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feast on joys ever new.-ever beautiful-ever glorious-ever sufficient to satiate the joyfraught soul that rightly seeks its aid.
It leads him to the Lamb of God for protection, and rationally points out the way to joys on high, an endless Sabbath, a perpetual rest for the vigilant and faithful.
ANOTHER WONDER.-A sort of Thames Tunnel has been discovered under water near Marseilles. It is a submarine passage, passing from the ancient Abbey of St. Victorie, running under the arm of the sea, which is covered with ships, and coming out under a tower of Fort St. Nicholas. M. Joyland, of the Pontset-Chaussées, and M. Matayras, an architect, accompanied recently by some friends and a number of laborers, went to the abbey, were able to clear their way to the other end, and came out at Fort St. Nicholas, after working two hours and twenty minutes. This tunnel is deemed much finer than that of London, being formed of one single vault of sixty feet span, and one fourth longer.
conveyed around the Sault St. Marie and
'Tis then that the din of busy life ceasescares and anxieties are forgotten—and the worn-out soul seeks ils needed repose, and the mind its relaxation from earth and its concerns-with joy looking to the coming day of rest, so wisely and beneficently set a part för man's peace and happiness by the great Creator.
The tired laborer seeks his own neat cottage, to which he had been a stranger, perhaps, the past week, where a lovely wife and smiling children meet him with smiles and caresses.
Here he realizes the bliss of hard-earned comforts; and, at the same time, perhaps, more than others, the happiness of domestic life and its attendant blessings.
Released from the distracting cares of the week, the professional man gladly beholds the return of “Saturday night," and as gladly sees, in the clustering vines nourished by his parental care, the realization of those joys which are only his to know at these peculiar seasons, and under these congenial circumstances, so faithfully and vividly evinced by this periodical home of enjoyment and repose.
The lone widow, too, who had toiled on, day after day, to support her little chargehow gralefully does she resign her cares at the return of “ Saturday night," and thank her God for these kind resting-places in the way of life, by which she is encouraged from week to week to hold on her way!
But on whose ear does the sound of “ Saturday night" strike more pleasantly than the devoted Christian's? Here he looks up amid the blessings showered upon him, and thanks God with humble reverence for their continuance.
His willing soul expands at the thought of waiting on God in the sanctuary on Sunday, and gladly forgets the narrow bounds of time aud its concerns, save spiritual, that he mays
BOOKBINDING-COMPLETED. [For the earlier processes, see the Amer. ican Penny Magazine, No. 11, p. 166 and No. 12, p. 180.]
Sprinkling is a singular process. A set of books, to be sprinkled of one color, ares ranged side by side on a bench. A color is mixed up, of Umber, Venetian red, or any other cheap pigment, with water and paste, or size ; into this the workman dips a large brush, and then strikes the handle or root of the brush against a stick held in the other hand, so as to cause a shower of spots to fall on the edges. Some books have the edges marbled, done in a manner similar to that observed in making marbled paper.
In gilding the edge is scraped, and then coated with a liquid of red chalk and water. The leaf-gold is blown out upon a cushion covered with leather, where it is placed out smooth with a knife, and cut up into two or more pieces, according to the size and thickness of the book whose edge is to be gilt. On the workbench is a cup containing some white of egg beaten up with water. It is laid, by a camel-hair pencil, on the damp surface. The gold is then laid on the book-edge. The workman holds in his two hands a long.handled burnisher, at the low. er end of which is fixed a very smooth, straight-edged piece of hard stone ; this he places on the gilt surface, and, with his left elbow resting on the work-bench, and the handle of the burnisher resting on his right shoulder, he rubs the gold with great
“ Extra-Finisher" at work. force at right angles to the direction of the leaves. No gold is rubbed off, but the whole is brought to a high degree of polish.
The covers of books are decorated in a greater variety of ways than the edges. Roan-bound schoolbooks are sometimes “ marbled" outside ; a process which bears some resemblance to the sprinkling of the edges. A liquid composition of copperas, potash, water, and any common coloring substance, such as umber, is made. The
books are opened, and hung over two bars; 3. the liquid color is then dashed on.
The cotton cloth with which so large a number of new books is now covered, has an ornamental character given to it in three different ways. Printing it with figures is done by a separate establishment, with the
aid of cylinder machines, having the va. 3 rious patterns engraved on the rollers.
Every kind of stamping or embossing in
Embossing.--The device is engraved on a flat thick plate of steel or gun-metal, which is stamped down upon the leather or 3 cloth. These are of immense power ; in. deed, one of them exerts a pressure of no 3 less than fifty tons.
The name of blocking is given to thes
operation whereby the depressed device is given. This is either effected by a number of punches and other small tools used by hand, or by means of a small blocking. press. In the “extra-finishing" shop, a name given to the shop where the higher class of books receive their ornamental devices, are several tripods or standing frames, which act as gas-stoves. A jet of gas is so placed as to heat a central compartment, into or against which the tools are placed, whether for lettering or ornamenting, whereby the blocking, or rather “ tooling,” is effected. Sometimes the depressed de. vice is not coated with gold, in which case it is called “blind-tooling ;' in others, gold is laid on the book, and then stamped down with the heated tool. When the device is to be a gilt one, the leather is first coated with size, then two or three times with
white of egg, and lastly slightly touched 'with a piece of oiled cotton at the time the gold is laid on. The gold is laid on in slips of greater or lesser size. The loose or superfluous gold is then wiped off with a rag—which rag, we may remark, be. comes an article of no small value in the course of time.
All that we have here said of ornamental devices applies equally to the lettering of a book. Where, however, it may be done conveniently, the punches or small devices, instead of being fixed' in handles and used singly, are fixed, by means of glue and cloth, to a metallic plate, and thus im. pressed on the book at one blow by a press. Where a fillet, or line, or running sprig forms a part of the ornament on the back, sides, or edge of a book, it is frequently done by a wheel or roll” in the manner here represented. The edge or periphery of the wheel has the device in relief, and this, being wheeled along carefully over the surface of the book, leaves a corresponding depression.
Such are the principal modes by which a book is decorated. We have been able merely to give a type or general represen. tation of each, and must necessarily pass over minuter shades of operation. The costly bindings in velvet and silk, the gold and silver clasps of expensive bibles, and all the niceties which ihe connoisseur in bookbinding regards with such an admiring eye, we must pass over in silence.
It remains only for us to acknowledge the courtesy of Mr. E. Walker, of this city, who has furnished us with the cuts and facts in this brief sketch.
SHIP ANCHORAGE AT WHAMPOA. This engraving gives a correct view of the Island of Whampoa, lying part of Dane's Island, which is a small rocky hill, where sailors are in ihe Pearl River, about 12 miles east from Canton, in China. At this s buried who die at this port. The price for burial ground here is sixteen place the foreign vessels all anchor, and their loading is taken out by dollars, and ten more for permission to erect a grave-stone. boats and carried to Canton, and their return cargo brought down. Here } West from Dane's Island, at the left-hand corner of the cut, is reprethe Bethel Hag is displayed, (as is seen in the cui,) and the meetings fors sented a part of French Island, on which are the tombs of many foreignsen men held on shipboard. At the bottom of the cut is represented a ? ers, residents, and Captains. The price of land here is very high.
Whampoa Island is long and narrow. The anchorage extends two or three miles in length; the American vessels generally occupying the higher berths, and the English the lower. The river varies from 50 to 100 rods wide, and from 3 to 6 fathoms deep. The tide rises from 3 to 6 feet. The village on Whampoa Island contains several thousand inhabitants.
At the West end of this island is a petty custom-house, or guard-house, where all Chinese boats, having anything to do with foreigners, are obliged to stop and obtain a permit, called a chop, and the house is hence called a chophouse.
Three Pagodas are represented on the cut. That on the left-hand near the edge of the cut, the top of which only is visible, is called “ the half-way Pagoda," it being half way from the anchorage to Canton. It is much decayed. This is the one from which some American sailors, a few years ago, in a frolic, took one of the small images which are kept in the first story, and on being discovered, they drowned the idol in the river, which cost the
Comprador and others some hundreds of dol3 lars. The large Pagoda, about the middle of s the cut, is called, by foreigners, the Wham
poa Pagoda. It is built of brick, nine stories } high, amounting from 200 to 250 feet. It is s said to be in good repair. It is uninhabited,
hollow, and octagonal. The date of its erection is said to preserved within it, and to be about 400 years ago. The natives believe that, being very lofty, it has an influence on the air, and serves to avert storms and tempests.
The other on the right side of the cut, is a small and modern built Pagoda, two or three stories high, and was built, as is said, to com
memorate their victory over the British navy, ? in 1808.
From the anchorage, at Whampoa, to the sea is about 75 miles. Macao lies near the sea. Lintin is an island in the river, half-way from Macao to Whampoa. Sailor's Mag.'
The following brief description of the passage up the river, from its mouth to Whampoa, we extract from the “ Cruise of the Potomac,” by Mr. Warriner.
The night was fair, and the moon shone. We stood on till two o'clock in the morning, when we came to anchor abreast the city of Macao. In a few hours after we were on our way to Lintin.
Lintin is a small, barren, rugged island, the ground composing various eminences, one of which is not less than seven hundred feet. The island is a mile and a quarter in diame. ter, and has but few inhabitants, most of whom are fishermen. On account of the barrenness of the soil, the island of Lintin remained entirely uninhabited vill the year 1814, when the East India Company's ships were detained there, in consequence of a dispute between the select committee, and the Chinese government. At that time a temporary
market for vegetables and fowls was opened, which attracted a considerable population to the spot. Subsequently, the introduction of opium into Macao and Conton having been prohibited, this place became the principal depot of that article. The article now forms so large a branch of illicit commerce, that it is smuggled into the kingdom, by this and other poris, to the amount of a million of dollars a month. Seven or eight vessels are stationed at the island in prosecution of this trade. [This is changed since the war.-ED.)
Some distance above Lintin, we passed an island called Lankeet, which means the Drag. on's Den. A tongue of land runs out into the river on the opposite side, which bears the name of Chuen-pee, or the Bored Nose, from a singular rock which forms its most striking feature, perforated through. I observed a watchtower on one of these points; and in Anson's Bay, which is near it, several menof-war junks lying at anchor, and many other vessels of inferior size.
Tiger island, which lies still higher up the river, has its name from the resemblance of its figure to that of a tiger in a reclining posture. On it is a battery of considerable size, and on the opposite bank another battery, called Anung Hoy, or the Lady's Shoe. Boch these batteries are of granite, and one of them extends from the shore, up an inclined plane. The walls could have afforded no protection against cannon shot, and to all appearance a broadside could not have failed to do great execution. The fort now contains from thirty to forty twelve pounders; and, what seems ridiculous, the portlids are painted with figures of tigers and demons.
The entrance to the river Tigris, called Bocca Tigris, a Portuguese name signifying the Mouth of Tigris, is between Anung Hoy and Tiger island. The scenery here is more inviting, and we passed several plantations of bamboos, bananas, and rice. After passing the first and second bars, we reached Whampoa, the anchoring ground for all foreign vessels trading with Canton.
A Hunting Adventure -Amongst the company who joined the hounds on Wednesday last, in the vicinity of Keswick, was a little boy of the name of Williamson, whose parents reside at Applethwaite-under-Skiddaw, and so wrapped up in the chase had the little fellow been that he continued his pursuit until night-fall, at which time he was last seen near the summit of Skiddaw, apparente ly bending his course homewards, but in this direction, it would appear, he had not long continued. Night came on, and the non-appearance of the tiny sportsman at the home of his father naturally created the greatest uneasiness, and especially as the night was wild and stormy. In the morning, however, the only hope of the little fellow's safety vanished, on the distracted parents learning that their son had not taken up his night's lodging with any of the parties who had joined in the chase, and that he was last s seen a little before dark near the top of Skid
daw. The whole population of the neign
borhood instantly volunteered their services to said in the search for the remains of the lost
boy, as his outliving the storm of such a night and in such a situation was regarded as next to impossible. Accordingly, on Thursday forepoon scores of persons were seen upon the breast of the gigantic Skiddaw wending their way in all directions, and prying into every ravine, creek, and corner into which it was thought probable the lost youth might have fallen, or sought shelter from the inclemency of the weather. Search was long and fruitless, but at length one of the party chanced to reach the shoring box of General Wyndham, situate in the centre of Skiddaw forest, where to his utter amazement, the object of his search was just quitting his bed of straw; and as soon as the journey over the snowcovered mountain could be accomplished, the lost youth was restored to his sorrowing pa. rents, whose grief for the supposed melancholy bereavement of a favorite son was instantly converted to joy. The account the little wanderer gives of his night's adventure on Skiddaw is brief. He says that when in the very summit of the mountain, the two lakes, Derwent and Bassenthwaite, appeared to him no larger than two small tarns, which, added to the whole face of the country being covered with snow, so deceived him that he imagined he was looking to the eastward instead of down into the vale of Crosthwaite, and under this impression turned round and bent his steps in the opposite direction. After wandering for some tiine until completely exhausted, he espied the uninhabited shooting box of General Wyndham, towards which he repaired, and having gained admission into an out-house where a quantity of straw had been deposited, he instantly crept amongst it, and worn out with the fa. tigue of the day's chase and his bewildered wanderings amongst the snow he presently fell asleep, and enjoyed several hours of unin. terrupted repose. -Cumberland Pacquet.
situated whose flag they were to salute. A great deal of time was therefore lost in set. tling this important point, and in considering how to receive the stranger.
In the mean time, we went on board to visit the captain, and were sitting with him in his cabin, when a messenger came from the Turkish Government, to ask whether America were not otherwise called the New World ; and, being answered in the affirmative, he assured the captain that he was welcome, and would be treated with the utmost cordiality and respect. The messengers from the Dey were then ordered on board the Capudan Pacha's ship; who, receiving the letter from their sovereign, with great rage first spat and then stamped upon it, telling them to go back to their master, and inform him that he would be served in the same manner whenever the Turkish admiral met him. Capt. Bainbridge was, however, received with every mark of attention, and rewarded with magnificent presents.
The fine order of his ship and the healthy state of her crew became topics of general conversation in Pera, and the different ministers strove who should first receive him in their palaces. We accompanied him in his long-boat to the Black Sea, as he was desirous of hoisting there, for the first time, the American flag; and, upon his return, we were amused by a very singular entertainment at his table, during dinner. Upon the four corners were as many decanters, containing fresh water from the four quarters of the globe. The natives of Europe, Asia, Africa and America sat down together at the same table, and were regaled with flesh, fruit, bread, and other viands-while of every article a sample from each quarter of the globe was presented at the same time. The means of accomplishing this are easily explained, by his having touched at Algiers, in his passage from America, and being at anchor so near the shores both of Europe and Asia.
The First American Frigate at Constan.
tinople. From the Travels of Edward Daniel Clark, LLD.
The arrival of an American frigate, for the first time (1801), at Constantinopie, caused considerable sensation, not only among the Turks, but also throughout the whole diplo. matic corps stationed in Pera. This ship, commanded by Capt. Bainbridge, came from Algiers, with a letter and presents from the Dey to the Sultan and Capudan Pacha. The presents consisted of tigers and other animals, sent with a view to conciliate the Turkish Government, whom the Dey had offended. When she came to an anchor, and a message went to the Porte that an American frigate was in the harbor, the Turks were altogether unable to comprehend where the country was 3
Remarks on the History of Italian Poetry. NOTIZIE SULLA POESIA ITALIANA.
Di Giovanni Andres. Qualunque sia stata la provincia onde traesse la sua origine l'Italiana poesia, per quan. to deboli e fiacchi vogliano dirsi i primi suoi passi, ella si vide certamente nella Toscana al principio del secolo decimo quarto calcare con fermo piede le scoscese cime del Pindo. Dante e il Petrarca si fanno anche oggidi venerare non tanto come i padri, quanto come i veri maestri della poesía; e il Petrarca singolarmente condusse tant' oltre la dolcezza e soavità della lingua, l'armonia, e la tornitura del verso, che nessuno in tanta serie di secoli l'ha potuto finora sorpassare: l'esempio di questi due grand' uomini rimase infruttuoso per molti anni. Non solo nello stesso secolo