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which is now in many of our libraries and Sabbath schools ; and his beautiful pano. rama, that places the spectator on a commanding elevation over the square of Omar, which is the site of the courts of Solomon's temple, with the great mosque opposite, which stands on the spot of the temple it. self, and all the city and environs in full view around. Our devoted and intelligent missionaries have written much instruc. tive matter relating to that ancient city, which may be found in the publications of the societies, and of travellers, since the Land of Canaan has become open and safe to foreigners, have furnished al. most a library of books on the exhaustless subject. Of all those books, however, the most comprehensive and accurate is the “ Biblical Researches” of Professor Rob. inson, which we had occasion to quote in the first and second numbers of the Penny Magazine, in describing the Lake of Tibe. rias. In that work will be found a very particular description and history of Jeru. salem, to which we would refer our readers, while we hasten to copy here a lively description of the scene presented in our print, from Mr. Jones's “ Excursions, page 225, 179, &c.
“ When viewed from the Mt. of Olives, the whole city appears like a map at our feet. The houses, which are of stone, are seldom more than two stories in height, and on the exterior are rude and without any pretensions to beauty ; but when seen from an elevated spot, the city has a singular appearance, in consequence of the domes, with which every dwelling is covered. Sometimes every chamber in the house has its dome; and as these are whitewashed on the exterior, when we look down upon it from the Mount of Olives, the whole city appears dotted over with these excrescences. A couple of open green spots just within the walls, a few trees rising here and there, the tower of the church of the Holy Sep. ulchre and its large domes, several mina. rets, and close to us the extensive open court of the mosque, of Omar, with its trees, and in the centre the handsome mosque, itself, complete the view as seen from the Mount of Olives.
“ The walls of Jerusalem are twenty-five or thirty feet in height, and are flanked
with numerous towers, both circular and square; and at the Jaffa gate are still fur. ther strengthened by a mass of buildings forming a castle. There are four principal gates ; and on the north and south two smaller ones or posterns, which, however, I believe are seldom used."
There are a few places in and about Jerusalem, in respect to which there can be no possible mistake. These are, the Mount of Olives; the Valley of Kedron, some. times called the Valley of Jehoshaphat; the brook Kedron; the Valley of Hinnom ; Mount Moriah ; Mount Zion; and the hill called Bezetha The Mount of Olives speaks at once for itself, and has never been doubted by any one: it descends by a rapid slope down to the brook Kedron, in summer a dry water-course about nine feet wide, and in the wet season an irregular torrent: with regard to this brook, also, no one has ever had any doubt. This valley of Ke dron formed the eastern boundary of the ancient, as it does now also of the modern city. Iinmediately after crossing the brook Ke. dron towards the west, the ground at present commences ascending so rapidly, as to require a zigzag path : at the height of about eighty feet we come to the wall, and to the general level of the present city. This slope is made up of debris, or loose stuff, composed of earth mixed with pottery, fragments of bricks, &c.; and it seems probable that the ancient wall of Beżetha, standing on the line of the present rampart, had with. out it a much more precipitous descent.
“Mount Moriah is at present a piece of level ground, of the same elevation as those portions of the city immediately adjoining it on the north and west, and is not in any way distinguished from them. It is occupied by an open court, about 1500 feet long and 1000 feet in width, surrounded by a wall, and planted with trees. In the centre is a large oblong platform, paved, I believe, with marble, and reached by two or three steps running all around; on this platform stands the mosque of Omar, which is said by the Turks to occupy the exact site of the Temple of Solomon, and is considered by them to be next in sanctity to the venerated Caaba, or holy house at Mecca. So sacred is this place in their eyes, that no Christian is al. lowed to place his foot within even the large enclosure. There is thus no mountain at present here, and if any one should question whether this was the situation of Mount Moriah, I answer that it is the only place where we can look for it. Mount Moriah was on the eastern side of the city, and adjoining the
valley of Kedron; the valley of the Cheesemongers, which still remains, formed its boundary on the south ; and as the court of the temple, occupying the whole enlarged ? mountain, was 729 feet on each side, we thuss get both the northern and the western bound. ? aries, and thus have the exact position and limits of Mount Moriah. It is probable that the Turks are quite correct in saying that their mosque occupies the site of the ancient temple, except that the latter was at a much greater elevation ; Mount Moriah having by artificial means, been raised to a height of about 700 feet. This mountain was at first a rocky precipice, irregular both in shape and surface; it was inclosed by Solo. mon with a square wall of the dimensions just described, beginning at the bottom of the valleys that bounded it on three sides, and rising on the east and south to the stupendous elevation of 729 feet; on the west, from the nature of the ground below, its elevation was nearly 200 feet less; the interval within ? this was filled with earth, or formed into extensive suites of vaults; and the surface being brought nearly to a level, formed an ; area for the temple and its various courts. At the north-western angle of the temple was a tower or castle, commenced by the kings of the Asmonean race, but cnlarged and strengthened by Herod, who gave it the name of Antonia, in honor of Mark Anto. ny, his friend and patron. It was built on a lofty precipice 1450 feet in circuit, and consisted of a heavy castle in the centre, with a 3 tower at each angle, that on the south-east being of sufficient height to overlook the courts of the temple."
“ Mount Zion had on the east the valley of Kedron, and on the south and west the valley of Hinnom, or Gehenna, and these boundaries are now just as described by Josephus, except that the sides of the valleys towards the city are now rendered sloping by the vast quantities of debris or loose stuff from the ancient city, instead of being per: pendicular as they were in ancient times. That of Hinnom, on its southern and west. ern sides, still presents that appearance, a bold perpendicular precipice, which it would be impossible to scale. "This valley is described by Strabo (lib. xvi.) as having a depth of 60 feet and a width of 250, which are pretty nearly its present dimmensions. The wall of the ancient city was built on the edge of the precipice, and, according to Tacitus, was, in the parts lhus guarded by nature, 60 feet in height; on the northern side of Jeru. salem, where the ground offered fewer advantages, it had the prodigious elevation of 3
120 feet. It was built in a crooked or zig. zag line, so that they might flank the be. siegers, and cast darts on them sideways.'”
“ The modern Jerusalem is about threefourths of a mile at its greatest length, and about two-thirds of a mile in widih. It contains a population of about 20,000 persons; namely, 10,000 Mahomedans occupying principally the northern and eastern portions; 6,000 Jews living on what was formerly the Acra; 3,500 Greeks and Catholics, around the church of Calvary; and about 500 Ar. menians, in and about their great convent on Mount Zion. Of the last eminence only a small portion is included within the limits of the present city.
“Seen froni the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem appears to stand on a plain declining gently towards the cast; but the ground is far from being an unbroken level. On the contrary, it is quite uneven, though in no part rising into hills, unless the remains of Mount Zion be entitled to this name."
“ Without the city on the south and west, after crossing the valley of Hinnom, we find ourselves on an open and rather barren plain ascending gently as it recedes from the city, and stretching off for a distance of two or three miles; on the northward the ground is rolling for a few miles, when it begins to ascend, and at the distance of about five miles attains considerable elevation; there was probably the Scopus of ancient times.”
CATCHING A WHALE. Every man was now at his station. The tubs of lines had been just put into the boats; the harpoons and lances adjusted in their proper places, ready for action. Lower away! cried the mate, and every boat was instantly resting on the water manned by their respective crews. Give away, my lads ! said the mate. All orders were now given in a low tone; every man did his utmost; all the boats were now gliding over the smooth swells, each striving to be headmost in the chase.
The whales had now gone down, and we rested for them to break water again. In about two minutes they were blowing all around, and very much scattered. They had heen alarmed by the boats, so that it was impossible to get near enough for a dart.
One time five of the monsters rose up close 10 cur boats. The mate motioned us all to be silent. We could have fastened to one, and the only reason, as we supposed, why we did not, was because the mate was so much frightened. The whales now ran to the southward, and every boat was in chase as fast as we could spring to our oars.
The first mate's boat was headmost in the chase ; our boat next, and the Captain's about half a mile astern. The first mate now came
THE AMERICAN PENNY MAGAZINE.
up with and fastened to a large whale. We } into the sea ; and we had barely time to throw were soon on the battle ground, and saw him s ourselves clear of the boat before it was struggling to free bimself from the barbed crushed into atoms by its ponderous jaws. harpoon which had gone deep into bis huge Not in the least hurt, but dreadfully frightencarcass. We pulled upon the monster, and ed, we were picked up. We owe it to the our boat steerer darted another harpoon into goodness of Divine providence that we were him. Stern all! shouted the mate. Stern all not devoured by the swarms of sharks which for your lives! We steered out of the reach surrounded us. -Naval Jour. . of danger, and peaked our oars. The whale now ran, and took the line out of the boat with
REIGN OF TERROR. such swiftness, that we were obliged to throw
Macaulay in his review of the “ Memoirs water on it to prevent its taking fire by fric
of Barrere,” gives the following brief, but tion around ihe loggerhead.
The whale now stopped, and dashed and striking picture of the Reign of Terror in revrolled about in great agony, so that it was olutionary France. Let Americans ponder on dangerous approaching him. By this time
one of the dangers of nations. the Captain came up and boldly darled a har.
" Then came those days when the most barpoon into his writhing body. The enraged whale raised his head above the water, snap
barous of all codes was administered by the ped his horrid jaws together, and lashed the
most barbarous of all tribunals ; when no man
could greet bis neighbors, or say his prayers sea into foam with his Hukes.
or dress his hair without danger of committing The male now approached near enough to bury a lance deep in his vitals, and shouted
a capital crime, when spies lurked in every again, Stern all! A thick stream of blood, corner, when the guillotine was long and hard instead of water, was now issuing from his
at work every morning; when the jails were spout holes. Another lance was buried. He filled as close as the hold of a slave ship; was thrown into dying convulsions, and ran
when the gutiers ran foaming with blood into around in a circle. His flurry was soon over.
the Seine; when it was death to be great He turned upon his left side, and floated dead. neice to a captain of the royal guards, or a We gave three cheers, and iook him in tuw, half brother to a doctor of Sorbonne; to exfor the ship was about twenty miles off.
press a doubt whether assignats would not But a still more exciting and perilous scene
fall; to hint that the English had been victowas to follow. For the third day afier this,
rious in the action of the first of June ; to have while we were still busy trying out the oil,
a copy of Burke's pamphlets locked up in a the Captain being on the forecastle, cried oui, desk ;-to laugh at a Jacobin for taking the There she blows! there she blows! And name of Cassius or Timoleon, or to call the sure enough there were several large sperm
filih sans-culotide, by its old superstitious name whales blowing, off our weather bow. There
of St. Matthew's day. was a tremendous sea running, and it looked
While the daily wagon loads were carried squally; however we lowered away the lar
to their doom through the streets of Paris, the board and waste boats, and went in chase.
proconsuls, whom the sovereign committee We chased them about two miles, when there
had sent forth to the departments, revelled in came up a tremendous squall, and the rain an extra vagance of cruelty unknown even in fell in torrents. We peaked our oars, and
the capital. The knife of the deadly machine presently a signal from the ship directed us to
rose and fell too slow for their work of slaughpull a way to the leeward. Away we flew,
ter. Long rows of captives were mowed and soon the boat-steerer darted a harpoon
down with grape shot. Holes were made in into a very large one. It instantly turned and
the bottom of crowded barges. ran to the windward, and I thought it would
Lyons was turned into a desert. At Ar. have store the boat in pieces as we bounded
ras, even the cruel mercy of speedy death from billow to billow. However, our line 3
was denied to the prisoners. All down the paried, and at the same moment our first Loire, from Samur to the sea, great flocks of mate's boat got fast to the same whale. We
crows and kiles feasied on naked corpses, hauled in the line, bent another harpoon, and
twined together in hideous embraces. No went in pursuit again. We chased about
mercy was shown to sex or age. The numhalf an hour, when the whale turned to the ber of young lads and girls of seventeen who windward, and made directly for us. The
were murdered by that execrable government, mate should have avoided it, but he was so
is to be reckoned br hundreds. Babies torn much exciied in the chase as to be blind to all
from the breast were tossed from pike to pike danger. On we went, and our boat struck the
along the Jacobin ranks. One champion of whale's head with such force as to throw us
liberty had his pockets well stuficd with ears. off our thwarts; at the same moment cur
Another swaggered about with the finger of boat-steerer sent two larpoons into his body.
a little child in his hat. A few months had It rolled over on its back, and we being to the
served to degrade France below the level of windward, before we could get clear of dan. New Zealand. ger a heavy sea struck our boat, and directly into the whale's mouth! Jump! spring for He who loves jesting and railery, brings your lives ! shouted the mate, as he sprang s himself into many troubles.
from decay. This was, doubtless, the vessel, and that figure the form of Erick Raude. Benumbed with cold, and in the agony of despair, his crew had fallen around him. He alone had stood erect while the chill of death passed over him. The spray of the ocean, and the fallen sleet had frozen as it lighted upon them and covered each figure with an icy robe which the short lived glance of a Greenland sun had not time to remove. The Danes gazed upon the spectacle with trembling. They knew not but the same might be their fate. They knelt down upon the deck and muttered a prayer in their native tongue, for the souls of the frozen crew, then hastily left the place, for the night was fast approaching - Selected.
A FROZEN CREW. In 998, Erick Raude, an Icelandic chief- ? tain, fitted out an expedition of twenty-five gallies, at Snefell, and having manned them with sufficient crews of colonists, set forth from Iceland, bound to what appeared to them a more congenial climate. They sailed upon the ocean fifteen days, and they saw no land. The next day brought with it a storm, and many a gallant vessel sunk in the deep. Mountains of ice covered the waters as far as the eye could reach, and but a few gallies of the fleet escaped destruction.
The morning of the seventeenth day was 3 clear and cloudless. The sea was calm, and far away to the north could be seen the glare of the icefields reflecting on the sky.
The remains of the shattered fleet gathered together to pursue their voyage. But the galley of Errick was not with them. The crew of a galley which was driven farther down than the rest, reported that as the morning broke, the huge fields of ice that had covered the ocean were driven by the current past them, and that they beheld the galley of Erick Raude, borne by a resistless force, and with the speed of the wind, before a tremendous flake of ice. Her crew had lost all control over her—they were tossing their arms in wild agony. Scarcely a mo 3 ment elapsed ere it was walled in by a hundred ice hills, and the whole was moved forward and was soon beyond the horizon. That the galley of the narrators escaped was wonderful. It remained, however, uncontradicted, and the vessel of Erick Raude was never more seen.
Half a century after this, a Danish colony was established upon the western coast of Greenland. The crew of the vessel that carried the colonists thither, in their excur
sions into the interior, crossed a range of Ş hills that stretched to the northward; they
had approached, perhaps nearer to the pole,
than any succeeding adventurers. Upon ? 3 looking down from the summit of the hills,
they bcheld a vast almost interminable field of ice, undulating in various places, and formed into a thousand grotesque shapes. They saw not far from the shore a figure in an ice vessel with a glittering icicle in place of a mast, rising from it. Curiosity prompted them to approach, when they beheld a dismal sight. Figures of men, in every attitude of wo were upon the deck, but they were icy things. One figure alone stood erect, and with folded arms leaning against the mast. A hatchet was procured and the ice split away, and the features of a chieftain disclosed - palid and deathly, but free
THE CITY OF THE DEAD. Our print of the City of the Dead, or Necropolis of Thebes, on page 81, is copied from a drawing of Denon, published in the second volume of his “ Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt.” With the zeal of an enthusiastic traveller, he carried with him, in the suite of Bonaparte, the skill of an artist and the taste of a spirited writer. The following paragraphs we extract from his book, in which he speaks of the scene represented in the print.
"We set out on the 27th of January, at two in the morning. At nine o'clock, in making a sharp turn round the point of a projecting chain of mountains, we discovered, all at once, the site of the ancient Thebes, in iis whole extent: that celebrated city, the size of which Homer has characterized by a single expression-' with a hundred gates'-a boast. ing and poelical phrase, which has been repeated with so much confidence for many centuries.
" The whole army, with one accord, stood in amazement at the sight of its scallered ruins, and clapped their hands with delight, as if the end and object of their glorious toils, and the complete conquest of Egypt were accomplished and secured, by taking possession of the splendid remains of this ancient metropolis. I took a sketch of this first aspect of Thebes, along with the spectacle before me: the linees of the enthusiastic soldiers served me as a table, their bodies as a shade, whilst the dazzling rays of the beaming sun enlightened this magnificent spectacle. The situation of the town is as fine as can be imagined, and the immense extent of the town convinces the spectator that fame has not magnified its size.
“Soon after noon-day we arrived at a de. sert, which was the Necropolis, or City of ihe Dead. The rock, excavaled on its inclined plain, presents sides of a square, with regular openings, behind wbich are double and ireple galleries, which were used as burying-places.
I entered here on horseback with Desaix, turbable gravity he addressed the house as supposing that these gloomy retreats must be follows:-“Mr. Speaker, I cannot support ihe the asylum of peace and silence; but, scarce. bill unless I am assured that a distinguished ly were we immerged in the obscurity of the acquaintance of mine is made one of the Progalleries, than we were assailed with jave. fessors. He is what that College wishes to lins and stones, by enemies whom we could make for us a root doctor, and will suit the not distinguish ; and this put an end to our place exactly. He became a doctor in two observations."
hours, and it only cost $20 to complete bis ed. How solemn is the scene presented by
ucation. He bought a book, sir, and read the
chapter on fevers, and that was enough. that print; and with how many salutary re
“He was sent for to see a sick woman-a flections may it be connected !
very sick woman. With his book under his The same traveller afterwards visited that arni, off he went. Her husband and their son sad and apparently deserled spoi, under dif
John were in the room with the sick woman.
The doctor felt of her wrist and looked in her ferent circumstances, and with different re
mouth, and then took off his hat. • Has you sults. He went again in the train of the army
got,' addressing the husband, a sorrel sheep?' of Napoleon, with no enemy near, in sufficient No, I never heard of such a thing in all my force to give them uneasiness, and with time life.' Well, there is such thingy,' said the
doctor very knowingly. Has you got, then, enough to devote to the examination of the
a sorrel horse ? Yes,' saja John quickly, I interesting ruins. On approaching, however,
rode him to mill to-day.' •Well, he must be they found them occupied by a considerable killed immediately,' said the doctor, “and some number of Arabs, with whom they main soup must be made and given to your wife.' tained a sharp, and we must say a cruel con
The poor woman turned over in her bed. John
began to object; and the husband was brought test for some time, until they dislodged them. S
to a stand. “Why, doctor, he is the only Our traveller then had opportunity to investi horse we've got, and he is worth $100, and gate the subterranean chambers; but his de will not some other soup do as well ?' 'No, scription of them we must defer for another
he book says so, and there is but two ques.
tions—will you kill your horse, or let your paper, contenting ourselves here with the fola.
wife die ? Nothing will save her but the soup lowing brief extract :
of a sorrel sheep or a sorrel horse. If you “It would have required several days to don't believe me I will read it to you.' form an idea of the distribution of these sub
"The doctor took up the book, turned to the terranean works, and to take plans of such chapter on fevers, and read as follows: Good intricate labyrinths; if the magnificence dis for fevers-sheep sorrel, or horse sorrel.' played in the houses of the living was at all · Why, doctor,'exclaimed husband, wife, and equal to that of these ultimate habitations, as son, you 'are mistaken; that don't mean a we have some reason to suppose from the sorrel sheep or a sorrrel horse, hut- .Well, sumptuous pieces of furniture painted in the I know what I am about,' interrupted the doctombs of the kings, how much must we re tor, 'that's the way we doctors reads it, and gret that no vestige of them remains! What we understand it.'* can have become of palaces that contained “Now," said Mr. M., with an earnestness such opulence! how can they have disap. } and gravity that were in striking contrast with peared! they cannot be buried under the mud S the laughter of the House, “unless the Hon. of the Nile, since the quay which is before Speaker and the friends of the bill will assure Luxor shows that the elevation which the me that my sorrel doctor will be one of the soil has undergone is very inconsiderable. Professors, I must vote against the bill.” It Were they built of unbaked, and therefore is unnecessary to add, that after this blow, the perishable earth! or did ihe great men, as • bill was effectually killed. well as the priests, inhabit the temples, and the people only huis!"
Manufacture of Flate Glass in Spain.
From Bourgoanne's Travels,
Near this newly established and much
wanted manufactory there is one of luxury, of the Mobile Register, ibat a bill was before
begun in the reign of Philip V. the lower branch of the Alabama Legislature
This is a
manufacture of plate glass, the only one of for the charter of a Botanical Medical Col.
the kind in Spain. It was at first no more lege, at Wetumpka. The Register con. than a common glass manufactory, which tinues:
still exists, and produces tolerably good bot. After Speaker Moore and others had Iles, and white glasses extremely well cut. made able speeches in support of the bill, Mr. This was the first step towards a far more Morrissett, from Monroe, took the floor. You 3 enlarged undertaking. The looking-glass know him. He is an odd genius, and whithal manufactory of St. Ildefonso may be compar. he has good hard horse sense, (as his col. ed with the first establishments of the kind. leage, Mr. Howard calls it,) and often speaks It was begun in 1728, under the management to the point and with effect. With an inper. ? of a Catalan, and was brought to perfection