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streets, in the midst of the sad desolation. Many of the houses had been rebuilt, in the most hasty and temporary manner. The whole town made upon us the impression of being the most mean and miserable place we had vet visited-a picture of disgusting filth and frightful wretchedness.
“The Jews occupy a quarter in the middlc of the town, adjacent to the lake. This was formerly surrounded by a wall with a single gate, which was closed every night. We found many Jews in the streets; but, although I addressed several of them in German, I could get only a few words in reply-enough to make out ihat they were chiefly from Russian Poland, and could not speak German. . * * * Tiberias and Safed are the two boly cities of the modern Jews in ancient Galilee-like Jerusalem and Hebron in Judea. This place retains something of its former reDown for Hebrew learning: and, before the earthquake, there were here two Jewish schools. Upon this people, it is said, fell here in Tiberias the chief weight of the earthquake, and a large proportion of the hundreds who there perished were Jews." (A note says
700 out of 2500. A similar destructive earthI quake happened in 1759.)
" A Muhammedan, with whom my companion fell into conversation at the threshing floor, related that he and four others were returning down the mountain, on the west of the city, in the afternoon when the earth. quake occurred. All at once the earth opened and closed again, and two of his companions disappeared. He ran home affrighted, and found that his wife, mother, and iwo others in the family, had perished. On digging, next day, where his iwo companions had disappeared, they were found dead in a stand. ing posture.
* * “ Close on the shore, in the northern part of the town, is the church dedicated to St. Peter-a long, narrow, vaulted building, rude and without taste, which has sometimes been compared, not inapily, to a boat turned upside down. * * Passing out of the city again to our tent, we kept on southward along the lake, to visit the celebrated warm baths. On the way are many traces of ruins, evidently belonging to the ancient city, and showing that it was situated here, or at least extended much further than the modern town in that direction."
The baths are then described-many of which are ancient, others now in use by the common people, and a large one erected by Ibrahim Pacha. The water is at the temperature of 144° Fahrenheit. The baths are mentioned by Pliny and the Talmud. Vespasian had a fortified camp there. The next mention made of the baths is in the time of tbe Crusades, by Benjamin Tudela.
“The lake is full of fish, of various kinds. We had no difficulty in procuring an abun. dapt supply for our evening and morning meal, and found them delicate and wellflavored. The fishing is carried on only from the shore.
« The view of the lake from Tiberias embraces its whole extent, except the south-west extremity. The entrance of the Jordan from the north was distinctly visible, bearing N. E. by N. with a plain extending from it eastwards. Farther west, Safed was also seen, N. 6 deg. W. Upon the eastern shore the mountain, or rather the wall of high table land, rises with more boldness than on the western side, and two deep ravines are seen breaking down through to the lake. The view of the southern end of the lake is cut off by a high promontory of the western mountain, which projects considerably, not far beyond the hot springs.
“ The winter is apparently much more se vere and longer at Tiberias than at Jerico; and even snow sometimes, though very rarely, falls.” | Professor Robinson states, with confi. dence, ihat the lake is considerably lower than the surface of the Mediterranean, and thinks that the climate there, as well as at Jerico, is consequently much warmer than it would otherwise be. Scattered palm-trees are seen, and some indigo is cultivated, as well as tobacco, wheat, millet, barley, grapes, and a few vegetables, and melons of the finest quality.) “The rocks there are basalt, and also at the north end of the lake, though limestone prevails elsewhere on the shores. The ear. liest mention we find of the city of Tiberias is in the New Testament, John 6: 21, 23; and 21: 1; and next Josephus, who tells us it was founded by Herod Antipas, on the lake of Gennesareth, near the warm baths of Am. maus, and named in honor of his patron, the Emperor Tiberias. The Rabbins say it stood on the site of Rakkath, and Jerome says it was first called Chinnereth.”
A WORD TO THE DEJECTED.—Ah ! that I could be heard by all dejected souls ! I would cry to them, “ lift up your heads and confide still in the future, and believe that it is never too late! See, I too was bowed down by long suffering, and old age had, moreover, overtaken me, and I be. lieved that all my strength had vanished that my life and my sufferings were in vain-and behold ! my head has again been lifted up, my heart appeased, my soul strengthened -and now, in my fiftieth year, I advance into a new future, attended by all that life has beautiful and worthy of ? love."
The change in my soul has enabled me better to comprehend life and suffering, and I am now firmly convinced that “there is no fruitless suffering, and that no virtuous endeavor is vain.”
Winter days and nights may bury beneath their pall of snow the sown corn, buts when the spring arrives, it will be found equally true, that “there grows much bread in the winter night.”—Miss Bremer.
THE STORMY PETREL, OR MOTHER CARY'S CHICKEN. Every person who has any associations 5 ment several times as if walking or leapconnected with the sea, will probably find Ş ing on the liquid suface, with no apparent them awakened by the first sight of this aid from its wings. The breadth of its print. This bird, small as it is, is often the webbed feet, in fact, and the lightness of only object that fixes the attention of the S its body, enable it almost to walk upon the sailor or the passenger on the ocean. With sea. the wide expanse of water around him, and 5 But the researches of scientific ob. the vaulted sky above, there is often servers, have explained the chief mystery nothing to break the uniformity of the connected with the petrel. Its nests have scene, except the rapid flight, and the been found in thousands on the coasts of various busy movements of this singular several of the principal West India bird.
Islands, Florida, New Zealand, and other The Shearwater, (as he is sometimes countries, so that the old sailor story, of called,) is perhaps regarded with more
their hatching their eggs under their superstitious feelings than any other of wings, is exploded forever. They fly the winged tribe, which the sailoren
about by day in search of food, and are counters. This may be attributed to able to peform almost incredible journies more than one circumstance. Wilson in
without losing their reckoning, or the Stimates, that it is partly owing to their
power to return home at night. It is only 3 being “habited in mourning,” and partly during the hours of darkness, that they also to the common ignorance of their
feed their young, which they nurture in s nestling places, as well as the fact, that
nests formed in the crevices of rocks. they are usually seen only before or The food which they furnieh them is said during storms. To these it may be added, to be an oily substance secreted by the pa. that they are usually silent, and are sel rent. dom visible at a distance, so that their
It seems necessary, however, to pre. į approach and departure are not observed.
sume, that many of this species of birds They are here, and they are gone, without must be lost wanderers on the ocean, as appearing to come or to go. As is gener they are met with a thousand miles from ally the case, when ignorance leaves a va. land. cancy to be supplied, imagination, with the assistance of superstition, assumes the
THE BREAD FRUIT TREE. place of knowledge. The sailors whisper The vegetable productions from which to us, that the bird brings ill omens, and the Polynesians derive a great part of their that there are mysteries connected with it, subsistence are numerous, varied, and valu. which make it an unwelcome companion able ; among these, the first that demands no. on the dangerous ocean. There are also tice is the bread-fruit tree, artocarpus, being other peculiarities in its habits, particu. in greater abundance and in more general larly the way in which it uses its feet upon use than any other. The tree is large and the water. It often hangs down its legs umbrageous; the bark is light-colored and as it descends, as if about to pick np rough: the trunk is sometimes two or three some floating object with its toes; then feet in diameter, and rises from twelve 10 on touching the surface, it rises again with } twenty feet without a branch. The outline a bound, sometimes repeating the move. S of the tree is remarkably beautiful, the leaves are broad, and indented somewhat fruit taken out; the outsides are in general like those of the rig-tree, frequently twelve nicely browned, and the inner parts present or eighteen inches long, and rather thick, of 3 a white or yellowish, cellular pulpy suba dark green color, with a surface glossy as stance, in appearance slightly resembling that of the richest evergreen. (See cut p. 8.) the crumb of a small wheaten loaf. Its
The fruit is generally circular or oval, colour, size, and structure are, however, the 3 and is, on an average, six inches in diame only resemblance it has to bread. It has ter; it is covered with a roughish rind, which but little taste, and that is frequently rather is marked with small square or lozenge sweet; it is somewhat farinaceous, but not shaped divisions, having each a small eleva. so much so as several other vegetables, and tion in the centre, and is at first of a light probably less so than the English potato, to pea-green colour; subsequently it changes to which in flavor it is also inferior. It is brown, and when fully ripe, assumes a rich slightly astringent, and, as a vegetable, it is yellow tinge. It is attached to the small good, but is a very indifferent substitute for branches of the tree by a short thick stalk, English bread. and hangs either singly or in clusters of two
To the natives of the South Sea Islands it or three together. The pulp is soft; in the
is the principal article of dict, and may incentre there is a hard kind of core extending
deed be called their staff of life. They are from the stalk to the crown, around which a
exceedingly fond of it, and it is evidently few imperfect seeds are formed.
adapted to iheir constitutions, and highly nuThere is nothing very pleasing in the
tritive, as a very perceptible improvement is blossom ; but a stately tree, clothed with
often manifest in the appearance of many of dark shining leaves, and loaded with many
the people a few weeks after the bread-fruit hundreds of large light-green or yellowish
season has commenced. For the chiefs it colored fruit, is one of the most splendid and s
is usually dressed two or three times a day; beautiful oljects to be met with among the
but the peasantry, &c. seldom prepare more rich and diversified scenery of a Tahitian
than one oven during the same period; and landscape. Two or three of these trees are
frequently tihana, or bake it again on the often seen growing around a rustic cottage,
second day.- Ellis' Polynesian Researches. and embowering it with their interwoven
To be concludert. and prolific branches. The tree is propagated by shoots from the root; it bears in about five years, and will probably continue bearing fifty or sixty. .
The bread-fruit is never eaten raw, exrept by pigs; the natives, however, have several methods of dressing it. When travelling on a journey, they often roast it in the flime or embers of a wood-fire and, peelinz off the rind, eat the fruit ; this mode of dress ng is called tunu pa, crust or shell roasting. Sometimes, when thus dressed, it is immersed in a stream of waier, and when completely saturated, forms a soft, sweet, spongy pulp, or sort of paste, of which the natives are exceedingly fond.
A Chinese Bridge. The general and best way of dressing the bread-fruit, is by baking it in an oven of
There is a strange variety in Chinese arts heated stones. The rind is scraped off, each
and sciences, customs and habits. In some fruit is cut into three or four pieces, and the
they display great skill, ingenuity and know.
ledge; and in others they are puerile to a core carefully taken out; heated stones are
laughable degree. But no doubt, they often then spread over the bottom of the cavity speak of us, outside barbarians,” in terms forming the oven, and covered with leaves, as severe, and perhaps as just. The specimen upon which the pieces of bread-fruit are of bridge-building before us, small as is the placed; a layer of green leaves is strewn drawing, is sufficient to display a respectable over the fruit, and other heated stones are
state of that species of architecture, especially
when we consider the arch, and learn, from laid on the top; the whole is then covered
good authority, something of their practice in with earth and leaves, several inches in s
different situations. However, we must not de th. In this state the oven remains half
lend too ready confidence to all that has been an hour or longer, when the earth and wristen on this and some other subjects conleaves are removed, and the pieces of bread- ? nected with China, as recent observacions
upon it, may appear in a sense new to oth. ers; but, so far from being new, on it is founded that injunction of God, given through Moses, to repeat good instructions, “ to talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way; when thou liest down and when thou risest up."
s have proved ibat the Jesuit writers were guiltys of gross exaggerations.
Arch bridges exist in China, and some fine ones, of moderate size; but they are few in number. Notwithstanding the length of the greal canal, and the crowded population in most of the country through which it passes, it is said that solid bridges are no where erected acsoss it, except in Keang-nan; the greater part being only a plank floor, covered with sticks or hurdles, and gravel spread upon them supported by upright posts of wood. Arches, however, of superior workmanship, were observed in the great Wall, by Captain Paris, who surveyed and described a portion of it; and these prove that the Chinese were skilful in making them before the Romans and even , the Greeks introduced them into their archi. tecture.
The Chinese arches are of various forms, varying from curves less than semicircles to those greater. Some are exact semicircles, and others half elipses, cut through the transverse diameter. No mention have we seen made of pointed arches, like the Gothic, though in such as exceed a semicircle they resemble some of the Saxon forms. The stones used in arches were usually in the shape of a wedge, and the sides of them all pointed towards the centre. The extraordinary height
of the arch in the bridge above represented, 3 was probably allowed to permit the passage of
sail vessels. It must be done to the great an. noyance of passengers, although important in places abounding in masted boats. It cer. tainly adds greatly to the picturesque appear. ance of the structure.
A Parent's Journal. February 2d. This morning I gave the chil. dren an account of the migrations of birds to the south, with the reasons for it. Told them that a man who had been to Nicaragua Bay, cutting mahogany, once said to me, that is any body doubled where our birds spend the winter, he had better go there, and he would see. He found almost all kinds, and in immense numbers. I told the children something about the motions of the earth, and something of astrono. 3 my, to account for the departure of birds.
I then told them something about Wilson's Ornithology, which some of them have never seen ; and what observations are recorded of the gradual approach of birds in the spring ; saying that some are already on their way. I then offered six pence to the child who would see and report the first bird. “But I may hear one sing, sir, when I cannot see it.” “Well," said I, “you shall be paid if you hear one first.” It was added that those who should afterwards observe and report the first of any kind or sort, should have a penny.
“But how shall we know the kinds and soris ?"' was the natural inquiry. I then took the opportunity, during a walk, to tell them the marks of the five kinds, or classes, of birds and some of the sorts under them.
EXAMPLE, Do what we will, go where we please, in solitude or in society, we still are and ever must be pursuing our education. How erroneous is the opinion which is yet so com. mon, that we can be educated only by others, and that we do not and cannot to any considerable extent, educate ourselves ! The truth is, that all the instruction which a teacher can give us will prove of but little value, if it does not qualify and induce us to improve our character, to add to our stock of knowledge, and to apply it to good ends.
Equally important is it for us all to understand, and ever to bear in mind, that whether we choose or not, we have a hand in the education of those around us, especially of our children. Daily and hourly our words, and still more our example, influence their opinions, feelings and conductand must influence them more or less, as long as they live. This fact, evident as it appears to those who have duly reflected
CHURCH Music. In order to determine the true character of church music, it may be well to bring it to the test of certain principles, which shall approve themselves to the mind as obviously essential to the structure of a sound ecclesiastical tune.
1. The character of the tune should accord with the sanctity of the place and the occasion.
2. It should be such as to allow the meanest and most untutored person in the congregation readily to unite.
3. It should be free from monotony and dullness.
4. It should be suited to the subject of the psalm or hymn with which it is connected. - Religious Herald.
One of the German emigrants, says the St. Louis Republican, on the steamer Naraganset, lost five thousand guineas; the chest which contained it having been put in the hold. Several others lost considerable amounts in the same way.
SCIENTIFIC. Y A Geological Thery Undermined by a Favo
rite Mollusca. Among the ruins of the temple of Jupiter Serapis, at Pozzuoli, (the ancient Puteoli,) Dear Naples, are three fine columns standing, which have long excited the admiration and the curiosity of intelligent travellers. Their lower parts retain their polished surface, but, at the height of about twenty-five feet, they are all worn away, and bored with small round holes. It has hence been concluded that they must have been below the surface of the neighboring bay, above which the original floor of the temple, (still partly preserved,) now, as when it was built by the Romaps, is elevated several feet. The reason why those columns have been presumed to have been submerged, is this: there has been but one animal known, capable of making such holes in stones; and that is an inhabi. tant of the water, viz. a pholas, or small shell fish, which bores into rocks by some means, perhaps not well understood.
Now it is well known, that one of the theories most current among the geologists of the present day, is that of the recent submerging of tracts of land under the sea, and the raising of other or the same tracis. Now, without attempting either to corroborate or to combat such a supposition by any arguments of our own, we will merely state a fact which Dr. Buckland made known in the London Magazine of Natural History about two years ago, viz: the existence of a terrestrial pholas, which makes similar cells in rocks, and might possibly, if it had been discovered a few years before, have saved some very learned labors and ingenious suppositions. While on a visit to the French coast, on the British Channel, 10 examine evidences of submersion, he found the holes of a pholas, at a consider. able beight above the water; but he discov. ered also shells of the animal within, which proved, most unquestionably, to his long. practised eyes, the existence of a land pholas, and that the borings in the rocks had been recently made by it for habitations.
Among the writers most devoted to the theory of submersions and elevations, is Dr. Lrell, who lately introduced his three interesting and valuable octavos to the world, with a picture of the celebrated columns of Jupiter Serapis for bis frontispiece. Up to this day, we have not seen the discovery of Dr. Buckland placed by the side of the Pozzuoli columns, nor do we pretend to know whether the learned will regard it as throwing any light upon their origin. It would seem that it ought, at least, to cast the shadow of a doubt over the theory wbich partly rests upon them.
Artificial Production of Rain. Professor Espy appears to have succeeded, y at length, in demonstrating ihe practicability
of producing rain, in time of drought. by arti. ficial means. A circular on the subject has been published, comprising certificaies from
numerous credible witnesses, that the experiment was successfully tried last summer in two cases in this state-one at Condersport, and one in M'Kean county, and another in Indiana. At Condersport, on the 13th of July, a fallow of six acres was burnt. The day was calm and warm ; there were some flying clouds, with slight appearances of rain to the north, but none in the neighborhood. The fire spread rapidly, and burned with great vies lence. In a short time a white cloud was seen to form over the black smoke, which rose over the fire with great velocity, nearly perpendicular, and, in less than an hour, rain descended: to the west of Condersport, it rained very little, but to the east the shower was violent. Judge Ives also testifies that a fallow of considerable size was burnt in M'Kean county on a very clear day ; that almost immediately after it was fired, a cloud formed and produced a heavy shower directly east of the fire, and not any to the west of it.
Dr. W. Hembel Salter, of Pulaski county, Indiana, gives an interesting account of a rain which was produced by the burning of a prajrie, seven or eight miles north-east of his resi. dence, on the 6th day of August-when there was no appearance of rain, and when the thermometer stood at 88. The formation of the clouds, at a moment when no others were seen within fifty miles of the place, appeared to be in all respects according 10 the conditions of the theory.
In one of the earliest publications on the subject, Mr. E. stated that “rain could be produced only in time of drought, in calm weather, with a high-dew point; and that wben produced, it would travel towards the ? east from the place of beginning.” It will be seen that this prediction appears to have been fully verified. - Country Paper.
American CANDLES.— The London Times iemarks that “the late importation of Ameri. can candles by the New York packet ship? England, at Liverpool, said to be a novelty at 3 that port, is not so at the port of London." For a considerable time past, adds that paper, “the London and New York line of packet ships have been in the habit of bringing large quantities of American composition candles, which, on being landed, are immediately placed in bond for exportation. A merchant has informed us that docks for India, China, and other ports, were supplied with this description of candles; and that the importers, after paying freight, &c., realized a profit of about 2d. per lb.
ERIE RAILROAD.—This road commences at the city of New York, and is designed to be extended to Lake Erie. Fifty miles only are completed, but such is the amount of busi. ness, that it is designed 10 push it ahead with all possible speed. What is better than all, the company design 10 run no freight or pas.
senger cars on the Sabbath, and permit all s laborers or agents, of every class, to rest on