she will not, take it and go immediately; I am in hasie."-Perceiving me to be in earnest, he took it and asked, " What must I cay ?" I replied, you have nothing to say, the chip will say what I wish. With a look of aston

Singular Mode of Catching Fish. A Bout six miles from Calander, we came to the Loch of Monteith, a beautiful little lake almost five miles in circumference.

This lake abounds with perch and pike, which last are very large. A curious method of catching this fish used to be practised: on the islands a number of geese were collected by the farmers, who occupied the surrounding banks of the lake. After baited lines of two or three feet in length had been tied to the legs of these geese, they were driven into the water. Steering naturally homeward in different directions, the bait was soon swallowed. A violent and often tedious struggle ensued; in which, however, the geese at length prevailed, though they were frequently much exhausted before they reached the shore. This method of catching fish is not now used, but there are some old persons who remember to have seen it, and who were active promoters of this amusement.- Garnet's Tour through the Highlands of Scotland.

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